Research Journal of Biotechnology

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Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli from chickens in poultry farms of Malaysia

Nagaraja Suryadevara, Kai Boon Yong, Balavinayagamani Ganapathy, Sridevi Subramonie, Nanthiney Devi Ragavan, Malarvili Ramachandiran, Gnanendra Shanmugam and Ponmurugan P.

Page No: 1-10

Abstract: Poultry farm is often involved in the outbreak of food-borne diseases through zoonotic transmission either by direct contact or by consumption of contaminated poultry products. The persistent use of antibiotics in poultry farms for several purposes over a long period led to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria which emerged as a public health threat nowadays. The high level of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among Enterobacteriaceae was conferred by the production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) in the poultry farm chickens. Escherichia coli (E. coli) were identified using differential media and biochemical testing. E. coli isolates were tested for MDR by using Kirby Bauer method. The ESBL strains were determined phenotypically using Combination Disc Test (CDT) and Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST). The genomic DNA of positive ESBL producing E. coli isolates was extracted. The blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes were amplified using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

The amplified products were sequenced to identify the mutated genes in MDR strains. Molecular docking interactions were studied using Auto dock tool. In 88 samples collected from poultry farms, 73 (83.0%) E.coli strains were identified. In total, 11 (15.1%) E.coli were MDR strains. From there, 8 (72.7%) E.coli, were ESBL positive strains. 7 tested isolates exhibited blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes with 3 (42.9%) and 7 (100 %) respectively. The ASN-107, TYR-108, SER-133, ASN-135, PRO-170, SER-240 and ASP-242 residues from ESBL suggested that they were involved in hydrolysis of β-lactam family antibiotics. In conclusion, the classic blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes were present in E.coli from poultry samples. However, blaCTX-M gene was seen more prominent compared to blaTEM gene in the isolated ESBL strains. These mutated genes in ESBL positive isolates were responsible for the emergence of MDR strains.

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Development and Characterization of SSR Marker in Artemisia annua utilizing Glandular Secretory Tricomes (GST) derived EST Sequences

Agrawal Ankit, Shukla Narmada Prasad and Sharma Anjana

Page No: 11-18

Abstract:Antimalarial drug artemisinin is a bioactive compound of Artemisia annua, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant. Low and inconsistent production with higher commercial demand of artemisinin alarms improvement in the A. annua plant in which molecular marker especially Expressed Sequence Taq (EST) sequences derived Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) marker is very useful in the identification of elite plants as well as in identification of gene (s). A total of 24963 Glandular Secretory Tricomes (GST) derived EST sequences were searched for the presence of SSR motifs with criteria of minimum five repeat units and 1942 SSR (7.78%) was detected in 1666 (6.67%) EST sequences with relative abundance of 9.01 kb/SSR. The di-nucleotide repeats had highest frequency of 61.4% followed with 31.3% tri-nucleotide.

Fifty primer pairs were designed for SSR containing EST sequences and amplification was performed with five genotypes of A. Annua out of which 29 primers amplified the genomic DNA and 26 primers were found to be specific. In the present study, 26 EST-SSR markers in A. annua derived from GST was developed which will be useful to understand the molecular biology of A. annua.

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Effectiveness of elicitors in cotton against cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) in relation with parthenogenesis related proteins

Kumari Archana, Sangha Manjeet Kaur, Goyal Prinka and Pathak Dharminder

Page No: 19-27

Abstract:Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) having a great agro-economic significance is also called “white gold”. Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is the most devastating pathogen of cotton which causes huge economic yield losses. The present study focuses on the application of four elicitors salicylic acid (SA), 2,6- dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) and benzothiadiazole (BTH) @ 250 and 500µM to impart resistance against virus coupled with PR-proteins enzyme activities and total protein content in three cotton cultivars F1378 (resistant), LH2076 (moderately resistant) and FDK124 (resistant). All the four elicitors resulted in increase in activities of the three enzymes such as chitinase (PR-3), β-1,3 glucanase (PR-2) and peroxidase (PR-9) as compared to control.
The elicitors mediated protein content enhancement was also observed with protein profiling having higher intensity of bands and appearance of some new bands in low molecular weight range in elicitor treated cotton cultivars. The decreased disease incidence and disease index in susceptible cultivar reinforce the elicitors as protective regime against CLCuD.

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Screening of Endophytic Bacteria associated with legumes Grown in Gadarif State, Sudan

Idris Abdelmalik O.A. and Suleiman Abdel Moneim E.

Page No: 28-35

Abstract: Bacteria like Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella are characterized by causing diseases in human and at the same time they live as endophytes and promote plants growth. The aim of this study was to investigate enophytic bacteria associated with leguminous plants in Gadarif State soils and explore the phylogenetic relationship among the endophytic bacteria and the clinical one. Nodules from groundnut, cowpea and Bambara groundnut collected from 11 localities of Gadarif State, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp were isolated. Genomic DNA was extracted and 16srRNA and nifH genes were sequenced. Twenty-five isolates belonging to Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella spp were obtained which were found to share biochemical characters with fast growing Rhizobia. The 16srRNA sequences analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluoresecens, Pseudomonas rhizophaerae , Klebsiella pneumonia and Klebsiella variicola. The GC content was 54 – 56% for Enterobacter cloacae, 54 – 55% for Klebsiella pneumonia, 55 – 57% for Klebsiella variicola and 52 – 53% for Pseudomonas fluoresecens.

The phylogeny tree based on 16srRNA classified all endophytic bacteria in this study to different clusters descending from the same ancestors. All isolates have the ability to coloninze the three legumes used in this study regardless the environment and the place where they are grown. The study concluded that Gadarif state soil is dominated by these useful endophytic bacteria which preserve its fertility and searching for virulent genes in these bacteria is recommended if there is interest to use as inoculants.

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Phenotypic detection of hypermucoviscous phenotype in colistin-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca from Tamil Nadu

Thamaraiselvan Shanthini and Nachimuthu Ramesh

Page No: 36-40

Abstract:The recent emanation of hypermucoviscous Klebsiella oxytoca poses a major threat to public health and this emerging strain is unique from classic Klebsiella strains by producing increased capsule formation. In this study, a total of 42 Klebsiella species obtained from various diagnostic centers in Tamil Nadu were analyzed for multidrug resistance by performing disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), hypermucoviscous phenotype by string test and biofilm formation by crystal violet staining assay. Based on colony morphology and Vitek identification system, it was found that 12/42 (28%) were Klebsiella oxytoca and 30/42 (71%) were found to be Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing reveals that 92% were multidrug-resistant (MDR) by the disc diffusion method. All the K. oxytoca (n=12) and K. pneumoniae (n=30) isolates were found to be resistant to colistin by MIC broth dilution. Among the colistin resistant K. oxytoca isolates, 4/12 were found to be hypermucoviscous phenotypically by string test whereas none of the K. pneumoniae were positive for string test and the biofilm forming categories was evaluated.

Our study highlights the phenotypic outbreak of colistin resistant hypermucoviscous Klebsiella oxytoca which is an emerging nosocomial pathogen among Enterobacteriaceae family and also reveals phenotypic variation in clinical isolates to be explored in molecular level to prevent its spread.

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Molecular diversity and functional annotation of potassium solubilizing bacteria associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from six diverse agro-ecological zones of India

Verma Priyanka, Yadav Ajar Nath, Khannam Kazy Sufia, Kumar Sanjay, Saxena Anil Kumar and Suman Archna

Page No: 41-56

Abstract:Injudicious application of chemical fertilizers in India has a considerable negative impact on economy and environmental sustainability. There is a growing need to turn back to nature or sustainable agents that promote evergreen agriculture. Potassium is important and well known constraint to crop production in India. In present investigation, K-solubilizing bacteria (KSB) were isolated from wheat growing area in different climatic conditions in India. A total 842 bacteria were isolated and 362 were found to solubilize potassium on Aleksandrov agar medium containing three different K-substrate including mica, potassium aluminosilicates and feldspar.

Selected KSB isolates were characterized for other plant growth promoting (PGP) attributes such as solubilization of phosphorus and zinc, production of siderophore and IAA, ACC deaminase activity. Selected KSB were characterized employing 16S rDNA-Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis with three restriction endonucleases AluI, MspI and HaeIII, which led to formation of 16-28 groups for the different sites at 75% similarity index, adding up to 131 groups. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 131 bacteria grouped in four phyla, Proteobacteria (59%), Firmicutes (34%), Actinobacteria (5%) and Bacteroidetes (1%), and included 48 distinct species of 21 different genera: K-solubilizing PGP bacteria may have exploited as agricultural agent for wheat crop under different stresses condition, critical diseases and may have also been used in the amelioration of K-deficient soils.

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Docosahexaenoic acid attenuating arsenic-induced apoptosis in rat primary astrocytes via suppression of oxidative stress and Bax/Bcl-2 levels

Tripathi Sachin, Shukla Anubha and Sanyal Somali

Page No: 57-66

Abstract:Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been shown to exert neuro-protective effects. Studies showed that arsenic (As) induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in astrocytes. Here, we investigated whether DHA exposure could nullify the toxic effect of arsenic in astrocytes and assessed the molecular mechanism. We exposed astrocytes to arsenic or DHA+arsenic for 12 hours. We found that DHA suppressed arsenic-induced astrocyte apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Moreover, DHA reduced lipid peroxidation and expression of oxidative stress-related protein Nrf-2, consequently restoring antioxidant levels. DHA group displayed elevated expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.

Further, pro-apoptotic protein Bax and ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in DHA treated astrocytes were reduced. Furthermore, DHA reduced caspase-3 and caspase-9 cleavage, and morphological alteration. We further studied that DHA suppressed arsenic- induced ROS-mediated apoptosis. Overall, our findings indicate that DHA suppresses arsenic-induced astrocyte apoptosis by regulating oxidative stress and Bax/Bcl-2 pathways.

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Biogenic synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles using cassia tora leaf extract

Ghosh Niladry and Singh Ranjit

Page No: 67-71

Abstract: Over recent years, biogenic synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles from plant extracts has gained much interest from the researchers world widely. Therefore, there is need to divulge the cost effective, nonhazardous and ecofriendly procedures and sources for the synthesis of nanoparticles utilizing the plants. Chemical, physical, and biological methods have been developed to synthesize nanoparticles but chemical and physical methods are involved in the production of toxic byproducts which are hazardous; moreover, the methods are very expensive. The present study reports an environmentally friendly, low cost, novel and rapid method for synthesis of Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles. We have developed bimetallic nanoparticles using Cassia tora leaf extract which act as reducing and capping agent. The morphological studies of the biosynthesized nanoparticles are done using UV-vis, TEM, FESEM techniques The EDAX and XRD confirm the crystallinity of the particles. It was observed that use of cassia tora leaf extract makes rapid and convenient method for synthesis of Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles.

The prepared Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles showed surface plasmon resonance centered at 400 nm with particle size range of 7-27 nm. The nanoparticles formation takes place within short time as the reaction is completed in few minutes. This method is inexpensive and highly recommended to be used in large-scale production of Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles.

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Studies on hybrid vigour for yield and contributing traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

Verma A.K., Mehta A.K., Singh R.P., Singh P.P. and Sharma D.

Page No: 72-79

Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to study the hybrid vigour of parents and crosses respectively. The experimental material comprised of six lines viz., 2012/COPBVAR-2, 2012/COPBVAR-3, 2012/ COPBVAR-5, 2014/COPBVAR-4, 2014/COPBVAR-5 and 2014/COPBVAR-6 and four testers of cowpea viz. Gomti, Pusa Komal, Kashi Kanchan and Arka Garima. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences between parents and hybrids as well indicating presence of sufficient amount of variability in all the characters studied. Eight hybrids recorded significant negative heterosis for days to 50% flowering. Five hybrids recorded significant positive heterobeltiosis and produced more number of flowers per cluster. Among them, 2012/COPBVAR-3 x Kashi Kanchan recorded the highest positive significant heterobeltiosis for flowers per cluster.

Heterosis for length of pod, in general relatively low in all hybrids, but only four hybrids recorded positively significant for length of pod. Among the twenty four hybrids, 9 and 2 hybrids recorded significant positive better parent heterosis for pods per plant and number of seeds per pod respectively. Among the hybrids, 2012/COPBVAR-2 x Arka Garima and 2012/COPBVAR-3 x Arka Garima recorded the highest positive significant heterosis for number of pods per plant and seeds per pod respectively. Only nine and two hybrids exhibited significant positive relative heterosis and heterobeltiosis for pod yield per plant respectively. The highest heterobeltiosis for green pod yield per plant was recorded by 2012/COPBVAR-2 x Arka Garima followed by 2012/COPBVAR-2 x Kashi Kanchan.

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Morphological and Molecular Variations Studies in High Yielding Cultivars of Amomum Subulatum (Roxb.) Collected from North-Eastern Part of India

Alam Aftab, Singh Vijender, Alam Pravej and Gudade B.A.

Page No: 80-87

Abstract:Amomum subulatum cultivars (Seremna, Sawney, Varlangey and Ramla) collected from Sikkim (India) were studied on the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characterizations. In this study, the morphological traits were varied in the several parameters such as tillers per plant, spikes per tiller, capsules per spike and seeds per fruit (capsule). Further, the GC-MS analysis revealed that the active metabolite 1,8 cineole (88.2% Varlangey and 85.66% Seremna) were observed higher than Sawney (72.7%) and Ramla (55.2%) cultivars. The selected cultivars were further carried-out to observe the genetic similarities or polymorphism in between the cultivars through PCR-RAPD methods. The highest pair-wise similarities (80%) were recorded in between Seremna and Varlangey, Sawney and Ramla. High degree of divergence among these cultivars was observed in phylogenetic analyses using the UPGMA method for complete linkage and percent disagreement.

On the basis of our findings, we therefore concluded that the present study showed a great extinct of diversity in between the cultivars which can be helpful for growers or breeders in term of high yields and physio-chemical characters. It can also be easily differentiating the phenotypic, chemotypic and genotypic variations in between the Amomum subulatum cultivars.

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One-step lysis salting out method for genomic DNA Extraction from Antheraea mylitta midgut tissue

Triveni Nallabothula, Muntaj Shaik and Vootla Shyam Kumar

Page No: 88-91

Abstract:DNA extraction through a sensitive and well standardized protocol is an important step in ensuring quality results in any molecular based study. DNA extraction from xylophagus (feed on plant) insects is difficult as they contain plant phenolics and tannins. This may further effect downstream processing like inhibition of enzyme activities like restriction endonucleases and Taq polymerases.

The aim of the present study was to standardize a method of DNA extraction from midgut tissues of Antheraea mylitta silkworm by one-step lysis salting out method (OLSO) using saturated sodium chloride solution. This one-step lysis salting out method was compared with a general phenol-chloroform extraction method and commercial Himedia Insect DNA isolation kit. We evaluated the quality of DNA by spectrophotometer analysis, gel electrophoresis and amplification by PCR. The present method showed a 2.4-fold and 1.6-fold increase (p<0.0001) in DNA yield compared to other two methods. The reliability of this method for genomic studies was also confirmed by amplification of a known 156 bp amplicon (Akt gene). This study discloses OLSO as a non-toxic DNA extraction procedure with a better time-efficiency and cost-effectiveness in comparison with phenol-chloroform as a routine protocol.

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miRNA-target Regulatory Network showing interaction between Genes of Immune Checkpoints and Cancer Pathways

Sharma P. and Verma Ramtej J.

Page No: 92-98

Abstract:Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as the most promising therapeutic strategy in the recent era of cancer treatment. Immune checkpoints are regulators of immune system which provide defense against infections and tumorigenic agents. The tumor cells have developed the capability of escape from immune attack in response to cancer invasion. This led to the development of inhibitors for immune checkpoint molecules where CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4), PD-1 (programmed death 1) and PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) are known to be the most promising ones with effective therapeutic potential. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small sized non-coding RNAs which are known to regulate a plethora of immune as well as other signalling pathways involved in cancer crosstalk.

Here, in our study we identified few miRNAs targeting the molecules of immune checkpoints which were further processed for identification of other gene targets and regulatory miRNAs. We also found pathways such as apoptotic and cell senescence to be highly enriched while cancer pathways and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway were found in abundance. Also, an interaction map for miRNA-gene targeted was constructed showing degree and betweenness centrality parameters amongst the connected nodes.

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Isolation and identification of thermophilic alkalophiles from Kutch region (Gujarat, India): Deinococcus radiophilus and Bacillus drentensis isolates as potential biotechnological agents

Mathur Shivangi, Bhatt Meghana, Patel Ruby and Jani Vidisha

Page No: 99-103

Abstract:The objective of this study was to identify the organisms that were inhabited in soil of Kutch region (Gujarat, India). It was performed to recognize those bacteria which could be used as a potential biotechnological instrument to improve the environment as well as to discover ways in which it could be further developed and used in the future. The study was conducted using three basic techniques. The serial dilution of soil samples followed by spread plate method on the nutrient agar plate was used to obtain the standardized growth distribution of bacteria. At last, partial rRNA sequencing and Sanger sequencing technique were employed to identify the organisms isolated from the culture. Deinococcus radiophilus and Bacillus drentensis have been isolated and identified from this study.

Deinococcus radiophilus has a diverse biotechnological significance due to its unique property of resistance to harmful ionizing radiation, and Bacillus drentensis has commercial importance in enzyme production in acidic conditions and also in bio-remediation of contaminated groundwater. Thus, both of these identified bacterial species have immense biotechnological applications which can be further explored in future studies.

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Augmentation of capsaicin content in callus cultures of bird’s eye chilly (Capsicum frutescens L.) using sodium nitroprusside

Baikady Natasha Ramakant, Saini Akshita and Narasimhan S.

Page No: 104-107

Abstract:Capsicum is one of the most celebrated herb cultivated across the world. Capsicum frutescens is the well known species and is known for several secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, vitamins and foliates. The main active principle of the plant is the alkaloid capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide). Among the traditional varieties available in India, birds eye chilli is distinct because of high disease resistance, high pungency and yield. The current research work is aimed at enhancing the capsaicin accumulation in cultured tissues using sodium nitroprusside as an elicitor. Callus cultures were raised from different plant parts such as stem, leaf, fruits and flower. Explants were incubated for 12 h photoperiod under 28+ 1OC.

Analysis of capsaicin was performed by TLC and HPLC. Sodium nitroprusside was found to be most effective for the synthesis and accumulation of capsaicin. The total yield of capsaicin obtained varied from 0.05 to 0.2 % w/w. The yield of capsaicin from the fruits of the greenhouse-grown plant was 0.04% w/w. Capsaicin is a highly valued and medicinally potent natural product exhibiting several properties. Therefore, the results of the present investigation are impressive towards further research in developing elite cell lines, bioreactor systems, and understanding the biosynthetic pathway of capsaicin.

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Extreme Organisms: An Astrobiological Perspective

Prakash Swathi and Vaidya Sravanti

Page No: 108-123

Abstract:Astrobiology is a study of origin, evolution, distribution and future of any kind of life on earth, solar system and beyond. The quest for the search of life elsewhere in the universe has opened a forum for the study of life in the extreme environments on earth. Extreme environments are natural laboratories on earth which help explore the limits of life. Study of extremophiles and extremotolerant organisms aids to unravel their respective niche habitats and their unique adaptations at physiological and molecular levels. Study of extreme organisms provides a perfect platform where one can investigate and utilize the microbes’ resilience towards the extreme to develop tools which harnesses their unique molecular adaptations. This can further aid in alleviating major environmental issues such as oil spills in the oceans, global temperature increase, as well as in advancing fields like bioelectrogenesis and astrobiology.

The current review focuses on the adaptive strategies and applications of seven different organisms which possess extraordinary resilience in extreme environments. An attempt has been made to correlate the adaptations of these extreme organisms on earth with harsh environments on other planets/ celestial bodies, in an effort to analogize between life on earth and elsewhere in the universe. In addition, the limits and scope of astrobiological research, have been elaborated to corroborate its multidisciplinary aspect.

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Virtual screening of COVID-19 drug from three Indian traditional medicinal plants through in silico approach

Thirumalaisamy Rathinavel, Selvankumar Thangaswamy, Subramanian Ammashi and Suresh Kumarasamy

Page No: 124-140

Abstract:Novel Corona Virus (2019 nCoV/COVID-19) emerged from Wuhan city of Hubei Province China in November 2019. Now it causes pandemic disease COVID-19 across the globe in 2020. There is no proper medication and vaccine treatment option available for novel corona virus. There is a global urge set to prepare effective drug and vaccines from various possible routes against SARS-CoV-2. In the present study, four ligand groups (I - IV) were made comprising of one commercial anti-viral drug group (14 Nos) and three ligands group (84 Nos) constituted from phytocompounds of three anti-viral Indian Traditional Medicinal plants (ITMP) such as Azadirachta indica, Phyllanthus niruri andrographis paniculata to search effective drug candidate for treating novel coronavirus. Four levels of in silico virtual screening procedures (molecular docking, Lipinski rule, ADME, DFT analysis) were employed to sort out and choose potential drug candidate for COVID-19.

Virtual screening of 98 ligands from four ligands group was done against six corona viral protein targets (SARS-CoV-1 and 2) through in silico approach. Preliminary molecular docking analysis revealed that twenty high scored ligands against viral target proteins were subject to Lipinski rule of drug likeliness screening. Based on Lipinski rule and some consideration of best docking score, eight ligands were chosen out of twenty ligands. Eight ligands chosen from Lipinski rule were subjected to final in silico virtual screening steps such as ADME and DFT analysis. Finally in silico virtual screening analysis showed four best ligands Baloxavir marboxil (CID124081896), Limocinin (CID 14845550), Formononetin 7 O Glucuronide (CID 71316927) and Bisandrographolide A (CID12000062). One from each ligands group was considered as best drug candidate for SARS CoV-2.

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Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in humans: Etiological Factors, diagnostic and therapeutic relevance

Sharma Anil Kumar, Sharma Indu, Diwan Gautami and Sharma VarRuchi

Page No: 141-151

Abstract:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been considered to be the most common malignancy of the head and neck region. OSCC develops as a result of certain genetic and epigenetic variations in the squamous epithelium, which in turn leads to a series of consequences leading to the definitive stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Majority of oral malignancy cases have been associated with specific exposure to certain risk factors such as smoking, smokeless tobacco products, heavy consumption of alcohol, poor oral hygiene, human papilloma virus infection along with other lifestyle factors and dietary changes. There are certain genes named as BIRC2 and BIRC3 belonging to the inhibitors of apoptosis protein (IAP) family which become over-expressed and upregulated during the course of OSCC. The proteins made are pronounced as cIAPs which are inhibitors of specific caspases leading to the suppression of apoptosis induced by a variety of triggering factors.

Current review has brought together all such concrete studies along with diagnostic and therapeutic relevance to OSCC at a single platform so as to understand the etiological factors, mechanism and regulation in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, the recent emergence of microbiome as a diagnostic and therapeutic target has also been discussed in order to find a sustainable and reliable therapeutic solution to OSCC.

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Synoptic Overview on Application of Molecular Genetic Markers in Acacia

Habibi Nazima, Rahman Muhammad Hafizur and Al Salameen Fadila

Page No: 152-166

Abstract:Drylands are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems on the earth. Agricultural production from these areas is minimal due to prevailing hostile environment, and most of the land remains underutilized. This fragile ecosystem is further weakened by periodic droughts and increasing overexploitation of the meager resources. The growth of woody leguminous species is full of promise in such areas due to their nutritional, economic, and ecological characteristics. Acacias are legumes that have aided in the recovery of marginal lands for agricultural development due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen controlling soil erosion, providing refuge for other species, improving soil mineral composition and microbial biodiversity, in addition to being an important source of food in desert ecosystems. Sustainable use of these species are however, hampered by the continual deforestation, habitat fragmentation and progressive climate change.

Knowledge about the status and trends of species genetic diversity provides a basis for their conservation and maintenance. Owing to the technological advancement and their ever reducing costs, molecular markers provide ways to identify species or describe genetic variation of populations that can be used for gene conservation and restoration programs. In this communication, we review advances in the development and application of molecular markers in conservation, planning, landscaping and restoration of Acacia species with reference to drylands and discuss future prospects.

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A Review on Coronavirus: Structure, Diagnosis and Treatment

Lakshmi Pragya and Bharadwaj Alok

Page No: 167-173

Abstract:Coronavirus causes viral respiratory tract disease which was first reported from Wuhan, China in December 2019 was declared a pandemic by World Health Organization. The causative agent of this disease is severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). The receptors for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are same, namely ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) for causing human infection. The common reported symptoms include sore throat, fever, cough, fatigue, headache, myalgia, conjunctivitis, breathlessness. Some patients may have diarrhoea and vomiting. The infection may progress to pneumonia by the end of first week which may give rise to respiratory failure and death. Different antiviral drugs like remdesivir, ribavirin, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir and ganciclovir and different types of immunotherapy, antimalarials, anti-inflammatory agents, antithrombotic therapy have been advocated for reducing viral load and to prevent or at least decrease respiratory complications and mortality.

Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection is in development stage and once it is available for human use, it will go a long way in controlling corona virus outbreaks. The panel recommendation has also been reviewed in this article.

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A preliminary report on plant based immunity against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) in pandemic 2020

Satpati Gour Gopal

Page No: 174-176

Abstract:In the present scenario, the devastating pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people worldwide and has caused more than 400 thousand deaths. Millions of people globally are living in fear and uncertainty. With many complications, time dependent experiments and clinical trials, vaccine making is still in process. Therefore, scientists and pharmacologists around the world are looking for alternatives that can enhance immunity and strengthen the fight against the virus. In this study the discussion is on herbal medicines obtained from many economically important herbaceous plants and algal sulfated polysaccharides, which can help in boosting our immunity. Consuming turmeric, basil leaf, black cumin, neem, zingiber and garlic in regular diet may be the potent immunomodulators for the therapeutic treatment of coronavirus. Subsequently, daily exercise and a balanced diet including proteins, dietary fibres, antioxidants and vitamins along with adequate amount of water intake are suggested for better immunity.

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Green Nanotechnology: A Review on Nanomedicinal Potential and Green synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (Ag-Np's)

Shabir Shabina, Sharma Gaurav, Ali Mohammad Irfan and Moin Sarmad

Page No: 177-187

Abstract:The world nowadays is expeditious and thriving where everything is immediate and straight away. So, in this fast pace world, nanotechnology qualifies and is furthermore electable as a field having immense and colossal applications. Large chunks of materials of concern cannot be used in products, so nanotechnology provides a way for that nano-level amounts of materials are being used and that too without decreasing their basic essence. Nanoparticles have many uses in various fields like medicine, consumer products, industries, electronics, health care and many more areas of benefit. Nanoparticles are synthesized from various plants as well as from different parts by the process of green synthesis.

Out of many types of nanoparticles, silver Nanoparticles are very beneficial because they have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antimicrobial and antifungal activities. Heretofore, nanoparticles of diverse shapes and sizes have been prepared and also tested on many microbes. The principal and overriding aim of the review is to provide an insight into the concepts and working of nanotechnology.

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Comparative updates on Host-Induced Gene Silencing and CRISPR- Cas9 Utilization for Improved Disease Resistance in Crops

Wagh Sopan Ganpatrao

Page No: 188-198

Abstract:In order to deal with the growing global population, the production and productivity of crop plants have become important by reducing losses from biotic and abiotic stresses. The growing incidence of plants susceptibility to infectious diseases requires the adoption of new technologies that improves their pathogens resistance. Conventional / molecular plant breeding has certain limitations and there is need to the use of a novel approach to targeted genome engineering. Advances in genomics have contributed to the discovery (for the purpose of engineering plant resistance to phytopathogens) of a significant number of candidates. However, their applicability is limited greatly by the off-target effects and regulatory problems related to over / under expression via genomics. The recent advancement between various genome editing methods and two technologies can be utilized in crop improvement are CRISPR / Cas9 [clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein] and RNA silencing.

Here, we summarize our understanding of host gene silencing (HIGS) and CRISPR as a mechanism for the prevention of natural infections. Further, we compared both technology utilization in research and development of disease resistant crop development. For commercial application, the CRISPR technology proved to be more precise, more efficient and less time consuming in altering key players for increased plants immunity. These new findings have their implications in HIGS and CRISPR / Cas9 to targeted editing offer additional benefits by significantly reducing off-target effects, offering great engineering promises for biotic stress-resistant crop plants in recent future.

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Analysis of pre and post influence of Covid-19 pandemic among general population

Malik Sumira, Mahato Shalini and Priyanka Prachi

Page No: 199-211

Abstract:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic spread initiated from China posed a threat to India which eventually resulted into a public health emergency at international platform leading to a national lockdown. COVID-19 imposes severe challenge for developing and highly populated countries like India in form of risk to health, loss of an employment, educational declination and psychological pliability in form of stress, anxiety and fear of uncertainty about future. This invites the research analysis to develop substantiated studies for the analysis of different factors such as perspective of citizens and their awareness to reduce COVID-19 health risks, awareness about the alternations and variations in economic condition due to reduction in employment opportunities and development of financial crises. These all negativities may develop adverse psychological brunt in India with the lock down progress.

The most optimistic affects analysed during lock down 1 to 4 showed total 90 % and 80% respondents following good practices and consumption of remedy drinks to boost and maintain immunity respectively. Most critical observation was about 77% respondents faced the severe problems of employment loss, salary deductions and delay in salaries. 33% claimed for unavailability of health services such as dentist, ophthalmologist and physicians were not available for the treatment of respondents which need immediate attention as many States are under different lock down zones. These studies reveal that respondents are sentient about their own responsibilities and safeguarding their other Indian companions indicating sanguine perception to combat COVID-19 pandemic; however they are also doubtful about futuristic qualms as a negative outcome of COVID-19.

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