Research Journal of Biotechnology

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Research Journal of Biotechnology





The influence of nodule bacteria and Azospirillum on the growth and development of Onobrychis plants

Shakirov Z.S., Khakimov S.A., Kadirova G.Kh., Abdullaev A.K. and Khalilov I.M.

Page No: 1-6

Abstract: This study explored the influence of inoculation of nodule bacteria and Azospirillum brasilense UT13-4 on the growth and development of Onobrychis transcaucasica and Onobrychis chorassanica plants in desert field experiments in the Kyzylkum Desert. The results showed that the inoculation of Onobrychis plants with nodule bacteria and Azospirillum brasilense UT13-4 positively influenced the formation of biomass. The average biomass increment in plants after monoinoculation with nodule bacteria was 17.2% for O. transcaucasica and 36.1% for O. chorassanica compared to plants that had not been inoculated.

In the case of double inoculation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Rhizobium + Azospirillum), the average increment of plant biomass was 34.4% for O. transcaucasica and 59.7% for O. chorassanica. Numerous nodules on O. transcaucasica (more than 500 nodules/plant) and O. сhorassanica (more than 200 nodules/plant) were found after double inoculation.

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Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces griseus BLS4, a newly isolated endophyte of Blumea lacera

Maity Santanu, Mandal Suchandra, Santra Hiran Kanti, Maity Sandip Kumar and Banerjee Debdulal

Page No: 7-16

Abstract:Endophytic actinomycetes are a group of gram-positive bacteria with high G+C content found as active producers of diverse compounds inside plant tissues. In this study, endophytic actinomycetes have been isolated from Blumea lacera, an important ethnomedicinal plant with antimicrobial properties using culture dependent methods. Preliminary investigation for antimicrobial activity revealed the isolate BLS4 as the most promising isolate giving inhibition zones against 11 pathogenic bacterial strains and 2 plant pathogenic fungal strains. MIC of the crude extract of the actinomycetes was determined against the previously stated pathogens. Morphological characters were noted and depending upon sequence analysis of 16s rDNA, the isolate has been named Streptomyces griseus strain BLS4.

Study of its genome for the presence of PKs gene (type-II) affirmed that it carries the gene family that is responsible for synthesis of antimicrobial compounds in the Streptomyces species. For purification and characterization of the active compounds, TLC, bioautography and column chromatography of ethyl acetate extract of culture broth of BLS4 and GC-MS analysis of purified fraction were performed. The GC-MS study showed the presence of two antimicrobial compounds in highest abundance- Emimycin and Pyrrolo [1, 2-a] pyrazine-1, 4-dione, hexahydro-3-(2-methylpropyl). Several other organic compounds have also been identified. Optimum compound production was observed at 15 Days in TYG media. All these biochemical aspects of this novel actinomycetous isolate make it an able synthesizer of organic compounds which can find use in various industries.

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An alternative method to extract total RNA from animal tissues

Grecia Vázquez-Islas, Danitzia A. Guerrero-Tortolero, Rodolfo Garza-Torres and Rafael Campos-Ramos

Page No: 17-20

Abstract:We propose an alternative method to extract total RNA from animal tissues with emphasis in fisheries science without the use of diethyl pyrocarbonate, -mercaptoethanol, guanidine thiocyanate, phenol, chloroform, isoamyl alcohol and in which the yield, purity and integrity of total RNA were comparable to a commercial reagent. Downstream applications included RT-PCR and qPCR.

Our method used a lysis buffer with dithiothreitol to inactivate ribonucleases followed by the separation of proteins and DNA by ultracentrifugation in an acidic high-salt solution. The principle of the technique simply relied on the separation of RNA from DNA, by lowering the pH ≤ 4 using glacial acetic acid.

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Theoretical analysis of the evolutionary principle of aptamers

Shihua Zhang, Xianwei Huang and Zhengjun Fang

Page No: 21-28

Abstract: SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment, SELEX) has become a novel technology for aptamer selection from libraries of random oligonucleotides. This is an iterative process of incubation, separation and amplification through an affinity method and polymerase chain reaction. Although many SELEX experiments have been carried out, only a few theoretical studies reported on the aptamer enrichment can be found at present. This study analyzes the factors affecting SELEX enrichment under the experimental conditions (Kd1 =140 nM; Kd2 =450 nM; [Tf] =300 nM and KCL = 100) including target concentrations, efficiencies of partitioning and dissociation constants.

Investigated results suggest that decreasing target concentrations and dissociation constants Kd1 for the winning aptamers and increasing efficiencies of partitioning tend to improve enrichment fraction F1(r)/F2(r).

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In-Silico prediction of impact on protein function caused by non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in human ATP7B gene associated with Wilson disease

Omar Qahtan Yaseen, Mohammed Qais Al-Ani and Yasin Hamad Majeed

Page No: 29-32

Abstract:Wilson Disease (WD) is an inborn error of copper metabolism inherited in an autosomal recessive manner caused by the mutations in the P-type ATPase gene (ATP7B). In this study, we screen and detect the mutations of the ATP7B gene in unrelated Iraqi WD patients. The SIFT algorithm calculates whether the amino acid substitution influences the protein function based on sequence homology and the physical features of amino acids. The score of SIFT <0.05 to replace amino acids is expected to be deleterious, Among the six variations of highest frequency in this study, two had highly deleterious tolerance index score of 0.00A variation (A>G Glutamine> Arginine and T>G Valine> Glycine) within functional domain in ATP-BD region likely to have an impact than the one in a non-critical location.

Except one variation, all other were predicted to be deleterious on the function of ATP7B. PolyPhen is a tool which predicts possible impact of an amino acid substitution on the structure and function of a human protein using the sequence homology and the mapping of the substitution site to known protein 3-dimensional structures. C>T, G>C Intron variations were predicted to be less damaging for the function of ATP7B protein than rest of the variations. Our results from this study suggest that the application of computational tools including SIFT and PolyPhen-2 might provide an alternative approach to select SNPs related disease.

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Effect of culture media on seed germination and callus induction from cultured seeds of rice cultivars

Kumari Rima, Kumar Pankaj, Sharma V.K. and Kumar Harsh

Page No: 33-40

Abstract:Seeds of six rice cultivars namely BPT-5204, MTU-7029, Narendra Usar Dhan-3, Rajendra Bhagwati, CSR-30 and Pusa Basmati-1 were tissue cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with different combinations and concentrations of 2,4-D and KIN for seed germination and callus formation. Medium MS6 showed the best seed germination followed by media MS5, MS4 and MS3, MS2 and MS1 respectively. Further, medium MS1 showed the best callus formation followed by media MS2, MS3 and MS4, MS5 and MS6 respectively.

Cultivar MTU-7029 showed the highest frequency of seed germination followed by cvs. BPT-5204, Pusa Basmati-1, Narendra Usar Dhan-3, Rajendra Bhagwati and CSR-30 respectively. Further, cultivar CSR-30 showed the highest frequency of callus formation followed by cvs. Pusa Basmati-1, Narendra Usar Dhan-3, Rajendra Bhagwati and BPT-5204 respectively. The callus growth was good to excellent in cvs. CSR-30, Pusa Basmati-1 and Narendra Usar Dhan-3 and average to good in cvs. Rajendra Bhagwati and MTU-7029 and low to good in cv. BPT-5204. The higher concentration of 2,4-D in the medium increased callus formation and reduced seed germination while the higher concentration of kinetin increased the seed germination and reduced the callus formation. An efficient seed germination and callus formation protocol was established. A suitable medium and culture condition will be useful for seed germination and callus formation-based stress tolerance studies.

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A study on isolation and biochemical characterization of fluorescent pseudomonads

Ammani K. and Sujatha N.

Page No: 41-50

Abstract:A group of root-associated bacteria, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), intimately interact with the plant roots and consequently influence plant health and soil fertility. Among these, PGPR, fluorescent pseudomonads occur commonly in the rhizosphere. Considering the multiple applications of fluorescent pseudomonads, specifically, the global significance of antifungal metabolites in disease suppression and consequent applicability of pseudomonads in biological control strategies, it is important to study the efficiency of the strains isolated from crop field soils so as to use these native strains as bioinoculants for organic agriculture crops without causing harm to the environment and the farmers. The objectives of the present investigation are to isolate fluorescent pseudomonads from various rhizosphere soils of coastal regions of Andhra Pradesh and to biochemically characterize the isolates.

Of the 36 isolates, exposed to UV light of wavelength 356 nm, 26 isolates exhibited fluorescence. The fluorescent pseudomonads were characterized by their production of yellow green pigments that fluoresce under UV irradiation and function as siderophores termed pyoverdins and pseudobactins. Of the 26 fluorescent pseudomonads isolated, 22 isolates were identified with certainty. 15 isolates, So5, So11, So15, So27, Os8, Os9, Os25, Os34, Ah6, Ah7, Ah36, Ah71, Ae1, Ae20 and Ae25 were tentatively identified as Pseudomonas fluorescences. Likewise, 5 isolates, namely, So10, So17, Os6, Ah41 and Ae16 were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the remaining two isolates Os32 and Ah56 were identified as Pseudomonas aureofaciens.

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Studies on extraction, purification, characterization and application of pectin from orange peels

Hariharan Harikrishnan

Page No: 51-57

Abstract: Pectin is a high-value functional food ingredient widely used as gelling agent and stabilizer. The citrus peels are the major raw materials used for the production of commercially acceptable pectin. Pectin occurs as a white to light brown colored powder and is non-toxic in nature. It is one of the most versatile gelling and thickening agents used in food industries. The extraction of pectin requires high volume of ethanol during precipitation. The utilization of bio ethanol can make the process cost effective. Bio-ethanol can be produced from several substrates such as starch, lignocelluloses, and different agricultural wastes.

Waste banana is chosen as substrate for ethanol production due to its less lignin content. The orange peels are better source for pectin. The different methods are adopted for the extraction of pectin viz. water-based method, microwave heating method, Soxhlet method, microbial method and a novel coupled method. Various parameters like pH, temperature, ethanol concentration were optimized for pectin production and characterized by UV and IR spectrophotometry. The yields of pectin obtained by using ethanol and bio ethanol were compared. An extractor is constructed for the best method. The obtained pectin is then to be used for the production of bio-films.

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Study of BDNF protein expression in type 2 diabetic model of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Ranjan Shovit and Sharma Praveen Kumar

Page No: 58-60

Abstract: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), which causes hyperglycemia, also affects the central nervous system, leading to cognitive dysfunctions. Nowadays, zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a promising model organism for studying the neurobehavioral disorders like stress, anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to determine the BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor) activity and protein expression levels in high sucrose induced hyperglycemic zebrafish. Hyperglycemia was induced in adult zebrafish by immersion in 83.25 mM sucrose solution for 14 days after performing the study for survival in sucrose solutions. The animals were divided into 2 groups in replicates: control and sucrose-treated hyperglycemic groups.

Afterwards, the BDNF activity and protein expression were determined from the samples isolated from whole brain of both the groups. Results showed that high-sucrose induced hyperglycemic group showed significantly reduced BDNF protein expression level as compared to control group. Overall, our results confirm that impaired glucose metabolism in the zebrafishes resulted in the decreased BDNF levels. This decreased BDNF level observed in T2D (other than cognitive disorders) can be possibly helpful for explaining the missing link in interplay of these diseases in future.

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Computational Identification of Novel Genes in Pediococcus acidilactici ZPA017

Bansal Poonam, Kumar Raman, Deswal Phalguni and Dhanda Suman

Page No: 61-65

Abstract:Pediooccus acidilactici is a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which is used as starter culture and also being explored for its probiotic attributes. There are sporadic reports of use of these bacteria as probiotic but yet systematic studies on different strains are being carried out. With the advances of NGS, whole genomes are being sequenced, novel genes are being identified. Functional annotation of these genes and prediction of proteins encoded by them by computational methods will help us to increase the understanding of an organism. Identification of novel genes, though a challenging task, helps to find out the uniqueness of that organism.

Pediococcus acidilactici ZAP017 was studied for its novel genes. It contains 2073 genes and 1958 coding sequences (CDS). A final set of 54 genes were identified as novel using in silico approach and their domains and functions were predicted. Studies revealed that these genes encoded for some essential enzyme activities.

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Assessment of genetic diversity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) through ISSR marker

Saxena A. and Tomar Rukam S.

Page No: 66-71

Abstract:Cowpea is a self-pollinated lagumenous crop showing different growth habits and morphological traits, but their genetic and geographical variations are not clear. Present study was therefore planned to find diversity based on morphological and molecular markers in fifty-six cowpea genotypes originated from different regions. Analysis using twenty polymorphic ISSR markers, an average 88.93% polymorphism was found with polymorphic information content and resolving power of 0.783 and 2.74 respectively. Analysis of molecular variance exhibited that different genotypes and markers under study have significant variance at genetic level.

Dendrogram grouping indicated Jaccard similarity range of 52.00 to 83.00 % mostly based upon their place of origin and morphological characters while principal coordinate analysis exhibited clustering based upon growth habits. Present diversity analysis revealed that cowpea genotypes can be differentiated using ISSR markers. Genotypes based upon genetic, morphological and geographical differences may be chosen for developing a breeding programme.

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Isolation and Molecular identifications of Cellulase producing Bacteria from Desert Soil

Albalawi Thamer H. and Alam Pravej

Page No: 72-78

Abstract:In this study, two isolates (PSAU1 and PSAU2) of aerobic bacteria were isolated from the desert soil (harsh environment temperature of 45ºC) of Saudi Arabia. The bacteria were isolated and their isolates (PSAU1 and PSAU2) were characterized through PCR amplification and a sequencing approach targeting the 16S RNA genes. Based on the sequencing results of the PSAU1 and PSAU2 isolates, 99% of the sequence identity were matched with the Bacillaceae family belonging to Bacillus megaterium (PSAU1) and Bacillus cereus (PSAU2) species. The cellulolytic activities of both isolates (PSAU1 and PSAU2) at 45°C (pH 7.0) were also performed in the presence of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) used as a carbon source. The colonies isolated from PSAU1 and PSAU2 were grown on CMC agar medium and observed for 5 days to recover the maximum inhibition i.e. cellulase production using plate assay methods. The PSAU1 colony gave negative signals i.e. non-cellulolytic (B. megaterium) whereas the PSAU2 (B. cereus) isolate showed a positive signal or zone of inhibition on CMC-agar plates at 45°C.

Furthermore, cellulase activity was quantified in a CMC-supplemented medium and the maximum recovery of cellulases was 2.03±0.08 U/ml on 2 days of culture at 540 nm. Our observation indicates that desert soil is also a good source of cellulolytic microorganisms that can be useful for cellulose degradation in harsh environments (temperature > 40 ºC). The fast growth of these isolates and cellulase activity are new contributions to the field of biotechnology, especially in the Arab region.

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Studies on inheritance of MYMV resistance in green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

Reshmi Raj K.R., Baisakh B., Tripathy S.K., Lenka Devraj and Pradhan B.

Page No: 79-82

Abstract:The inheritance of resistance to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) in green gram was studied from the crosses between a MYMV resistant genotype IPM 02-03 and two susceptible genotypes BKG and OUM 11-05. The F2 generation of the two crosses, BKG x IPM 02-03 and OUM 11-05 x IPM 02-03 along with the parents were screened for MYMV resistance in natural field conditions using infector rows of MYMV susceptible variety KPS 2. Each plant in the segregating generation of both the crosses was screened for MYMV resistance according to the MYMV score proposed by Alice and Nadarajan1.

The chi square test confirmed the segregation ratio of 3:1 susceptible: resistant plants in the F2 generation of both the crosses. This indicates that the MYMV resistance in green gram is controlled by monogenic recessive gene.

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Genetical and phytochemical evaluation of the Dysphania ambrosioides from Saudi Arabia using SRAP PCR and the cancer cell proliferation effect

Fayez Althobaiti and Adil Aldhahrani

Page No: 83-96

Abstract:Since the stone age, medicinal plants have played a major role in mediating human health and overcoming different lethal diseases. Dysphania ambrosioides is a popular medicinal plant in semitropical countries. Few studies have been reported on the anti-carcinogenic activity of D. ambrosioides. In this study, the essential oil extracted from its leaves was used to investigate its biological effect on cancer progression and related processes indifferent human cancer cell lines. We identified ten constituents of D. ambrosioides oil where the major compound was a scaridole and three minor compounds included P-Cymene, Isoascaridole and Terpinene.

Other compounds included 2, 3-Pinanediol, Benzaldehyde and 1-Vinyl-Cyclohexanol. The essential oil exhibited the highest cytotoxic effect against human cell lines at IC50 values ranging from 15.2 to 30.3µg/ml. The maximum concentration of 500µg/ml was observed to have the highest inhibition effect ranging from 95.11 to 98.62 % respectively using5-Flurourasil as reference. This study concluded that the essential oil of Saudi Arabian D. ambrosioides leaves can play a substantial role against human cancer cells and can also yield other useful products and molecules for pharmaceutical and industrial applications.

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In silico investigation of quorum quenching potential of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Coscinium fenestratum on Vibrio cholerae

Ramya R. and Gopinath S.M.

Page No: 97-106

Abstract:Current study investigates the ability of phytoligands to inhibit biofilm formation in multidrug resistant, clinically isolated V. cholerae. Methanolic extracts of Coscinium fenestratum, Piper betle and Piper nigrum were checked for their antibiofilm activity. The herbal bioactive compounds were screened by LC/MS-MS and binding potentials against the drug targets were predicted by molecular docking. The extracts exhibited a MIC in a range of 0.1mg/mL- 0.15mg/mL. Reduction of EPS and rhamnolipids was found to be 84.27%, 67% and 46.6% respectively by C. fenestratum, P. betle and P. nigrum. Six major proteins were selected as putative targets. Of the 6 targets, the phytoligands were effective against AphB, HapR, LuxO and Vps. Berberine present in C. fenestratum (binding energy of -8.6 kcal/mol), Eugenol in P. betle (binding energy -6.2 kcal/mol) and Piperidine in P. nigrum (binding energy -4.0 kcal/mol) demonstrated effective minimum binding energy against AphB.

In silico analysis has revealed that the QS proteins of V. cholerae targeted by the phytoligands might destabilize the biofilm on density dependent manner based on inhibition of surface adhesion and attenuating the virulence factors leading to quorum sensing inhibition. Berberine and Eugenol can be used as quorum inhibitors for attenuation of MDR V. cholerae at sub inhibitory concentration of 50µg/mL.

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Effect of different inorganic nitrogen supplementation on proline and its metabolism enzymes in two Moroccan Sorghum ecotypes

Bouargalne Youssef, Ben Mrid Reda, EL Omari Redouane, Kchikich Anass and Nhiri Mohamed

Page No: 107-113

Abstract:In order to better understand the biochemical mechanisms of proline metabolism under different nitrogen (N) level and source treatments in sorghum plants, different biochemical parameters on shoots and roots of two Moroccan sorghum Ecotype (3P4 and 4P11) such as photosynthetic pigments content, protein content, amino acid content, proline content and two proline metabolizing enzymes were investigated. Proline content reached its highest value under N deficiency and ammonium excess. Furthermore, the proline degradation enzyme (ProDH) activity was lower under N deficiency and ammonium excess.

The proline dehydrogenase activity was inversely proportional to the proline content and to the proline biosynthesis enzyme (P5CS) activity which explains the proline accumulation under N stress. We showed also that 4P11 has higher photosynthetic pigment, amino acid and protein contents with less proline accumulation which may indicate a higher tolerance to N stress for this ecotype compared to the 3P4. Therefore, the biochemical analysis reported here may be used for the selection of genotypes with higher tolerance to N stress.

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Biodegradation studies of a microalgae, Coelastrella SP. NTAPD 01 isolated from hydrocarbon spills

Deepa K.P., Panneerselvam A. and Thajuddin N.

Page No: 114-119

Abstract:Hydrocarbons had wide application in day to day life. Their unscientific disposal may contaminate the land, water resources and cause health issues to living things. Microalgae can be used as agents for bioremediation in various contaminants. Microalgae isolated from the oil spill area was able to disintegrate anthrone when cultured in lab conditions.

Molecular identification of the microalgae was done using 28 S rRNA and acquired the GenBank accession number of NTAPD 01. The total chlorophyll content was studied with life longevity of algae in the hydrocarbon substrate for 20 days. Converting the functional group of hydrocarbons to a stable less contaminative compound, the microalgae, NTAPD 01 proved as a capable alga in anthrone reduction. FTIR and the GC-MS confirmed the shifting of functional ketone group in the algae degraded hydrocarbon to intermediate and degraded diones. The lipid accumulation in NTAPD 01 was observed by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. The study highlights the biodegradation of anthrone by NTAPD 01 in ecofriendly way.

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Effect of culture media and conditions on callus induction and plant regeneration of Malaysian wild rice Oryza rufipogon IRGC 105491

Sivakumar Paramasivam and Harikrishna Jennifer Ann

Page No: 120-127

Abstract:An efficient and simple method for high frequency regeneration from mature seeds of wild red rice (Oryza rufipogon) is described. The medium composition most suitable for embryogenic callus induction was identified to be Murashige and Skoog (MS) media with 2.5 mg/l 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.1 mg/l Kinetin, 3 g/l Proline, 25 mg/l Glutamine and 30 g/L sucrose (CIM 12) which gave a callus induction rate of 76%. The addition of Glutamine (25 mg/) to callus induction media resulted in a higher embryogenic callus induction frequency in MS (up to 76%) compared to N6 media (68%). Murashige and Skoog media produced a higher rate of callus induction under continuous dark conditions whilst N6 media produced a higher rate of callus induction under continuous light conditions.

The maximum regeneration frequency (68%) was observed when 28 days old MS medium friable embryogenic calli were cultured on N6 medium supplemented with 3 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine, 1 mg/l naphthaleneacetic Acid. N6 media produced a higher rate of regeneration than Murashige and Skoog media. The elongated shoots were rooted efficiently upon transfer to half strength Murashige and Skoog basal medium. Rooted plantlets were successfully transferred to soil after hardening with 96% survival rate. The regenerated plants were fertile and developed normally.

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A review on Product and Process Development for High-Value Products from Microalgae

Kethineni Chandrika, Kokkiligadda Sujana, Nallamothu Jaswanthi and Ronda Srinivasa Reddy

Page No: 128-140

Abstract:Algal biomass is a repository for multiple high-value products. Diverse microalgal members accumulate intracellular products such as pigments, polysaccharides, carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and triglycerides in abundance. However, in a typical algal bioprocess, a predominant product is targeted while other less concentrated value-added products are left unexploited.

Therefore, designing a viable process for value-added products requires sequential operations to be performed either with a single species or with a mixture of algal species. Selective solvent extraction processes are practiced in the recovery of the aforesaid products with high initial purity. Some of the key issues to be resolved in the design of sequential processes include biomass selection, biomass fortification, reconstitution of the biomass surface area and cross-contamination of desired products. The present review highlights various microalgal products, their abundance and recovery methods. Also, the work suggests few process examples that can be adopted in prospective algal bio-refineries.

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Diabetic nephropathy: review on molecular signaling pathways

Shah Kamal, Devi Gayatri, Semwal Bhupesh Chandra and Garabadu Debapriya

Page No: 141-147

Abstract:Diabetes mellitus is an epidemic metabolic disorder due to absolute or relative insulin deficiency. In diabetes mellitus, blood sugar level becomes high over a prolonged period where beta cells of the islet of Langerhans do not work. The beta cells do not produce insulin that results in type I diabetes mellitus. Produced insulin does not bind to the receptor that causes type II diabetes mellitus. In past few decades, its prevalence has risen worldwide long-term uncontrolled and untreated diabetes mellitus associated with several complications including retinopathy, cardiovascular disorder, neuropathy and nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is a disorder that is increasing day by day. The characterization of diabetic nephropathy is thickening of glomerular basement membrane, progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria, accumulation of extracellular matrix and hypertrophy. Variously altered signaling pathways including hexosamine, phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase/Adams Kara Taylor (PI3K/Akt), advanced glycation end product (AGE), PKC, polyol and oxidative stress are contributing in the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

There are various reported pathways that increase the progression of diabetic nephropathy. But still, the mechanisms are unknown that are responsible for the development of diabetic nephropathy. Despite these pathways, further larger, multicenter prospective studies are still needed for the proper treatment of diabetic nephropathy. This review will outline the current literature of various other pathways that involve diabetic nephropathy in both human and rodent studies. It also provides the overview of mechanism targeting diabetic nephropathy and these mechanisms can improve the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

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PIWI-piRNA Dynamics in Neurons

Parakh Arpita and Garg Shankar Lal

Page No: 148-154

Abstract:The PIWI- interacting RNA (piRNA) regulates transposons expression in mammalian germline and somatic cells. Mechanically, PIWI-piRNA pathways take a long stand in maintaining speciation by allowing reproduction and adaptation of population to new mobile elements but is being least explored in mammalian brain. Additionally, LINE 1 elements mainly present in neurons of brain are known to be regulated by PIWI/piRNA and show potential role in synaptic plasticity and memory storage.

This proclamation provides a clue that PIWI-piRNA plays an epigenetic role in neurogenesis and neuronal disorders. Here we discuss recent advances in PIWI-piRNA mechanism and their epigenetic regulation during early stages of brain development.

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