Research Journal of Biotechnology

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Research Journal of Biotechnology

Bioassay of endogenous germination inhibitors in Daphne tangutica Maxim. (Thymelaeaceae) seeds

Yan F. and Wang Q. L.

Page No: 1-6

Abstract: Daphne tangutica Maxim (Thymelaeaceae) is a perennial evergreen shrub that is widely used for ornamental and medicinal plant in China, the seeds of it exhibit dormancy, which delays and reduces germination. This study of the work was to investigate seed dormancy of D. tangutica from the aspect of inhibitory substances and to test the biological activities of these substances and their roles in seed dormancy. The presence of inhibitory substances in dormant seeds of D. tangutica was demonstrated by preparing various parts of the seed extracts using ethyl acetate, methanol or distilled water and by testing their inhibitory effects on Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) seeds.

The methanol and water extracts of ectocarp, testa and embryo all significantly inhibited seed germination and seedlings growth of Chinese cabbage, however, the ethyl acetate extract of ectocarp did not. The results indicate that the inhibitory substances in various parts of D. tangutica seeds are polar compounds except of the ectocarp. The inhibitory substance could be extracted from intact seeds of D. tangutica using distilled water at 35~40°C. Soaking seeds in warm water prior to stratification significantly accelerated germination of D. tangutica seeds.

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Mutagenic and cytotoxic activity of Alloxydim sodium with Allium and Ames tests

Arzu Özkara, Dilek Akyıl, S. Feyza Erdoğmuş, Yasin Eren and Muhsin Konuk

Page No: 7-13

Abstract:The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of Alloxydim sodium which is an cyclohexanedione herbicide using two standard assays. The cytotoxic effects of this pesticide were determined in the Allium cepa test. Onion seeds were germinated and exposed to pesticides for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The cytotoxicity induced by each pesticide concentration was compared with the value for the negative control using the Dunnet-t test, 2 sided.

The results showed that mitotic index (MI) significantly reduced by increasing the Alloxydim sodium con¬centration at each exposure time. These results indicate that this pesticide has cytotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells. Five different concentrations of the pesticide were tested with an Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 both with and without S9 metabolic activation for mutagenic activity. No concentrations of the Alloxydim sodium showed mutagenic activity on both strains with and without S9 fraction.

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Progression of Periodontitis to Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Computational approach to identify the participatory genes and pathways expressed in the immune cells of inflammatory Gingivium and Synovium

Cherian Chikoo Cherry Abraham, Vennila Jannet and Singh Sachidanand

Page No: 14-27

Abstract: Periodontitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis are the two common inter- related inflammatory diseases that are widespread in the human population. Over -expression of responsible genes in macrophages and fibroblasts forms the major causative factor in spread of infection from gingivium to synovium. The microarray datasets of macrophages and fibroblasts pertaining to Periodontitis gingivial and Rheumatoid Arthritis synovial tissues were retrieved and analyzed. The analysis generated 17 differentially expressed genes common to Periodontitis associated Gingvial macrophages (PGM) and Rheumatoid Arthritis synovial macrophages (RSM). Similarly, 2 common genes were observed in Periodontitis associated Gingvial Fibroblasts (PGF) and Rheumatoid Arthritis synovial Fibroblasts (RSF).

By pathway analysis, it was inferred that bacterial infections instigated the over expression of inflammatory genes in Periodontitis which interact with other genes in alternate signaling pathways. PTGS2, the key gene in inflammation was found to be highly up regulated in both Periodontitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis. PTGS2 through the NFK-Beta pathway, Nuclear Receptor Meta Pathway, TGFB signaling, TLR2 pathway and Cytokine-Cytokine signaling exhibited good interaction with other inflammatory genes like REL, CCL20, CXCL9. It can be suggested that gingivial bacterial infections in Periodontitis activate macrophages and fibroblasts leading to inflammation and the inflammatory mediators spread through the systemic circulation influencing the progression to Rheumatoid Arthritis.

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Optimization of ultrasound and microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from olive leaves by response surface methodology

Hédia Hannachi, Hasnia Benmoussa, Ezzedine Saadaoui, Ines Saanoun, Néjia Negri and Walid Elfalleh

Page No: 28-37

Abstract: Plant secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds have been extensively studied and are commonly used as antioxidants for a wide range of applications. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was applied to determine the optimum conditions for the ultrasound (UAE) and microwave-assisted extractions (MAE) of polyphenol and flavonoid components from olive leaves (Olea europaea L.). For UAE, two operational variables were evaluated: liquid/solid ratio (l/s ratio) (4, 12 and 20) and the extraction time (10, 25 and 40 min). For MAE, three process variables were evaluated: liquid/solid ratio (4, 12 and 20), the extraction time (1, 3 and 5 min) and the power (100, 200 and 300W). The total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were significantly influenced by liquid/solid ratio. In fact, the RSM applied for UAE showed that 37.07 of the liquid/solid ratio and the time of 28.69 min were the optimum conditions.

The RSM applied on MAE showed the optimal extraction conditions obtained by using liquid/solid ratio of 16.76, extraction time of 1.81 min and the power of 259.46 W. The MAE represented an interesting alternative protocol for rapid, economic and high eco-extraction using water as green solvent.

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Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in bovines of Chhattisgarh, India

Jain Lata, Kumar Vinay, Chaturvedi Sameer, Roy Goutam and Barbuddhe Sukhadeo B.

Page No: 38-42

Abstract: Leptospirosis is important infection of bovines causing reproductive problems and abortions leading to huge economic loss to the dairy industry. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with leptospirosis were investigated in cattle and buffaloes of Chhattisgarh, India. A total of 374 serum samples from bovines were collected randomly from 94 villages of six districts of Chhattisgarh state with different attributes and were subjected to i-ELISA for detection of antibodies using Linnodee Bovine Leptospira Hardjo ELISA kit. The overall true seroprevalence for leptospirosis was observed to be 60.62%.

Leptospirosis was significantly higher in animals from organized farms, age between 4-7 years and having a history of infertility and abortion as compared to animals in unorganized farms and age below or above 4-7. However, no significant differences in positivity rates for leptospirosis were found with respect to the sex, species and clinical condition of the animals. The finding represented a major impact on animal health and productivity as well as a high risk to the human population.

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Antibacterial activity of Nepeta deflersiana extract against pathogenic gram-positive bacteria

Ahmad Irfan

Page No: 43-51

Abstract:The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and synergistic activities of the crude extract of Nepeta deflersiana against the gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Plants of Nepeta deflersiana were crushed to a fine powder and dissolved in different polar organic solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone). Soxhlet extraction method was used to prepare the crude extract. The antibacterial susceptibility of the crude extract was studied against the gram-positive reference and clinical strains by agar well diffusion method. The MIC and MBC were determined by microbroth dilution assays using MH broth. We observed that the extract from the N. deflersiana had significant antimicrobial activity against gram-positive microorganisms. The plant extract showed the higher antibacterial activity against the reference strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. The MIC and MBC varied between 0.92-25 and 1.56-200 mg/ml respectively.

Synergy study explained the significant bacteriostatic effect of N. deflersiana extract on Staphyllococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) and S. aureus. This study describes about the antimicrobial properties of N. deflersiana. Subsequently, further studies is needed to investigate the mechanism of synergistic activity which is crucial to prove the use of this plant for antimicrobial therapy.

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Targeting Fatty Acid Synthase Protein by Molecular Docking Studies of Naturally Occurring Ganoderic Acid Analogues acting as Anti-Obesity Molecule

Sharma K. Kaushal, Kumar Shailesh, Singh Brijendra, Bundela Saurabh, Patro Nisha, Patro K. Ishan and Bisen S. Prakash

Page No: 52-61

Abstract:The world population is at major risk of obesity and overweight, leading to various chronic implications at later stages like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and sometimes cancers. The fatty acid synthase (FASN) protein plays key role in fatty acid synthesis by interacting with Acetyl CoA. It also works in close association with various genes that are involved in number of metabolic processes. The Ganoderma mushrooms were found abundant in nature with ganoderic acid variants having potential activity in number of biological pathways.

Ganoderic acid and its effects on FASN protein by docking and finding its influence through genetic networks have been investigated in the present study. By docking studies, with variants of ganoderic acid we found that (a) the binding affinity specially ganoderic AP3 is very high towards FASN protein as compared to its natural substrate Acetyl CoA and (b) ganoderic acid may act as competitive inhibitor for FASN protein having potential to work better than synthetic molecules. It is further observed by network analysis that by targeting FASN protein by ganoderic acid, various biological processes like lipid synthesis, coenzyme metabolic, glycerolipid metabolism, neutral lipid metabolism can be modulated.

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Isolation and identification of a natural bacteriophage as a biocontrol agent against Proteus vulgaris

Moradpour Zahra and Ghasemian Abdollah

Page No: 62-66

Abstract: Proteus vulgaris as an opportunistic microorganism in human infections especially in immunodeficient individuals is of medical importance. While the potential of bacteriophages as efficient, safe and cost-effective antimicrobial agents to combat resistant bacteria was well recognized, lytic phage activity against P. vulgaris has not been investigated since 1967. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a natural lytic phage capable of infecting P. vulgaris strain, which is isolated from clinical samples. Following the primary screening, the most efficient phage was chosen for further characterization. The morphology, killing efficiency and bacterial host range were determined under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Isolated phage was shown to have broad host range and infected Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as P. vulgaris. The virion was designated as gP0Bh-MGP1 and characterized by a head diameter of about 84 nm and a tail size of about 28 × 126 nm. It belongs morphologically to the myoviridae family as analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The result of this investigation indicated that the isolated phage, gP0Bh-MGP1, is efficient in lysing different pathogenic agents and may be a good candidate to be used as an agent to combat infections caused by resistant strains.

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Validation of cytoplasmic genetic male sterility in rabi sorghum hybrids and their parents using diagnostic set of microsatellite markers

Ingle Krishnananda, Gahukar Santosh, Moharil Mangesh, Jadhav Pravin, Ghorade Rameshwar, Narkhede Gopal and Penna Suprasanna

Page No: 67-73

Abstract: Sorghum is an important cereal crop where cytoplasmic male sterility is exploited for hybrid breeding. Presently, A1 cytoplasm CGMS system has been well established because of the ease and stability of fertility restoration. Conventionally, genetic purity of hybrids is ensured by grow out test. In this context, DNA marker assisted selection technology offers an efficient alternative over traditionally grow out test especially in terms of time, environmental influence, space and cost-effective. Microsatellite markers are best suited for genetic purity assessment due to co-dominant nature.

The present investigation involved hybrid identification in sorghum through a set of robust microsatellite markers on the cytoplasmic genetic male sterility hybrids ‘AKMS 30A × AKRB 335-3’, ‘AKMS 30A × AKRB 431’ and ‘AKMS 30A × AKRB 428’ along with their parental lines ‘AKMS 30A’ (CMS line), ‘AKRB 335-3’, ‘AKRB 431’ and ‘AKRB 428’ (Restorers). Seventeen SSR primers were used for the study, out of which five primers Xtxp 406, Xtxp 297, Xtxp 211, Xnhsbm 1084 and SB 2386 linked to Rf1, Rf2, Rf5 and Rf6 (fertility restoration factors, respectively found polymorphic and were able to distinguish between the parental lines and hybrids. The structure software differentiates the genotypes in three subpopulation. The study revealed that marker assisted selection an efficient tool in the quality control of the commercial hybrid seeds for the genetic purity assessment and accelerate the testing of genetic purity of hybrids in seed industries in a short time.

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Cloning and in silico characterization of Heat shock factor (Hsf) from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Dubey Kavita, Goswami Suneha, Kumar Narendra, Kumar Ranjeet R., Niraj Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Singh Khushbu, Verma Pooja and Singh Jyoti Prakash

Page No: 74-80

Abstract: A gene encoding putative Heat shock Factor (Hsf) from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was characterized and designated as TaHsf (Gen Bank ID: JQ801451) while the genomic sequence of Hsf was found to be 1497 bp long with the open reading frame of 1299 bp in length. The deduced amino acid sequence of CA contained HSF type conserved domains, which showed high degree of homology with other hsf genes of related species. We have reported three-dimensional model of TaHsf and quality of the predicted model analysed with PROCHECK. The expression of TaHsf transcripts was studied in different tissues and different developmental stages. The HSFs being the central mediator for the expression of HSPs play very important role in mediating tolerance to abiotic stress especially heat stress. The sudden increase in temperature year by year has adversely affected the growth and productivity of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

In wheat, a limited number of HSfs are being reported and investigated, thus calling for the characterization of more HSP’s coding HSFs. In our study we have cloned one of the novel HSFs and have characterized it through in silico tools.

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Mitochondrial DNA Markers of Hair Shaft in Iraqi population

Al-Ashoer Taghreed K.S. and Al-Rashedi Nihad A.M.

Page No: 81-85

Abstract:Mitochondrial DNA control region from scalp hair shafts was collected from 100 random healthy unrelated individuals of three generations who were representative of the Arab Iraqi population. This study aimed to detect the mtDNA variation markers that are useful for forensic identification and generating a baseline genetic structure of the Iraqi population. In order to estimate the amount of mtDNA in a hair shaft, SYBR Green Real-time PCR quantification was used. The mtDNA variations within the control region were analyzed by Sanger DNA sequencing that showed 162 polymorphic nucleotide positions involved in the composition of different haplotypes and classification into the haplogroups H (26%), U (14%), HV (11%), J (10%), T (10%), R (8%), L (7%), K (5%), N (4%), B (3%), A (1%) and I (1%).

Principal component analysis revealed the relationship between Iraqi and Saudi, Jordanian, and Iranian populations, although the Iraqi mtDNA composition was heterogeneous. The genetic diversity, which was 99.75%, was significant and reflected a probability of two randomly selected individuals from a population owning an identical mtDNA haplotype as being 0.0291.

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Comparative analysis of genetic diversity among fluorescent pseudomonads using RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting

Prabhukarthikeyan S.R., Keerthana U., Yadav Manoj Kumar and Raguchander T.

Page No: 86-93

Abstract:The genetic diversity of fluorescent pseudomonads associated with the turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizosphere of Tamil Nadu, India was analyzed. Selected isolates were identified by ITS sequence analysis. Based on 16S rRNA sequence similarity, the isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. stutzeri and Pseudomonas sp. The genetic variability and relationship among 15 fluorescent pseudomonads were analysed using 15 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 13 Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers.

Results revealed that ISSR markers were more efficient than the RAPD assay with regards to polymorphism detection. Also, total amplicons, the average number of polymorphic loci per primer, average polymorphic information content (PIC), marker index (MI) values and effective multiplex ratio (EMR) were more for ISSR than for RAPD. The similarity coefficients of fluorescent pseudomonads based on RAPD and ISSR markers ranged from 50.00 to 75.00 and 49.00 to 85.00 per cent respectively. Overall, we concluded that ISSR was found to be better than RAPD in assessing genetic diversity among fluorescent pseudomonads.

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Genome-wide identification and characterization of the mildew resistance locus O (MLO) gene in Solanum melongena and Capsicum annuum

Kumari Meenu and Verma Pooja

Page No: 94-110

Abstract:Powdery mildew disease is well known to cause significant economic losses in solanaceous vegetable crops and in order to develop resistant genotypes, advanced breeding strategies are advised to be adopted. Therefore, they need to be characterized for such gene families which can put forward a promising solution by their identification and characterization. In this regard, an in-silico study has been conducted to identify the MLO (powdery mildew resistance locus o) gene family in S. melongena and C. annuum, named as SmeMlo and CaMlo respectively. 13 such SmeMlo and 10 CaMlo were predicted and comprehensively characterized for their physico-chemical structures where SmeMlo members were found to be more diverse in comparison to CaMlo members.

The clustered occurrence of CaMlo homologs was observed on 5 chromosomes which indicated the segmented duplication event during evolution process. The analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements showed their involvement in defence response and programmed cell death along with various developmental processes. The phylogenetic relationship of all solanaceous crops with Arabidopsis and candidate Mlos of monocots, eudicots revealed six clades among which clade IV was specific to functional MLOs. The identified MLO family members also showed expression for vegetative and reproductive tissues from SGN EST library, validating their active role in plant growth and development. Hence, SmeMlo 2, 6, 12 and CaMlo 4, 7 could be candidate genes which may play important role for powdery mildew resistance.

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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens induced disease resistance in potato plants against early blight disease

Keerthana U., Prabhukarthikeyan S.R., Nagendran K., Yadav Manoj Kumar and Karthikeyan G.

Page No: 111-119

Abstract:The effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of the suppressive ability by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (FZB 24) to Alternaria solani causing early blight disease of potato were studied in the present study. Foliar application of FZB 24 @ 0.2% at 7 days interval with 6 applications showed a lower early blight intensity of 48.72 per cent. The induced systemic resistance through biochemical and molecular analysis revealed that the increased level of activities of the defense enzymes viz., peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonialyase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the B. amyloliquefaciens (FZB 24) treated potato plants against A. solani.

Among the treatments’ application of foliar spray with FZB 24 @ 0.2% at 7 days interval with 6 applications increased the defense enzymes than the plants treated with chemical and untreated controls. Defense enzymes viz. peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and super oxide dismutase were analyzed by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). The results showed higher induction of PO, PPO and SOD in plants treated with FZB 24 @ 0.2% at 7 days interval with 6 applications than other treatments. Application of FZB 24 through different concentrations and at different intervals showed more induction of defense related enzymes which prevented the early blight disease of potato.

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Risk Assessment of Twister 5EC Insecticide by using Allium and Ames Test

Dilek Akyıl

Page No: 120-125

Abstract:The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of Twister 5EC which is a hexythiazox insecticide using two standard assays. The cytotoxic effects of this pesticide were determined in the Allium cepa test. Onion seeds were germinated and exposed to pesticides for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The cytotoxicity induced by each pesticide concentration was compared with the value for the negative control using the Dunnet-t test, 2 sided. The results showed that mitotic index significantly reduced by increasing the Twister 5EC con¬centration at each exposure time.

These results indicate that this pesticide has cytotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells. Five different concentrations of the pesticide were tested with an Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 both with and without S9 metabolic activation for mutagenic activity. Ames test results showed that all applications of Twister 5EC were not mutagenic for both two strains with or without S9 mix except 400 μg/plate doses of the Twister 5EC in the TA98 without S9 mix.

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Cyclic Peroxide Acids and a new fatty acid from Okinawan Sponge Plakortis sp.

Desy Wulan Triningsih, Junichi Tanaka and Agus Trianto

Page No: 126-130

Abstract:Bioassay-guided fractionation of a cytotoxic extract of an Okinawan sponge Plakortis sp. resulted in the isolation of a known cyclic peroxide methyl ester (1a) along with two new cyclic peroxide acids (1b and 2b) and a new aliphatic fatty acid (3).Compound 2b was confirmed to be an isomer of 1b by NMR and MS. Moreover, careful comparison of the spectroscopic data of 2b with that of peroxyplakoric acid A¬1 methyl ester (2a) suggested that compound 2b was identical with 2a. Treatment of 2b with TMS diazomethane yielded a compound identical with 2a with respect to NMR and MS. This data confirmed that the cyclic peroxidases 1b and 2b occurred naturally.

Additionally, the structure of 3 was confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR experiments. A plausible biosynthetic pathway has been proposed that rationalizes transformations in the ring-opening of the cyclic peroxide. Compound 1a was evaluated to have IC50 8.7 µg/mL against NBT-T2 cells while compound 3 was inactive. This result suggested that the cyclic peroxide moiety could be responsible for the cytotoxicity of the sponge constituents.

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Genetic homogeneity appraisal of in-vitro plants regenerated from leaf explants of Sapindus mukorossi using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers

Singh Reetika, Akhtar Sabina and Kumari Nishi

Page No: 131-136

Abstract:Genetic fidelity is the main concern of the plant tissue culture. Two different DNA-based molecular markers, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) were used for DNA fingerprinting of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. genotypes and to evaluate the genetic homogeneity between mother plant and in vitro raised plants. Total 32 primers (16 of RAPD and 16 of ISSR) were used for the generation of reproducible and scorable bands.

The bands generated from all primers were clear, scorable and reproducible and bands range from 350-1250 bp in RAPD. Total 84 bands were produced with an average of 5.25 bands per primer. In ISSR, total 61 scorable bands were recorded with an average 3.81 bands per primer and bands range from 250-1250 base pairs. Results showed that in vitro raised plants were genetically similar to the mother plants.

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Antimicrobial potential assessment of Actinomycetes isolated from various soil samples

Kaur Simmerpreet and Teotia Pratibha

Page No: 137-155

Abstract:The global rise in multiple drug resistant bacterial strains indirectly elevated a frantic need to discover novel antimicrobial agents from most promising sources. Due to its diverse ability of producing a variety of antimicrobial agents, actinomycetes hold a promising solution. In this study soil samples from eight sites were collected and pre-treated to eliminate the bacterial and fungal population and then checked for actinomycetes possessing antimicrobial activities towards several bacterial and fungal strains. Out of 42 strains screened from soil samples collected, eight actinomycetes strains have shown potential antibiotic activity against selected pathogenic microbes.

GR1 and PR1 have been reported to show antimicrobial activity to 90% of the selected pathogens. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of these two strains are further screened for antimicrobial activity against the same pathogens used before. Ethyl acetate extract of GR1 has exhibited antimicrobial activity against M.leutus while the methanol extract of PR1 has indicated activity against C.albicans and the ethyl acetate extract of PR1 has shown antimicrobial activity against all pathogenic microorganisms except K.pneumoniae and S.cerevisae.

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Whole genome sequencing of Bacillus subtilis Natto3 and cloning and expression of ywtA, a pivotal gene of poly-γ-glutamic acid biosynthesis operon

Pandey Tiwari Deepika, Mishra Chatterjee Poonam, Raval Ritu and Dubey Ashok Kumar

Page No: 156-166

Abstract:Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) is produced via PGA synthetase, a membrane-associated enzyme complex encoded by pgs operon consisting of ywsC and ywtABC genes. In our earlier report, we had studied the unique expression pattern of pgs operon in Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) Natto3 strain. This motivated us to perform whole genome sequencing of this strain and analyse the sequence of the genes involved in PGA biosynthesis. B. subtilis Natto3 genome has 3,637,088 bp with 44.08% G-C content and no plasmid. It contains 3913 coding sequences (CDSs) with average gene length of 843.33 bp with 57 CDSs lacking matches. A recent study emphasised the conserved nature of ywtA gene in pgs operon. This gene may provide further insights into the role of individual genes in PGA biosynthesis.

In this study, we have successfully cloned the ywtA gene in E. coli DH5α and expressed in BL21 (DE3) strain. The purified protein was ~16 kDa which was in congruence with the existing studies. Protein identification using Nano LC-MS/MS showed homology to CapC protein of B. anthracis with a match of 15%.

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Lactobacillus: a promising genus for production of industrially important metabolite

Devi Alka, Kumar Narayan and Khanna Sunil

Page No: 167-177

Abstract:Gram-positive bacteria are well-known for the potential of producing antimicrobial compounds, metabolites and other value-added products. Among the gram-positive bacteria, lactic acid bacteria especially Lactobacilli have gained attention nowadays, due to the production of industrially important biochemical, antimicrobial peptides and biofuels. Naturally associated characteristics such as wide range of substrate utilization, availability of genomic information, small genome size and tolerance to low pH and high alcohol concentration with Lactobacilli make them ideal strain for biofuel and biochemical production.

TThis review paper addresses the characteristics of metabolites synthesized by the Lactobacillus with particular attention to biofuels. In addition, the genetic and metabolic engineering approaches used for improved production of these metabolites are reviewed along with other factors which control the production rate.

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In silico protein-protein interactions: An emerging research area to study host-pathogen interaction

Besra Alfred and Basak Jolly

Page No: 178-188

Abstract:Proteins are essential in almost all cellular processes. The key characteristic of proteins is their ability to bind with their partner specifically and with varied affinity. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are the interactions of high specificity between two or multiple proteins molecules occurring due to electrostatic forces and hydrophobic effects.

Critical analysis of such PPIs might give essential information to decipher the molecular mechanism of biological processes. PPIs also play a vital role in commencing host pathogen recognition. This review helps to understand PPIs in deciphering the molecular mechanism of the host-pathogen interaction and the database available for PPIs.

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