Research Journal of Biotechnology

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Research Journal of Biotechnology

Prediction and Functional Annotation of the MADS-BOX Transcription factor from ESTs of Mentha piperita

Alam Pravej and Al Balawi Thamer

Page No: 1-8

Abstract: Mentha piperita is a high-value industrial plant known for its essential oils. Due to the poor development of plants' growth, the yield of essential oils is reported less. In this study, we have retrieved the1316 ESTs from NCBI database with the size limits 500bp and predict the MADS- BOX Transcription factors family and its importance in Mentha plants. The 145 contigs were assembled by using the CAP3 online program after removal of the vector contaminants. The developed contigs were scanned with different database and online TFs tools such as Plant TFcat and Expasy prosite scan to predict the signals of MADS-BOX TF in the contigs of Mentha piperita. Out of 145 contigs, we have observed that only one contig (number117) gave the positive signal (length 57aa) with the k box domain (84aa) evolutionary conserved with MIKC family (AGL) in planta. It is also proved by after phylogenetic tree analyses of the MADS-BOX TFS showing maximum conservation with other plants.

Moreover, contig numbers 117 were further analyzed for its functional annotations through GO analyses finding the correct role of TFs in the plant system. At this stage, the gene ontology (GO) and plant ontology (PO) were also analyzed for predicting MADS-BOX TF through Plant TFDB tools resulting in its prominent role for plant development process. Hence, we emphasize that the obtained MADS-BOX play a significant role in the metabolic process of essential oil biosynthesis for enhanced production in Mentha piperita.

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Biochemical characterization of partially purified acid phosphatase from germinated Cicer arientum (chickpea) seeds

Singh Priya and Chadha Sonia

Page No: 9-13

Abstract:Hydrolysis of phosphor-monoesters is an important process in biological systems linking energy metabolism and metabolic regulation. Phosphatases (EC catalyse the hydrolysis of phospho-monoesters and phosphoproteins and may be classified as acid phosphatases or alkaline phosphatases depending on the optimum pH required for their activity. Acid phosphatases in plants help in mobilizing phosphate which is very important during seed germination. Thus, biochemical characterization of acid phosphatase from germinating chickpea seeds would help in elucidating the role of these enzymes in phosphate metabolism during germination.

The present study involves the isolation and partial purification of an acid phosphatase from germinating chickpea (Cicer arientum) seeds. The enzyme was partially purified from germinated seeds using 80% ammonium sulphate. The acid phosphatase had a specific activity of 1.17 of protein and its 3.9 fold purification was achieved. The molecular weight of the enzyme determined by SDS-PAGE was 39 kDa. Biochemical characterization of the enzyme was carried out to determine the optimum incubation time, optimum temperature and optimum pH. The maximum enzyme activity was observed at 30 min of incubation, thereafter the activity decreased gradually. The optimum temperature for acid phosphatase activity was 50°C and its optimum pH was 5.0. The partially purified enzyme was found to have a Km of 0.25 mM and Vmax of 9I of protein.

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Evaluation of DNA fragment sizing and quantification of genomic DNA from Vibrio spp. using Chip-based gel Electrophoresis method

Thirugnanasambandam Rajendran, Inbakandan Dhinakarasamy, Usha Nandhini, S. Sudha Sri Kesavan and Janani Narayanaswamy

Page No: 14-21

Abstract:Vibrio species belonging to Vibrionaceae family exist as natural microbial flora of wild and cultured shrimps. However, Vibriosis infection provoked by this pathogenic community targets larvae and juvenile stages of rearing shrimps leading to adverse mortality and economic losses. The present study aims to identify bacterial isolates in infected shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) of rearing ponds located in Anuppampattu region (13°18’12.9” N 80°15’09.5” E) of Tamil Nadu, India. Notably, six pathogenic species:- V. harveyi (MH209255); V. campbellii (MH211225); V. parahaemolyticus (MH211224); V. owensii (MH211364); V. rotiferianus (MH211221) and V. alginolyticus (MH209576) were isolated from infected shrimps. Among them, V. campbellii and V. harveyi are major etiological agents contributing to mass mortality in shrimps. The investigation was focused towards the implementation of an automated electrophoresis tool (Agilent Bioanalyzer) to assess the size, quality and quantity of DNA fragments.

Comparison of the electropherogram results revealed five fragments in both the strains with size ranging between 343-859 bp (V. campbellii) and 312-1009 bp (V. harveyi). Besides, high quality DNA fragment with precise concentration was also detected. Evolutionary relationship between the microbial species was constructed using Molecular Evolutionary Genomic analysis tool (MEGA). In summary, utilization of NGS technology provides high-quality sequencing data for successful establishment of DNA libraries.

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Organogenetic potential of callus derived from the young shoots of Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss— an economically important edible bamboo

Anand Manju, Brar Jasmine and Sood Anil

Page No: 22-27

Abstract: An efficient and reproducible protocol for the induction and growth of callus has been developed from the young shoots raised from the nodal segments taken from tertiary branches of 5 years old mature plant of Bambusa bambos. Thereafter the organogenetic potential of callus was investigated on different combinations and permutations of auxins and cytokinins. The Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium augmented with 4.53 µM 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 5.37 µM of Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) along with 3% sucrose was found to be the best for the initiation and sustained growth of callus from internodal segments when incubated in the dark. Two types of calli were formed but only nodular and compact callus was found to be organogenic.

The root differentiation from the callus occurred in 40% of cultures on lower concentrations of 2,4-D (2.26 μM) and NAA (1.14 μM). Differentiation of shoot buds from the callus occurred after 6 weeks on MS medium containing 4.53 μM of 2, 4-D and 5.37 μM of NAA but these did not grow into shoots on any of the media combination tried. Histological studies by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the formation of shoot buds.

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Evolutionary analysis of mitochondrial ATPase6/8 sequence variations in some Epinephelus species compared with other Serranidae fishes

Saad Y.M. and Shaikh-Omar Abdulkader M.

Page No: 28-34

Abstract:Epinephelus genetic resources in the Red Sea are facing a group of threats. Up to date, the true phylogenetic relationships among species within the Serranidae fishes are under debate. The ATPase6/8 sequence variations were analyzed in some Red Sea Epinephelus species (E.chlorostigma, E.tauvina and E.radiatus) compared with other Serranidae fishes to obtain information relative to the phylogenetic relations of the fish mt-DNA. The evolutionary analysis results were reflected by the Maximum Likelihood method.

In addition, the DNA polymorphism among estimated fishes was evaluated. The average genetic distance values within Epinephelus, Plectropomus, Cephalopholis, Hypoplectrus, Rypticus and Serranus were 0.176, 0.174, 0.17, 0.007, 0.047 and 0.331 respectively. The ATPase6/8 could be efficient as a molecular identification system in fish barcoding and evolutionary studies.

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Isolation, Screening and Molecular Identification of Bacteriocin producing Lactic Acid Bacteria possessing wide spectrum Antibacterial Activity

Kaur Sidhu Parveen and Kiran Nehra

Page No: 35-42

Abstract:The advent of health issues due to the presence of chemical preservatives in food items has caught the attention of majority of consumers. More recently, biopreservatives like bacteriocins produced from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been observed to hold potential in preservation of food as these have no harmful effect on human health. The present research is focused on the isolation and identification of bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria from milk samples. A total of 25 LAB isolated from milk were used to determine their antibacterial activity against potent food pathogenic indicator organisms. Both cell free supernatant and partially purified bacteriocins extracted from selected isolates were compared for their antibacterial spectrum. A total of 12 isolates exhibiting good antibacterial potential against food spoiling bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri) were further subjected to molecular identification using 16S rRNA gene amplification.

The isolates followed by sequencing were identified as belonging to five different species of Lactobacillus; however, a majority of them were of Lactobacillus plantarum species. One bacteriocin producing strain identified in the present study as Lactobacillus herbarum has been reported by very few researchers till date, hence it may have the potential to produce novel bacteriocin.

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16S rRNA identified Bacteria from soil of Nal Sarovar wetland -A Bird Sanctuary and a Ramsar Site in Gujarat State, India

Gandhi Jemi, Tatu Ketan and Kamboj R.D.

Page No: 43-52

Abstract:Microbiological and physiochemical characteristics of wetland soils of Nal Sarovar (a shallow, seasonal freshwater lake) were studied during winter of 2017-18. Emphasis was laid on collecting baseline data on soil microbial flora by a cultivation dependent – method from six different habitats of Nal Sarovar. Total heterotrophic bacterial counts (THBC) from six habitats were determined using standard procedures. Bacteria were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and their evolutionary history was mapped using phylogenetic tree. Chemical parameters were also determined using standard procedures. THBC ranged from 4.4 x 106 to 14.2 x 106 for different habitats of Nal Sarovar wetland-a Bird Sanctuary and a Ramsar Site in Gujarat State.

Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus sp. and Brevibacterium sp. were predominant bacteria identified on basis of 16S rRNA sequencing. The physicochemical results varied and ranged from 8.25 to 9.8 for pH; 0.18 % to 0.97 % for organic carbon and 0.085 ppm to 0.365 ppm for phosphorous. This research gives useful insight into microbial diversity of Nal Sarovar wetland (a Bird Sanctuary and Ramsar Site) which until now had remained unexplored.

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Differential expression of some genes and their in-silico analysis in rice varities under cold stress

Kumari Rajani, Bharti Bobby and Pandey Dev Mani

Page No: 53-66

Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important and ideal model plant for the study of crop genomics and used as a staple food crop. Cold stress is an important and detrimental abiotic factor affecting agriculture worldwide resulting in substantial losses in crop yield. In this contribution we aimed to understand the response of rice plants under adverse conditions by genomic studies with the goal to identify the genes involved and their expression patterns during stress perception and response. The present work was performed by studying the differential expression and co-expression networking analysis of Transcription factors/regulators genes under cold stress condition in four rice varieties namely Jinbubyeo, BR29, IR114 (IR90688-114-1-1-1-1-1) and IR20 (IR90688-20-1-1-1-1-1) that were received from IRRI, Manila, Philippines. We systematically analysed the expression of 10 TF genes belonging to five transcription factor families namely GLABROUS1 enhancer-binding protein gene (GeBP), Vascular plant One Zinc finger protein gene (VOZ), Arabidopsis RESPONSE REGULATORS Type-B gene (ARR-B), ULTRAPETALA gene (ULT) and LEAFY gene (LFY) under cold stress condition using different rice varieties.

Seeds of different varieties were sterilized and germinated. Three weeks old seedlings were subjected to cold stress followed by RNA isolation and cDNA preparation, cyber green based Real Time PCR and subsequent in-silico analysis of data. Real-Time PCR based differential expression analysis of aforesaid TFs/regulators, ULT_2, LFY_1, GeBP_1, GeBP_3 and GeBP_6 were found to be up-regulated in different tissues under cold stress condition in different cultivars. Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) using Real Time PCR data showed that ULT_2, LFY_1, GeBP_3 and GeBP_4 genes are highly correlated and biologically significant. String analysis of these TF/regulator encoded proteins indicted their interaction with other proteins. Thus, present study uncovers gene-network involved in cold stress responses which are differentially expressed in different tissues of rice plant. Various gene responsible for tolerance belong to different functional classes to provide additional insight.

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Effect of Environmental Factors on Biofilm Production of the bacterial strains isolated from the patient with Nosocomial Infection

Panda Sushri Priyadarshini and Pattnaik Smaranika

Page No: 67-75

Abstract: The hospital environment is the sink of an array of bacterial strains associated with secondary infection (Nosocomial infection) and reported as extended drug resistant strains. Further, it is seen that the bacterial strains associated with biofilm resist the action of antibiotics. This small piece of research work had focussed on development of biofilm in a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae (BMK1) under the influence of a range of temperature and pH in a controlled environment. The said strain was isolated from a patient with complains of urinary tract infection of a local health institute. The stain was identified and characterized using various medical microbiological tools.

Further, ‘Growth Curve’ experiments for the test strain incubated with Cefpodoxime were made at various temperatures (40C, 280C, 370C, 440C, 480C, 500C) as well as at various pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 7.5). There was a direct correlation between the pH and temperature on the intensity of biofilm formation evidenced by spectral absorption values.

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Structure and functional prediction of a novel endo 1,4 beta xylanase from Nesterenkonia sp. strain F based on sequence computational analysis

Hajar Mohammadi, Mohammad Shafiei, Hamid Galehdari and Saeid Reza Khatami

Page No: 76-87

Abstract:Xylanases have potential application in food packaging, paper producing, cosmetic biofuel processing and pharmaceutical industries. Extremophiles are a potent source of extremozymes which show high stability and activity under extreme conditions of industrial processes. Nesterenkonia sp. strain F is a halophilic genus about the Micrococcaceae family. Annotation of the genomic DNA sequence of strain F by RAST annotation pipeline software was used for investigating unknown native sequences to find any useful sequence. Analysis of Nesterenkonia sp. F genome predicted the presence of an endo- 1, 4-beta xylanase gene that produced a xylanase enzyme (EC with hydrolysis activity on the xylan molecules of hemicellulose compounds.

Gene and protein sequence analysis of the new gene indicated that the sequence was related to the beta-xylanase enzymes family. Computational calculations revealed hydrolysis function of the enzyme on endo 1, 4-beta glycosidic bonds in xylans molecule. Also, functional properties of the related protein and its catalytic domain were investigated by 3D structures modeling. 3D structure of the xylanase demonstrated a catalytic domain with (α/β)8barrel fold. Docking studies results from Molegro virtual docker software determined a valin amino acid in the active site as binding sites for xylan as specific ligand and a binding cavity for possible cofactors AHR and FER.

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Antioxidant and Antibacterial properties of wine prepared from bananas

Panchal Durva, Ansari Aakifa, Pawar Apoorva, George Anila, Fernandes Neil, Pote Pooja, Stewart Miriam and Chakraborty Pampi

Page No: 88-97

Abstract:Bananas are cultivated on a large scale in India. A considerable number of fruits are wasted every year because it ripens fast and there is a lack of proper storage facilities. Over-ripen bananas are still a good natural source of all the essential nutrients. Thus, the use of these over-ripe bananas in preparation of wine, a form with a longer shelf life is an attractive alternative. Here, the authors prepared banana wine using malolactic fermentation and explored its physicochemical, organoleptic and biological activities. Reducing sugars, volatile acids and sulphur di-oxide content were quantitatively estimated. After determination of the total phenolics content (0.163mg/ml) in the banana wine, its antioxidant activity (in vitro) was estimated by DPPH and ABTS assay which was found to be 95.9 ± 0.344% and 81.1 ± 0.6% for 1:2 diluted banana wine respectively.

Macrophage cells (RAW 246.7) treated with the banana wine showed enhanced survival in the presence of oxidative stress. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using broth microdilution method against Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The wine showed a bactericidal effect against all the chosen bacterial cultures. The study revealed that banana wine has significant antioxidant and antibacterial properties along with moderate taste.

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Pathogenicity of Phytopythium vexans on arecanut

Ragi Jadimurthy, Chandrakanth R. and Devaki N.S.

Page No: 98-105

Abstract:Fruit rot disease or Koleroga is one of the major diseases of arecanut which is caused by Phytophthora species such as Phytophthora meadii and Phytophthora heveae. In the present study, Phytopythium vexans is isolated from the fruit rot diseased arecanut. Morphological, molecular characterization of the Phytopythium vexans was carried out. Molecular markers such as ITS, cox1 and 18S rRNA were used for the confirmation of the identity of Phytopythium vexans. Pathogenicity tests of Phytopythium vexans on arecanuts were compared with Phytophthora pathogens of arecanut and the Phytopythium vexans showed the similar fruit rot symptoms caused by Phytophthora species.

There was no significant difference in the lesion diameter formed by the Phytopythium vexans and Phytophthora species. This study shows the association of Phytopythium vexans with arecanut palm which increases the knowledge of pathogen diversity associated with arecanut plantations in India.

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Collection and cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) pollen during monsoon season and its utilization for commercial hybrid production

Muralikrishna K.S., Sajini K.K., Irfana M.G., Kavya P., Shruthi K., Rajesh M.K. and Anitha Karun

Page No: 106-110

Abstract:Success in breeding programmes in a perennial tree crop such as coconut, depends heavily on the availability of quality pollen for artificial pollination for generation of hybrids. Existing method of pollen collection, from staminate flowers is convenient for dry season. In the present study, efficacy of pollen collection and cryopreservation in coconut during peak monsoon period were investigated. Drying methods involving different temperature regimes (T1: 24 hrs in room temperature + 7 hrs at 35ºC + 12 hrs at 40ºC; T2: 36 hrs in room temperature + 7 hrs at 35ºC + 12 hrs at 40ºC; T3: 24 hrs at 35ºC + 5 hrs at 40ºC; T4: 5 hrs in room temperature + 20 hrs at 40ºC and T5: 24 hrs at 40ºC) were employed to collect pollen from West Coast Tall (WCT) and Chowghat Orange Dwarf (COD) cultivars. Observations were made on pollen output, moisture content, in vitro germination, cryopreservation aspects and nut set.

Results were compared with the control (T5) wherein the collection of pollen from staminate flowers was done by directly drying them at 40ºC for 24 hrs. Pollen yield was more both in WCT and COD in treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4) where staminate flowers were subjected to slow drying as compared to control. Moisture content of the extracted pollen was lowest in T2 when the extraction was done after drying in room temperature (36 hrs) and 7 hrs in 35°C followed by 12 hrs drying at 40°C. In vitro germination assay revealed that pollen collected via this method was superior as compared to other treatments after cryopreservation. Post-monsoon fertility studies indicated normal nut set in palms pollinated with pollen collected and cryopreserved during rainy season. This study thus paves the way for collection of pollen resources during wet season and cryostoring them for future use.

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Sensitive and closed tube plant DNA virus detection via PCR

Singh Vikram, Chauhan Ravishankar and Quraishi Afaque

Page No: 111-116

Abstract:The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is being increasingly used for amplifying precise DNA sequences. It is a highly sensitive technique with the potential to produce a billion copies of a specific nucleic acid region. In the present study, an assay was developed for quick indexing of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). Single oligonucleotide primer pairs were designed from the coat protein gene sequences of BBTV for PCR. The BBTV symptomatic and asymptomatic samples (from the field and in vitro cultures) were diagnosed for BBTV infection.

The positive BBTV infection was efficiently detected by using SYBR green I in the PCR reaction mixture. The BBTV could detect in the closed-PCR tubes in which the amplified products emitted strong fluorescence under UV trans-illumination without performing the gel electrophoresis. The technique may prove useful for the other single-locus PCR reactions too.

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Evaluation of antioxidant, total phenol and phytoconstituents of Curvularia sp., a fungal endophyte of Boerhaavia diffusa L.

Gayathri Segaran, Uma Anitha K.P.G. and Mythili Sathiavelu

Page No: 117-122

Abstract:Aim of study was to isolate and to identify the fungal endophyte from the medicinal plant Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. and to evaluate its phytoconstituents, antioxidant and total phenol content. Qualitative phytochemical screening was done to monitor the presence and absence of phytoconstituents. Dichloromethane, butanol, ethyl acetate and methanolic crude extracts were tested to determine the total phenolic content by Folin-ciocalteu method. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay was performed for all the extracts to identify their antioxidant capacity. FT-IR analysis was used to identify the functional groups of the compounds present in the extracts.

An endophytic fungus that belongs to the genus Curvularia, was isolated from the stem of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. and different crude extracts were extracted from the fungal broth and math. The preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out for all the four extracts and the present study reveals the presence of various phytoconstituents like phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. Among the four extracts, methanol extract showed the maximum total phenolic content in term of gallic acid equivalent (12.87±0.0169 mg GAE/g). Butanol extract exhibited 37.5% inhibition in DPPH free radical scavenging assay.

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Molecular characterization of Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] genotypes for resistance against Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV)

Mishra Abhay, Sahni Sangita, Prasad Bishun Deo, Kumar Birendra and Kumar Sanjeev

Page No: 123-134

Abstract:Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) disease is among the most vicious diseases of mungbean transmitted through whitefly. To combat this disease till now, the thrust was given mainly on chemicals and development of resistant varieties. However, most of the existing genotypes are moderately resistant against MYMV. Therefore, the screening for new resistance mungbean genotypes against MYMV is an alternative approach to avoid indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides. In the present investigation, 50 genotypes were evaluated along with the susceptible check against the MYMV under natural field conditions in Kharif and Rabi, 2018. Four genotypes namely ML 2459, SML 1828, MH 1344 and SKNM 1504 showed resistant reaction with lower disease incidence and high seed yield. All together 20 SSR markers were employed to identify genetic variation among mungbean genotypes studied.

The SSR marker analysis and disease resistance phenotypes were well correlated. These results indicated that a noticeably extent of genetic variability exists among different mungbean genotypes and could be used for hybridization programme for developing MYMV resistance. Therefore, this study could be quite beneficial for plant breeders and plant pathologist for mungbean improvement program against MYMV.

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In silico study of the therapeutic role of natural compounds in influenza A

Surana Pallavi, Singh Shruti, Saha Anismita, Ujjain Tanisha, Manokaran Sumathra and Manjunatha Reddy A.H.

Page No: 135-145

Abstract:H1N1 flu has been a widespread catastrophe emerging notoriously the past decade. This study is focused on evaluating the possible role of natural antioxidants as sialic acid adding moeities which could help in alleviating the flu attack. Ten different natural antioxidant compounds were the focus of the study. Molecular docking was performed to understand the binding interactions.

Further validation was done by fast simulation to predict the protein structure fluctuations. From the fluctuation plots of chain A, B, C and D, we observe that India HA has predominant interactions. The small molecules that could help lessen the incidence of H1N1 flu are cathecin, andrographolide, biacalin, curcumin and eugenol. Andrographolide is the most important one. Further animal studies would help validate these findings further.

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Isolation and evaluation of potential CDA producing bacterial strain Bacillus cereus (JCM44) isolated from coastal areas of South India

Innocent Sherin and Padikasan Indra Arulselvi

Page No: 146-154

Abstract:Chitosan is a natural biopolymer, deacetylated product of chitin. The conventional process for deacetylation utilizes harsh thermochemical which is environmentally unsafe. Chitin deacetylase (CDA) is an enzyme that biotransforms chitin to chitosan by enzymatic deacetylation process. An alternative eco-friendly approach is required for the deacetylation of chitin as a well-defined process.

In the present study, about 87 chitinolytic bacterial strains were isolated from marine soil samples collected from different locations of coastal areas in Kanyakumari district using standard procedures. Among them, 8 CDA producing potential bacterial isolates were screened for further studies in which bacterial isolate JCM44 was selected as a potent degrader of chitin and good producer of the enzyme CDA. The JCM44 isolate was identified as Bacillus cereus and optimized culture conditions like carbon (Sucrose 0.732 mg/mL), nitrogen (Peptone 0.81 mg/mL), inorganic (MnSO4 0.755 mg/mL)sources, pH (7) and temperature (35°C) found to stimulate CDA production in the strain. Thus, B. cereus highlights its significance as a new source for the prompt production of CDA.

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Cell free extract of Lactobacillus acidophilus enhancing oxaliplatin antiproliferative effects in HT-29 cell line

Atieh Hashemi, Vahid Asgary, Azadeh Shojaei, Saba Dibaifar, Mitra Rajabe and Fahimeh Baghbani-Arani

Page No: 155-160

Abstract:Antiproliferative effects of classical chemotherapeutics including paclitaxel, gemcitabine and cisplatin were potentiated by probiotics in cancer cells. Moreover, many of LAB strains were shown to suppress proliferation via inducing apoptosis of colorectal cells. Here, the capacity of Lactobacillus acidophilus bacterial extract to enhance the antiproliferative effects of a cellular CRC model exposed to oxaliplatin was evaluated. To this end, HT-29 cells were treated for 24 h with increasing concentrations of oxaliplatin in the presence of 0.05 µg/mL of cell free extract of L. acidophilus. A significant decrease in cell viability was observed in cells exposed to 10 µg /ml of oxaliplatin in presence of 0.05 µg/mL of L. acidophilus extract compared with the single administration of oxaliplatin.

As compared to oxaliplatin alone (10 µg /ml), 0.05 µg/mL of L. acidophilus extract was able to synergize the antiproliferative effects of oxaliplatin by 12.3%. No cytotoxic effect was observed in HEK cells treated with both single and combined administration strategies. Annexin V staining showed that the synergistic effect of the L. acidophilus bacterial extract was correlated with apoptosis. Conclusively, it is tempting to speculate that LAB or probiotics could be used as an adjuvant to ameliorate the oxaliplatin efficiency during CRC treatment.

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Survival strategies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Role of Host Pathogen interactions

Verma Devvret, Tufchi Neema, Pant Kumud and Thapliyal Ashish

Page No: 161-169

Abstract:Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern as around two billion of the global population is latently infected. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the etiological agent of TB. It is clever enough to escape from the immunological response of the host. It uses specific strategies to maintain its survivability as the pathogenesis of the bacterium is achieved through the molecular interaction between microbial product and the host proteins. This leads to the changes in the host cell mechanism. It not only arrests the steps of maturation of phagosome but also modulates the tissues by releasing potent, bioactive cell wall constituents. Several mycobacterium proteins play crucial role in establishing the infection by interacting with the host proteins and manipulating the host proteins that produce immune response against the pathogen.

This review is focused on the etiology of Mtb, its mechanisms of survival and the importance of the host pathogen interaction analysis in understanding the infection process, as it is an emerging and evolving field that can assist in the development of new therapeutic target.

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Uncovering Potential of Cyanobacteria in Wound Healing

Parwani Laxmi, Srivastava Mansi and Singh Jaspreet

Page No: 170-179

Abstract:Distinct healing requirements of each wound type spurred development of innumerable dressings with specific characteristics which result in rapid expansion in wound care market. Biomaterials are preferably useful as wound healing agents due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity. Cyanobacteria have been identified as rich source of bioactive compounds with antibacterial, antitumor, antiviral, antioxidant and antifungal activities. This group of organisms has been widely studied in recent years due to their immense potential in biomedical applications.

Role of cyanobacteria in wound healing is not well explored although their different bioactivities can support healing by different ways but very few forms have proven utility as a wound healing agent. This study gives an insight into potential of cyanobacteria in wound healing. Different bioactive compounds of cyanobacteria and their associated activities can support in tissue regeneration and wound healing acceleration. Considering the ever increasing demand of cost effective, bioactive wound care products, these organisms have an immense potential to be utilized for development and fabrication of bioactive wound dressings. Hence, various bioactive compounds of cyanobacteria, their associated activities and roles in wound healing have been reviewed.

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