Research Journal of Biotechnology

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Escherichia phage PS6: A lytic phage for the biocontrol of Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections

Malik Shikha, Rana J.S. and Nehra Kiran

Page No: 1-9

Abstract: Recent years have witnessed a rapid rise and worldwide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacterial strains for most of the infectious diseases including urinary tract infections (UTIs), the major reason for this being an inappropriate usage of antibiotics. For uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most prevalent pathogen responsible for urinary tract infections, the currently available antibiotics are becoming highly insufficient in killing and eradicating them completely from the urinary system, thus transforming them into potent drug-resistant strains. To control such multi-drug resistant pathogens, an alternative therapeutic measure in the form of phage therapy is slowly making its way in the scientific world on a global scale. In this line, the current study involved the isolation of a lytic phage against drug-resistant uropathogens. Uropathogenic bacterial strains were collected from diagnostic centers and their antibiotic susceptibility profile was determined.

Bacteriophages were isolated from sewage waste using enrichment method and their lytic profile was examined against the collected clinical isolates. A single lytic phage (Escherichia phage PS6) having broad host range was selected and further characterized for its stability studies (pH/temp) and for its virulent property. Morphological analysis of phage revealed icosahedral head and a non-contractile tail of Siphoviridae family. The Escherichia phage PS6 isolated in the present study having a broad host spectrum and a high lytic activity against antibiotic resistant UPECs exhibits the possibility of this phage being used as a novel therapeutic alternate to presently available antibiotics.

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Homology modeling and Validation of Dibenzothiophene desulfurizing DszA enzyme of Streptomyces sp. VUR PPR 102

Praveen Reddy P. and Uma Maheswara Rao V.

Page No: 10-15

Abstract:Fossil fuels (oils and coal) are extensively used by humans for various purposes in their daily life. During their utilization, fossil fuels are oxidized and release hazardous gases into the environment. Sulfur dioxide is one of these deleterious gases that causes severe health problems to humans and even responsible for acid rains. Oxidation of organosulfur compounds is mainly responsible for sulfur dioxide pollution. Presently using hydrodesulfurization process for the removal of sulfur content from oils was not found as an effective and eco-friendly process. Biodesulfurization method which involves microbes in the removal of sulfur content from oils can be used as an alternative to hydrodesulfurization. Dibenzothiophene is considered as a model compound for biodesulfurization studies. Microbes which exhibit 4S pathway for the desulfurization of dibenzothiophene are commercially important. The 4S pathway is under the control of dszA, B and C genes of dsz operon which synthesizes DszA, B and C enzyme proteins, respectively.

In the present script, the dszA gene of Streptomyces sp. VUR PPR 102 is translated in NCBI-ORF finder and based on the translated protein sequence, the protein model of DszA enzyme protein was developed in Swiss-Model Workspace automated mode. Then DszA protein model was validated using Ramachandran plot in Rampage and based on RMSD score obtained by superimposing DszA protein on its template in SPDBV.

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DNA barcoding of earthworms from lateritic semi evergreen forest of Kolli hill, a part of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

Sathis Kumar K. and Neelanarayanan P.

Page No: 16-21

Abstract:Approximately 8,300 species of earthworms have been described in Oligochaetes with 38 families and 811 genera in the world. Earthworms are considered as friends of farmers and hold them in high esteem as nature’s ploughmen. The species identification is essential to know their ecology and life cycle. However, the species identification of adult earthworms is possible by dissection of the male genitalia but this method is labor intensive, time consuming and very difficult for non-specialists. The Cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) gene is present in all animals. Thus, the COI gene defined as the DNA barcode has been used to identify species of earthworms. The collected earthworms form lateritic semi evergreen forests of Kolli hill, a part of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India and were subjected to sequence analysis of COI gene and the same was deposited in GenBank. The data was further analysed.
The results and conclusion of this research declared that the evolutionary divergence of the D. gracilis, D. bullata, H. stuarti , M. cochinensis and P. corethrurus showed variation; the inter species variation was also observed in some species that may due to the environmental factor of the study area. It is obvious that the COI sequence of the above cited earthworm species may be used for the identification of this species reported from any part of the world through BLAST analysis if the identical sequences are submitted to GenBank in future.

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Probiotic Characterization of Anti-candida Bacillus

Anand Pashmin Kaur, Arjun Aswani Mayur, Arunrao Kathade Suyash, Balshiram Kale Arti and Bipinraj Niricharan Kunchiraman

Page No: 22-29

Abstract: This study aims to characterize the probiotic potential of two Bacillus tequilensis (MW3 and MW9) and Bacillus subtilis (MW27) cultures possessing antagonistic activity against pathogenic Candida and other gastro-enteropathogens through various in-vitro experiments. The cultures were found to be non-toxic and tolerated broad range of pH (2.5-10), up to 1.2% of bile and 8% of NaCl as well as survived stimulated gastric and intestinal conditions. These cultures showed good auto and co-aggregation properties with hydrophobicity of 81.55% for MW3 which is essential to control pathogen in in-vivo conditions. All cultures showed positive result for bile salt hydrolase (BSH).

Probiotics are health supplements that are also projected as an alternative to antibiotics. Probiotic cultures with antagonistic activity against pathogenic cultures are always beneficial to achieve this goal. Three cultures of Bacillus spp. with antimicrobial activities were found to be probiotics in nature, hence would be useful as a therapeutic probiotic.

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Simultaneous bioethanol production and lignin and cellulose fractionation from cotton stalks: A bio-refinery approach

Dongarwar Nupur, Parate Himani, Satankar Varsha, Palaniappan Jagajanantha, Kuppusamy Pandiyan and Vellaichamy Mageshwaran

Page No: 30-38

Abstract:The present study aimed to recover lignin and cellulose during the production of bioethanol from cotton stalks. The cotton stalks (1 mm) that were pretreated with a fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) resulted in more lignin removal and the corresponding value was 21.7%. The optimized process parameters for the enzymatic hydrolysis of delignified cotton stalks were 50 °C, 10% of substrate load and 25 FPU/mL enzyme concentration. The residual cellulose recovered after the enzymatic hydrolysis was 43%.

The ethanol fermentation of the hydrolysate was performed using a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis. The reducing sugar and ethanol yields in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified cotton stalks were 37.9 g/L and 9.6 g/L respectively. The corresponding hydrolysis and fermentation efficiencies were 34.1% and 85.3%, respectively.

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In-silico study of Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme (BBD2) from Hordeum Vulgare: Homology modeling, Docking, and Molecular Dynamics simulation approach

Sharma Hemani, Kumar Shailesh, Govil Sumit and Shrivastava Divya

Page No: 39-51

Abstract:In higher plants, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzyme plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of glycine betaine. In some plants, various paralogous genes were characterized and identified which encode several BADH isozymes. Hence to understand the better structure-function relationship, we modelled the 3D structure of BBD2 by using available X-ray/NMR crystallographic structure of homologous proteins. The resultant model was structurally validated by several bioinformatic tools/servers and based on observed RMSD and stable radius of gyration (Rg) values through molecular dynamics simulation, the accuracy of the model was analyzed.

Further molecular docking was done with its substrate to understand the interaction and amino acids responsible for stabilizing the ligands, and some of them were found conserved. The stability of the complex was also evaluated via molecular dynamics simulation. This computational information provides some new insights into the molecular understanding of structure and function and can be of help in the initial steps for further functional research.

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In vitro anti-inflammatory potential of selected medicinal plants

Ranjitha Dhevi V. Sundar and Sathiavelu Arunachalam

Page No: 52-54

Abstract:Inflammation causes distress, suffering and lower productivity of the victims. Synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs are not readily offered and possess severe side effects. There is a need for alternative herbal medicine that is harmless and effective in the management of various diseases. The aim of the study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of methanol and petroleum ether extract of leaves of selected medicinal plants, namely Mukia maderaspatana, Cissus quadrangularis, Portulaca quadrifida and Pisonia alba.

The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of crude extracts was evaluated using protein denaturation inhibition assay. The present study concluded that at different levels, all the studied leaves possess anti-inflammatory properties.

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Candidate inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease with 3D structures similar to N3

Muttaqin Sahal Sabilil and Ansori Arif Nur Muhammad

Page No: 55-59

Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has become pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 causes influenza-like illnesses, respiratory symptoms, serious lung injuries, pneumonia, multi-organ damage, and mortality. The genome of coronaviruses contains approximately six open reading frames (ORFs). ORF 1a/b is translated into protein phosphatases 1a and 1ab, which are processed by SARS-CoV-2’s main protease (Mpro). Mpro is critical for viral gene expression and replication, making it a key drug target. The first 3D structure of Mpro in complex with an inhibitor N3 (PDB ID: 6LU7) was reported. This study aimed to screen for N3-like structures via the docking method as potent Mpro inhibitors and drug candidates. The Mpro-N3 complex (6LU7) was set up in the RCSB Protein Data Bank. N3 was expelled from the structure of Mpro using PyMol Novel ligands from PubChem with structures similar to N3 were screened for docking by Pyrx 8.0 and envisioned by PyMol Our research demonstrated that the binding affinity of CID 6476896 was the highest at -7.8 kcal/mol. However, only CIDs 7885280 and 6476893 were possible Mpro inhibitors that interacted with the substrate-binding pocket similarly to N3 and could be drug candidates to target the Mpro of SARS-CoV-2.

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Effect of plant growth regulators for production of multiple shoots through in vitro culture of Yangambi and Champa variety of banana (Musa spp.)

Keshari Bikram and Deo Bandita

Page No: 60-63

Abstract: Musa spp. cv. Yangambi Km5, an introduced variety and Champa, a local popular variety of banana available in the eastern belt of Odisha were taken as experimental source. Experiments were conducted taking shoot tip as explants for shoot proliferation of the two banana varieties. In vitro cultures were maintained by using Murashige and Skoog (MS)15 medium containing different concentration of cytokinins with combination of [benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (Kin)], auxins [indole acetic acid (IAA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)] during multiplication stages.

The best responses in terms of fresh weight, shoot length and number of shoots per explant were obtained from MS medium supplemented with 4mg/L BAP+1.0mg/L KIN +.5mg/L IAA in Yangambi and Champa variety.

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Preliminary Characterization of Rhizobial Strains isolated from the root nodules of Vigna mungo cultivated in rice fallows

Talamala Satyanandam, Gorrepati Rosaiah, Kakumanu Babu and Muvva Vijayalakshmi

Page No: 64-71

Abstract:An attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of abiotic constraints (salt, pH and temperature) on the growth of native rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of blackgram cultivated in rice fallows. A total of 19 rhizobial strains have been used in the present study. Growth of pure rhizobial strains in Yeast Extract Mannitol (YEM) broth medium with different concentrations of NaCl (0.5-3.5 %), variable range of pH (5.0 to 9.0) and a temperature range of 20-35 ºC was recorded at 610 nm using UV-VIS spectrophotometer after 72 h incubation.

It was noticed that as the concentration of NaCl increases from 0.5-2.0 %, there is a significant decrease in the growth rate of all strains and no growth was found at NaCl concentration above 2 %. All the 19 strains showed maximum growth at 0.5 % NaCl concentration. The effect of pH on the growth of all rhizobial strains indicated that pH 7.0 was found to be optimum and at pH less and higher than 7.0, all the strains recorded decreased growth rate. The optimum temperature for the growth of the strains varied from 25-30 ºC. The strains which have the capacity to tolerate more salt, pH and temperature are useful as effective inoculants to increase the yields of blackgram in rice fallows.

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Silver nitrate regulating phenolic acid and flavonoid accumulations in callus cultures of Aerva lanata, an important medicinal herb

Vijay Nayak K. and Narasimhan S.

Page No: 72-75

Abstract:In vitro cultures of the medicinal herb, Aerva lanata exhibited heterogeneity in diverse concentrations of (0.5-10 mg/l) silver nitrate. The texture of the callus tissue varied from friable, non-friable to nodular. Callus cultures also exhibited a color variation ranging from white, brown to black. Silver nitrate did not exhibit a significant variation in the accumulation of in vitro biomass at a concentration range of 0-5 mg/l. Higher concentrations were found inhibitory for callus growth. The cultures exhibited a positive correlation between silver nitrate concentration and accumulation of phenolics as well as flavonoids up to a concentration of 5.0 mg/l.

The results generated clearly indicated that silver nitrate may be used as an additive for regulating the callus morphology, growth and accumulation of phenolic compounds under in vitro conditions.

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Evaluation of DNA barcode sequence, chemical composition and antibacterial activities in Geodorum terrestre (L.) Garay newly found in Southern Vietnam

Hong Thien Van, Ai Nhi Nguyen, Thi Thuy Nga Ho, My Yen Oanh Huynh, Thi Quynh Hoa Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong Nguyen and Van Son Le

Page No: 76-84

Abstract:Using morphological comparison method, we identified that the specimen collected in Binh Chau-Phuoc Buu Nature Reserve is Geodorum terrestre. Information on the new distribution of this species in Vietnam was also reported. Furthermore, based on molecular biology techniques, the ITS and trnL-F regions of G. terrestre were successfully amplified and sequenced. Also, the results showed that there were differences in ITS and trnL-F sequences. They were similar in morphological characteristics. Moreover, the phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of ethanol extract from G. terrestre were analysed using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and disk diffusion method respectively.

Consequently, nine compounds are determined in tuber and leaf of G. terrestre including disaccharide, hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, hydroxy-eicosanoic acid, 2-oxoooctadecanoic acid, chlorogenic acid, shikimic acid, acetovanillone, galactitol, isosteviol. Besides, ethanol extract from tuber and leaf of this species showed the antibacterial effect against 5 tested microorganisms (B. cereus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. enteritidis and S. aureus) whereas leaf extract just inhibited the growth of 4 bacterial strains such as E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. enteritidis and S. aureus.

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Insulin resistance markers among type 2 diabetes mellitus north Indian patients: A preliminary hospital-based study

Kant R., Yadav P., Khapre M., Kishore S. and Kumar R.

Page No: 85-91

Abstract:Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder with a source of associated microvascular and macrovascular complications with it. Globally, 463 million people are living with diabetes, out of that 88 million people are from Southeast Asian regions. Diabetes also affects nearly 8.9% adult population in India. As insulin resistance is a feature of type-2 diabetes mellitus, hence, the present study was undertaken to identify the markers of insulin resistance among type 2 diabetes mellitus north Indian patients. Data were collected from 120 participants from the period of November, 2019 to March 2020 at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Inclusion criteria were patients aged 18-60 years and diagnosed with T2 DM on insulin therapy. Tools used for the data collection were subject datasheets that included demographic variables and clinical variables, biophysiological measures, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9).

Results shows that 72 (60%) patients were male and 66 (55%) patients were from an urban background with a mean age of 46.8± 9 yrs. Body mass index (p-value 0.00), Body fat % (p-value 0.00) Fasting C-peptide (p value 0.00), followed by duration of diabetes (p value 0.03), systolic blood pressure (p value 0.019), cholesterol (p value 0.031) and diastolic blood pressure (p value 0.044) had significant association with insulin resistance among T2DM patients. Depression (p value 0.04) and sleep quality (p value 0.02) also had significant association with insulin resistance among T2DM patients. In resource-limited countries, body mass index and body fat% can be utilized as predictable non-invasive markers of insulin resistance.

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Medium enhancement for the optimized production of β-glucosidase by Glutamicibacter nicotianae SSA-7

Athira S.P., Sandhia G.S. and Subramaniyan S.

Page No: 92-98

Abstract:One of the important role players in lignocellulose hydrolyzing microbial enzymes is β-glucosidase. The synergy of β-glucosidase and other cellulolytic enzymes leads to the complete cellulose hydrolysis to produce glucose. In order to enhance production of β-glucosidase from newly isolated Glutamicibacter nicotianae, SSA-7 modulation of both the physical and chemical parameters was optimized mathematically by Plackette–Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD). The chemical parameters tested were yeast extract, peptone, K2HPO4, Mg2SO4, CMC; where the physical parameters studied were pH, agitation speed, inoculum size and aeration.

The design trails such as 2k + 2k + n0 are set as 13, of which tenth run had resulted in the maximum β-glucosidase activity of 39.65 U/ml. The predicted R² of 0.3344 is well in accordance with the adjusted R² of 0.5246. Fit Statistics generated from ANOVA with an Adeq precision value of 7.342 is an indicative of adequate signal. The result of PBD showed that among the tested factors yeast extract, K2HPO4, pH, agitation speed and inoculum size were having positive effects on the enzyme production and the rest of the factors have negative effects on β-glucosidase production.

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Evaluation of Liptoaqua on Growth and Immunological performance of GIFT Tilapia and its response against Streptococcus agalactiae via different challenging methods

Felix S., Gopalakannan A., Menaga M. and Sanchez-Arévalo Álvaro Rodriguez

Page No: 99-106

Abstract:The present study aimed to evaluate the application of Liptoaqua in diet on growth and survival of GIFT Tilapia. Animals (50 ±0.2 g) were stocked for 42 days with a biomass of 1.25kg per tank (500 litres) in triplicate. Fishes fed with commercial diet containing 5 g kg-1 of Liptoaqua served as treatment and commercial diet without Liptoaqua serving as control. Feed intake, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were significantly (p<0.05) higher in treatment compared to control. No significant differences were observed in hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices for both control and treatment.

Inclined levels of respiratory burst activity, lysozyme and glucose activity were recorded in treatment than control variants (p< 0.05). The fishes challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae (1×106 CFU/ml) at the end of the trial exhibited the least cumulative mortality percentage by immersion method (20%) and highest mortality (42%) by intraperitoneal injection challenge method in treatments for over 10 days of exposure. The results of this study showed positive impact on growth and disease resistance of GIFT against S. agalactiae through the dietary supplementation of Liptoaqua.

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Pair-wise comparative method for optimization of gene expression analysis using real-time RT-PCR

Vaiphei S. Thangminlal

Page No: 107-110

Abstract:Gene expression studies involving real time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) have been widely popular and common in routine laboratory practices across the globe. However, due to the high sensitivity of this technique, the occurrence of false positive results may lead to misinterpretaion of experimental data. Besides, precautions must be taken by proper validation as well as normalization with appropriate endogenous controls and reference genes. Housekeeping genes have been the choice of comparision and normalization for qRT-PCR data analysis.

However, the challenges met using these housekeeping genes are the selection of the most appropriate controls since they may exhibit variations under different experimental conditions. In order to address this problem, an algorithm was employed to validate the stability of potential reference genes and thus, simplify the process of selecting the most appropriate controls for data normalization.

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Study on multiple aspects of the newly emerged novel SARS-COV-2 and its pandemic disease Covid-19

Rajput Suryansh, Mohapatra Swati, Bandekar Divya and Sharma Sheetal

Page No: 111-122

Abstract:The topsy turvy situation of human health and economy around the globe is due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This scenario is due to the spread of a potentially infectious novel virus called SARS-CoV-2. The infection persistency and rapid transmissibility from person to person has stressed the world and its resources severely. This review paper will convey all the necessary information about the SARS-CoV-2 and its subsequent pandemic disease COVID-19. As for an instance, this study covers the structure of SARS-CoV2, its infection cycle, the immune response mounted by the body, and other important details related to the spread of the virus. In such a difficult time, understanding and taking into account, the multiple aspects related the virus and the disease transmission is of utmost importance for public awareness and health safety.

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Lethal effects of Copper oxide nanoparticles exposure on biochemical, oxidative stress, hematological and histopathological effects in fish: A review

Shunmugam Subbiah, Rathinasamy Baskaran, Shanmugam Suresh Kumar and Shanmugaraj Balamurugan

Page No: 123-128

Abstract:Copper oxide (CUONPs) nanoparticles are metal substances that are very toxic in water conditions. In most of the marine ecosystems, fishes are at the top of the food chain, and are the most susceptible to the harmful effects of exposing to CUONPs. Fishes are also one of the most common vertebrates and can directly influence humans through the consumption of food. Thus, fishes can be used to determine the level of environmental contamination in an aquatic setting. CUONPs mediated toxicity in toxicant exposed fish is mainly caused by bio accumulation in different tissues, and the accumulation mechanisms differ according to water environment (freshwater or seawater) and pathway (water or dietary exposure). Owing to excessive development of ROS, CUONPs accumulation in fish tissues induces oxidative stress. As biochemical toxicity, oxidative stress due to CUONPs exposure causes synaptic damage and biochemical malfunction in fish. In addition, exposure to the CUONPs affects haematological and cytogenetic control in fish.

The aim of this review was therefore to investigate the various toxic effects of CUONPs exposure which includes biochemical, oxidative, haematological and histopathological and also to define measures for assessing the degree of CUONPs toxicity based on the level of toxicity exposure.

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Bone morphogenic proteins and their signaling role in the bone metastases

Bhadresha Kinjal, Brahmbhatt Jpan, Rawal Rakesh and Jain Nayan

Page No: 129-134

Abstract:Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to TGF-b superfamily and more than 20 BMPs have been identified in humans. BMPs play a vital role in osteoblast, chondrocyte differentiation, foetal development, cartilage and bone formation, mesoderm patterning andhomeostasis in different organ and tissue by controlling cell differentiation, survival, motility andproliferation. However, the signals of BMPs transduced from the plasma membrane receptor to the nucleus through both Smad pathway and non-Smad pathway and were also controlled by the many intracellular and extracellular protein components of the BMP signaling pathway. For example, BMP can regulate the angiogenic factor like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which indirectly affects on the angiogenesis, or directly orders the function of vascular endothelial cells. However, initially this protein had been discovered for their function in bone turnover and osteogenesis.

Moreover, this is mainly significant to cancer and bone metastases whose studies have exposed anomalies of both BMP signaling and expression. Eventually, a role of BMPs protein could contribute new therapeutic predictive markers for bone metastases. However, it is necessary to explain the BMP signaling pathway in the bone development and bone metastases and to explore the role of BMPs for a better understanding of the molecular mechanism. Review of the significant studies will give an ample potential on current perceptive and shed light on the corresponding possible therapeutic opportunity.

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Neurological manifestation and treatment strategies of COVID-19: A review

Datta Shreeja and Roy Arpita

Page No: 135-145

Abstract:The ongoing outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a challenge worldwide. Its transmission has been increasing day by day abnormally. It has been reported that apart from the standard respiratory disorders, patients are showing signs and symptoms of neurological problems as well. In previous outbreaks associated with SARS-CoV, it was proved that CNS is also being targeted as well as PNS with additional reports indicating brain being a target. It leads to an important result that the probability of patients with neurological manifestations has increased gradually amidst the COVID-19 outbreak.

Various potential therapies including convalescent plasma transfusion have been applied for the time being. Hence, in this structured and detailed review, the existence of such neural complications along with the potential treatment strategies associated with Covid-19 has been discussed.

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Soil Proteomics and Microbial beneficial effects on Crop

Soni Bhavin and Kapoor Chandra Shekhar

Page No: 146-152

Abstract:Proteomics is the newest technology which gives information about biological systems, structures and functions. Many types of microorganisms and bacteria like plant growth promoting bacteria like Rhizobium spp., Trichoderma spp. (Teleomorph Hypocrea) which regulate plant growth have been studied. They can suppress the disease against the microbial pathogens which affects the plant growth.

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SARS CoV-2: A recently known global catastrophic virus

Maharana Pradeep Kumar

Page No: 153-158

Abstract:Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS CoV-2) is a positive single stranded RNA virus, it causes respiratory failure in human and its infection is referred to as COVID 19 (Coronavirus disease 2019). COVID 19 is recognized as pandemic. SARS CoV-2 likely uses angiotensin converting enzymes-2 (ACE-2) as entry receptor which is different from SARS CoV-1 and highly expressed in lungs followed by heart and gastrointestinal tract. This virus is primarily transmitted through droplets and fomites in contact and is responsible for formation of more mucus in both lungs and causes death. As per WHO guidelines, different testing strategies are needed for rapid identification of COVID 19 positive patients at national level within the country. Countries having no such testing facility can send the viral specimen to the WHO reference laboratories. Multiplex real time RT-PCR, serological test, interferon can be used for the diagnosis of this viral infection.

Anti-malaria drug i.e. hydroxychloroquine is quite effective during the treatment of COVID 19 patients. So the demand of this drug increases suddenly. Different institutions are also now trying to control this viral infection through gene targeting. Till date, there is no vaccine against this infection and the best solution to control the spread of COVID 19 is prevention which includes social distancing, hand hygiene, use of standardized masks etc.

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Recent developments in corona virus disease-2019 (Covid-19)

Shankar Vijayalakshmi

Page No: 159-169

Abstract:A respiratory illness by SARS-Co-V2 affected more than millions of people across the globe and killed thousands of people. This outbreak had believed to start in sea food market of Wuhan, China, during the sales of animals in the market and the virus had started spreading. The reservoir host for the virus is bats and from there it transferred to human through an intermediate host. The spread and transmission of the virus will be through direct contact of infected droplets or by inhalation which has a period of incubation about 2 to 14 days. The symptoms for the disease include cough, fever, sore throat, fatigue, difficulty in breathing, malaise and others.

Most of the affected people will be asymptomatic, in adverse condition it may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia and multiple organ dysfunction. Molecular methodology and CT scan are the usual diagnostic procedure. The ancestor of this virus is MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. It is uncertain to determine the impact of this epidemic. Since there was no prominent treatment identified for treating the condition, it was spreading rapidly. The aim of this review is to give insights on epidemiology, virology, pathogenesis and available modern and traditional medicines for COVID-19.

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