Research Journal of Biotechnology

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Research Journal of Biotechnology





Determination of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential, Annexin V and Caspases Activities in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells (NPC) after treatment with Dracaena Cinnabari Balf.F.

Shaghayegh Gohar, Ali-Saeed Rola, Bakri Marina Binti Mohd and Alabsi Aied M.

Page No: 1-9

Abstract: Dracaena cinnabari Balf. f., dragon's blood tree is endemic to the island of Socotra and is commonly known as Damm Al-akhwain in Yemen. The deep red resins collected from D. cinnabari are used as a traditional medicine since ancient times by many cultures. Phytochemical studies have led to the isolation of several active compounds which are reported as antibacterial, antioxidative, antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents. Despite the broad uses of D. cinnabari, few researches have been done to know about its cytotoxic effect on and no study has been executed regarding its apoptosis induction and the mechanism of action on oral cancer cancer cell lines.

Hence, this study showed the ability of D. cinnabari extracts to cause cytotoxic effect and induced apoptotic cell death mode by activation of intrinsic apoptosis pathway and the mitochondrial pathway of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) cells. These outcomes suggest that D. cinnabari deserves more extensive investigation and is a promising candidate to develop as an experimental antitumor agent for Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma cells therapy.

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Production of Lignolytic and Cellulolytic Enzymes by using Basidiomycetes Fungi in the Solid State Fermentation of Different Agro-Residues

Sharma Shradhdha and Duggirala Srinivas Murty

Page No: 10-17

Abstract:Pleurotus sajor caju, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were used to test their ability for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in solid state fermentation on agricultural residues. These fungi were examined for degradation of lignocellulosic material and production of cellulase, laccase, lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and xylanase enzymes in solid state fermentation (SSF).

The maximum production of different enzymes viz. Lignin peroxidase (183.69 U/g), FPase (30.1 U/g), Laccase (720 U/g), Manganese peroxidase (268.19 U/g), CMCase (200 U/g) and Xylanase (302.2 U/g) was obtained using solid state fermentation on different substrates. Extraction buffer was optimized for all enzymes. This study was aimed to evaluate lignocellulosic enzyme activity by cultivating fungi on agricultural residues.

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Screening of potential probiotic bacteria from catfish (Clarias batracus) and its antibacterial activity

Prihanto Asep A., Nursyam Happy, Sridayuti, Umam Nada I., Hayati Royani L., Afifah Jauharotul and Muyasyaroh Hidayatun

Page No: 18-22

Abstract:Probiotic bacteria have an essential role in increasing fish and shrimp production in aquaculture. Probiotics also provide many benefits including increasing Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), enhancing the immune system, increasing the digestibility of feed and against pathogenic bacteria that cause disease. Many studies have been conducted to explore the fish probiotic candidate bacteria source. The purpose of this study was to obtain candidate for probiotic bacteria isolated from catfish intestines. Potential probiotic is determined on the basis of proteolytic and antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria.
Probiotic candidate bacteria were isolated using de Man Rogosa and Sharpe Agar (MRSA) + 1% CaCO3 and then incubated at 30oC for 3-6 days. Twelve growth colonies produced acid. Before 16s rDNA analysis, gram staining and catalase assay were performed. The results of the analysis showed that the probiotic candidate was identified as Bacillus velezensis UBL2 with 99.8% identical to Bacillus valezensis R1.16. It has proteolytic activity and antibacterial activity on gram positive and gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Hence, B. velezensis UBL2 is a potential candidate for probiotic.

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In vitro characterization of Sperm Immobilization Factor isolated from Escherichia coli

Kumar Vijay, Garg Neelam and Prabha Vijay

Page No: 23-27

Abstract: Sperm motility is an important parameter of sperm for its fertilization potential. The decrease in the motility is related to bacterial infections as well as other factors related to the individual. In the present study, sperm immobilization factor (SIF) was isolated and purified from the cell free supernatant of Escherichia coli culture. The effect of different chemical modifiers like sugars, salts, chelating agents and detergents on the activity of SIF was studied at different concentration.

The results showed that some compounds have inhibited sperm immobilization induced by SIF whereas the rest of the compounds tested had no protective role, rather some were detrimental to sperm motility even in the absence of SIF. Further, the effect of SIF was studied on eukaryotic (red blood cells) as well as on prokaryotic (bacteria) cells. The results showed that SIF neither has any significant effect on red blood cells and nor on the motility and viability of bacterial cells.

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Wound healing activity of polysaccharides from marine algae Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, 1797 from Tamil Nadu coast of Bay of Bengal, India

Navya Pagolu and Khora S.S.

Page No: 28-34

Abstract:The aim of this study was to evaluate the wound healing promoting effect of Ultrasonic- enhanced extracted sulfated polysaccharides (UEP) from marine algae Codium tomentosum using in vitro and in vivo models. Sulfated polysaccharides have been used as a source of potential pharmaceuticals and attracted extensive research interest in wound healing due to their uses in wound management materials (wound dressings). In in vitro model, monolayer’s of Mouse fibroblast cells (L929) were used to investigate the effects of UEP on processes involved in fibroblast proliferation, regeneration and migration. Fibroblast proliferation and migration were monitored by scratch assay. It showed that the healing process was initiated from 24 h of treatment and revealed that the UEP has the potency to recover the wound with 100 % healing capacity at 72 h after treatment over control cells.

On the other hand, in in vivo model using Sprague-Dawley rats, effects of SPs on tissue regeneration were investigated. The UEP 5 % (w/v) showed an increased wound contraction rate compared to the negative and positive control group (e.g. on the 5th day, we observed a wound healing of 70 % for rats treated with 5 % UEP against positive and negative control groups with 68 % and 40 % respectively). On the 15th day, the contraction value was even slightly higher for the 5 % UEP treated rats than for the rats treated with the control groups. Results of in vivo wound healing study were monitored by means of histological examinations. It showed that the UEP enhanced epithelization and tissue granulation significantly compared with both control groups. These findings suggest that UEP from Codium tomentosum might be a probable curative agent for the treatment of cutaneous wounds as well as in wound management materials (wound dressings).

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Factor associated with transient GUS reporter gene expression in transgenic black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper. Var. PU31)

Singh Sucharita S., Pradhan C., Swain D. and Rout Gyana R.

Page No: 35-42

Abstract:Black gram (V.mungo L. Hepper) is an important tropical pulse crop belonging to family Leguminosae grown in different regions of India with high rich protein. The aim is to optimize genetic transformation of Vigna mungo L.Var. PU31 by Agrobacterium-mediated using apical meristem and cotyledonary nodal explants. The efficiency of transformation was optimum in OD600 0.6 of agrobacterium concentration, duration of co-cultivation time from 2-3days and acetosyringone concentration (100 µM). The optimum number of shoots/culture (5.6) were achieved on Murashige and Skoog22 medium fortified with BAP (1.0 mg/l) within 4 weeks of culture. The well-grown transformed shoots were excised and rooted on ½ strength MS nutrients medium fortified with different concentrations of IBA (0.5 1.0 mg/l IBA) and 2% (w/v) sucrose. Further, the transformed plantlets were acclimatized in a liquid nutrient medium for 14 days under controlled condition and subsequently transferred to the transgenic greenhouse. The developed transgenic plantlets were histochemically expressed GUS activity. About 84 % of the transgenic showed GUS reporter gene positive. The rooted plantlets were successfully established with 70 % survival. This study will facilitate the genetic improvement of Vigna mungo with the desired trait.

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Studies on drug resistance mechanisms in Candida albicans and screening of natural products for reversal of drug resistance

Sharma Kanchan and Kaur Jaspreet

Page No: 43-49

Abstract:Candida albicans is one of the opportunistic pathogen that accounts for more than 50% of nosocomial infections in hospitalised patients. Present research work has been done to study mechanisms of drug resistance in Candida albicans and to identify novel molecules to reverse or circumvent drug resistance. MIC and IC50 of fluconazole against wild type and resistant Candida albicans were determined. Resistant cells showed 3-5 fold higher MIC and IC50 against fluconazole as compared to sensitive cells. IC50 of fluconazole in sensitive and resistant strain was 6uM and 16uM respectively.

To check for antimicrobial activity and additive or synergistic effect of extracts of curcumin, lemon peel and pomegranate peel, these extracts were used separately as well as in combination with IC50 of fluconazole against sensitive and resistant C. albicans. There was 28.2% higher inhibition in lemon peel extract +6uM flu as compared to lemon extract alone in sensitive cells whereas in case of resistant cells, 48.4% higher inhibition could be found. 70ug/ml curcumin along with 6uM flu showed 90% kill in sensitive and 150ug/ml curcumin+16uM flu in resistant strain showed 90% kill. ATPase activity was determined to assay drug efflux from cells and was observed to be 78± 1.4 nmol/mg protein in sensitive cells and 109±1.4 nmol/mg protein with 100uM resistant cells.

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Introgression of Scab Resistance Gene Vf (Rvi6) in commercially grown Susceptible Cultivar Fuji Azitec of apple (Malus domestica) using Marker Assisted Selection

Muneer Ahmad Sheikh, Khalid Mushtaq, Javid Iqbal Mir, Mohammad Amin and Sajad Un Nabi

Page No: 50-56

Abstract: Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) being most important remunerative crop grown in temperate regions, is highly susceptible to apple scab disease. Development of resistance in pathogen and huge investment on fungicides by farmers becomes an issue. These concerns among masses justify an alternative management approach of disease resistance to reduce the fungicide use. Therefore, present study was focused on introgression of scab resistance gene in cultivar Fuji Azitec using phenotypic and marker assisted screening in hybrids developed from crosses between Fuji Azitec with different resistant parents. Mendelian segregation ratio of 1:1 for susceptible and resistant hybrids was observed. The Vf gene expression in resistant hybrids was more as compared to susceptible ones from all cross combinations. Hence from our study the resistant hybrids obtained have the potential for being utilized as commercial varieties after evaluation for important pomological traits and also resistant gene source in downstream breeding programmes.

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In silico characterization and recombinant protein analysis of two subtilisin-like Serine Proteases from the mushroom Lignosus rhinocerus

Yong Yen Sun, Fatima Ayesha, Cheong Chiew Hing Peter, Mohd Azam Nur Atiqah and Lim Lay Hong Renee

Page No: 57-71

Abstract: Serine proteases are a class of proteolytic enzymes with important physiological functions in living organisms. Due to their wide medical and industrial applications, there is an increasing interest in isolation and characterization of novel serine proteases from natural sources. Two serine proteases (4347-SPL and 8711-SPL) were isolated from the medicinal mushroom Lignosus rhinocerus for in silico characterisation and proteolytic analysis. Both the cDNA encoding for zymogens consist of 399 amino acids residues with 67.2% similiarity. Clustal sequence alignments of 4347-SPL and 8711-SPL with other serine proteases reveal active catalytic triads of Asp-His-Ser residues.

Based on SBT3 (PDB:3I74), the predicted 3D structures of the enzymes comprise seven β-sheets with four/five α-helices. Expression of 4347-SPL and 8711-SPL in pET-28a(+)/Escherichia coli produces insoluble recombinant proteins. After refolding, only 8711-SPL provided substantial azocasein digestion from pH 6-11 at 60oC and was thermostable. The proteolytic activity was inhibited by EDTA and PMSF and mildly affected by Mg2+ and Ca2+. Both are subtilisin-like monomers. Further studies are warranted to explore potential industrial and pharmaceutical applications.

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MicroRNA pathway component Argonaute 1 recruited by Brat to microRNA sites through Bam and Pumilio in the regulation of mad mRNA in Drosophila S2 cells

Malik Sumira

Page No: 72-80

Abstract:Drosophila Argonaute 1 (Ago1) is member of the Argonaute protein family known to be involved in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in the regulation of the fate of germline stem cells. However, the function of Ago1and its mechanism in regulation of mRNAs in other aspects of oogenesis is still elusive. Here, we identify a differentiation promoting factor Brain tumour (Brat) NHL domain binding with cofactor Drosophila Pumilio N terminus and major translational regulator Bag-of-marbles (Bam).

These new findings confirm that Ago1 was recruited by Brat, Bam and Pumilio together in regulation of mad mRNAs where Ago1 target specificity is determined in collaboration with these different cofactors. It is also concluded that one GCUUU and five UGCAAU microRNA sites respectively within 301-600 bp of Mad mRNA were negatively regulated by Bam, Brat, Pumilio and Ago 1 through microRNA pathway in Drosophila S2 cells. This approach may also contribute in future drugs development for miRNA related developmental studies through drug target and systems approach.

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Molecular Interaction Study of Resveratrol with Nerve Growth Factor as Prospective Neuroprotectant against Neurodegenerative Diseases

Yadav Ruchi

Page No: 81-88

Abstract:Resveratrol (RV) is most widely used antioxidant and effective molecule against neuronal diseases. Role of nerve growth factor (NGF) in repairing neuronal injured cells and enhancing the expression of neuronal repair genes has also been established. Microarray experiment was done to examine the alteration of gene expression in presence of monocrotophos (MCP) and also the repairing effect of RV+NGF. Microarray experiment has been deposited in NCBI’s Gene Expression Omnibus database with the GEO Series accession number GSE121261.4 In current research, molecular interaction of NGF with the RV and MCP has been studied to identify the crucial binding sites and binding energies between these molecules. Docking was done between NGF and RV derivatives and MCP derivatives to study the interaction map. Molecular docking was done using Schrodinger software suite.

Result shows that NGF possesses strong binding sites with the RV and its derivatives by making hydrogen bonds at positions Lys (A: 88), Lys (B: 88), Arg (A: 50) and Tyr (A: 52). NGF makes hydrogen bond at position Phe (A: 53) and Phe (A: 49) with MCP and its derivatives. Results clearly signify the efficiency of RV and NGF as strong neuroprotectant against MCP induced neuronal injury. Further these synergistic molecules (RV+NGF) can be used as potential drug against different neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, brain and spinal cord injury etc.

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Enhanced accumulation of phenolics in the β-cryptogein co-transformed hairy roots of Plumbago zeylanica L.

Basu Amrita, Jha Sumita and Joshi Raj Kumar

Page No: 89-97

Abstract:Elicitor induced defense response in plants is often associated with the accumulation of phenolic compounds. β-cryptogein is a oomycetal protenacieous elicitor that induces systemic acquired resistance in plants through endogenous synthesis of secondary metabolites. In the present study, a synthetic crypt gene from Phytophthora cryptogea encoding β-cryptogein was inserted into Plumbago zeylanica through Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation to determine its role on the accretion of phenolic compounds in plant tissue. The Ri-crypt co-transformed root lines showed the expression of crypt gene.

AFLP fingerprinting revealed high degree of genetic similarity between the Ri- transformed and Ri-crypt co-transformed root lines although they had differential growth rate and plumbagin content. Significantly higher (p≤0.05) phenolics content (caffeic acid, 1.8 fold; p-coumaric acid, 2.0 fold and ferulic acid, 1.5 fold) was observed in the hairy root lines expressing crypt gene compared to the control Ri-transformed root lines. Our results showed that endogenous expression of β-cryptogein facilitates the excretion of phenolics in hairy roots. Thus, β-cryptogein could be used as a prospective regulatory factor for enhancement of phenolic discharge from plants.

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Formation in vitro potato collection and regeneration under modified conditions

Megrelishvili Iveta, Kukhaleishvili Maia, Bulauri Ekaterine and Shamatava Tamar

Page No: 98-103

Abstract:In vitro propagation of the potato by tissue culture methods allows the repaid clonal propagation in a short period and the conversation of potato genotypes under the controlled condition. Our research was focused on the formation in vitro potato collection by apical meristem method and study there in vitro development under different in vitro conditions. In vitro cultivation of potato varieties were studied in three different MS medium (6%MS medium, 8%MS medium, 10%MS medium) under temperature range: 23- 250C, 25-270C, 27-290C and 16h, 18h photoperiod. In vitro regeneration of cultured explants was observed after 14 days.

Potato cultivars were selected according to the Georgian farmer’s requirements: “Nevsky”, “Impala”, “Riviera”, “Amoroza”, “Gelly”, “Picasso”, “Desiree”, “Agria”, “Red fantasy” and “Roko”. Potato collection was formed by the shoot apical meristem method. Potato shoots were propagated by placing nodes/buds from sprouted tubers on Murashige and Skoog medium supplement 30 g/l sucrose (3% MS Medium). The best growth condition of potato cultivars was 27-28 °C and photoperiod 18h. In vitro shoots (range 67-100%), roots (range 69-100%) and nodes were formed (from 6 to 9.3 nodes) after 14 days of incubation. 6% MS medium was optimal for all investigated potato varieties.

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Hydroxytyrosol improving metabolic response by amelioration of oxidative stress following arsenic exposure in rat liver

Soni Manisha, Prakash Chandra, Kaushik Samander, Chhikara Sunil Kumar and Kumar Vijay

Page No: 104-112

Abstract:Present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of hydroxytyrosol (HT) against arsenic (As)-induced oxidative stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups i.e. control, HT-treated, As-treated and As + HT-treated groups. Arsenic-treated group was administered with 25 ppm of sodium arsenite dissolved in distilled water for 8 weeks while HT was given at dose of 10 mg/kg b. wt. for 8 weeks.

Results showed that As exposure resulted in its accumulation in the liver and caused hepatic oxidative damage as depicted from increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation followed by decreased glutathione content. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy also confirmed molecular and structural alteration in lipids and proteins of rat liver tissue. Hepatic cellular apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assay that clearly showed significant increase in apoptotic cells in As-exposed rats. The generation of oxidative stress in liver further inflicted alteration in mitochondrial bioenergetics as evident by decreased activities of mitochondrial complexes and depressed antioxidant system in liver mitochondria. Co-administration of HT with As significantly ameliorated hepatic oxidative stress and improved mitochondrial functions in rats. The results indicate that HT has the potential to improve the mitochondrial metabolic response by the attenuation of As-induced oxidative stress generation in rat liver.

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In vitro regeneration from immature embryos calli of durum wheat under salinity stress conditions

Koutoua Ayolié, Mouhssine Fatine, Elyacoubi Houda and Rochdi Atmane

Page No: 113-119

Abstract:Callus of eight durum wheat varieties (Amjad, Anouar, Marzak, Massa, Ourgh, Sebou, Tarek and Tomouh) was induced on immature embryos. Salt-selected calli and other non-selected were transferred to a first MS medium supplemented with 1 mg.l-1 kinetin and 2 mg.l-1 IAA and then to a second MS/2 medium supplemented with 1 mg.l-1 kinetin only. Different concentrations of NaCl were added to each medium.

The regeneration rate in both types of calli was reduced by sodium chloride and the reduction was very marked when the concentrations reached 12 and 16 g.l-1 NaCl in culture medium. However, salt-selected calli reached a regeneration rate significantly higher than those induced without NaCl.

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Microbial degradation of Benzyl chloride: A Chloroaromatic Compound

Sambrani Seema

Page No: 120-125

Abstract:Halogenated aromatics are produced in large quantities and are primarily used as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, lubricants, insulators, pesticides and plasticizers. These halo aromatics when lost to the environment, persist due to their xenobiotic structures. Chloro aromatics like benzyl chloride, because of their carcinogenicity, toxic nature and poor biodegradability find a prominent place in the Unites States Environmental Protection Agency’s list of priority pollutants. The present research reports the isolation and characterization of a Bacillus sps, which is capable of tolerating and degrading benzyl chloride as the sole source of carbon and energy.

Few organisms can tolerate organic solvent saturated environment. This problem of persistence of halo aromatic in the environment can be overcome by using organic solvent tolerant bacteria and bring out the desired bioconversions. The degradation study was carried out using gas chromatography. Benzyl chloride is de halogenated and benzene remains back. The isolated Bacillus cereus KF 951358 is capable of further metabolizing benzene into a non-toxic and industrially important compound catechol by meta cleavage of the benzene ring.

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DNA-detection of leaf curl pathogen Taphrina deformans in asymptomatic leaves of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) in Russia

Mikhailova E.V., KarpunN.N., Agumava A.A., Efremov A.M., Choudhary Ravish and Samarina L.S.

Page No: 126-129

Abstract:Leaf curl disease is one of the main constraints of peach production in the world. The efficiency of two pairs of primer to detect leaf curl pathogen Taphrina deformans in asymptomatic peach leaves was analyzed. The amplification was confirmed using primer pairs viz., NL1/NL4 and TDITS1/NL4. Universal fungal primers NL1 / NL4 resulting a clear amplicon of 900 bp.

83-85% identity to T. deformans genome was confirmed using sequencing of PCR product obtained by TDITS1/NL4 primers. The data obtained will be useful for quantitative and qualitative study of this fungal pathogen and the dynamics of its life cycle.

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Pollen grains of Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.): Scanning electron microscope study

Gupta Alok Kumar, Singh Manvendra, Marboh Eveving Stone, Anal Ajit Kumar Dubedi and Nath Vishal

Page No: 130-132

Abstract:Pollen grains of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) cultivar were examined in detail using Scanning electron microscope. The shapes of pollen grains in the polar view are triangular-obtuse-convex while it is elliptic-acuminate-acute in the equatorial view. Pollen class is trizonocolpateobtus-triangular and the sculpturing of exine surface is striate. Pollen is tricolpate and tricolporate while the spines are absent.

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The Occurrence of potential and novel isolates of Oceanobacillus sp. JAS12 and Salinicoccus sp. JS20 recovered from West Coast of Arabian Sea, India

Yaradoddi Jayachandra S., Sulochana M.B., Kontro Merja H., Parameshwar A.B. and Agsar Dayanand

Page No: 133-140

Abstract:Many halophiles were considered to be extremophiles due to their inborn industrial potentials and tolerance to hostile environmental conditions. The isolated halophilic bacteria described in the present study are not only grown at environmentally adverse conditions, also they can be able to produce bioactive molecules. Among the isolated strains, Oceanobacillus iheyensis strain JAS12 and Salinicoccus roseus strain JS20 are known for the unique biotechnological applications. The isolate Oceanobacillus sp. grows well at 35–55oC (optimum 45oC) and pH 6 to 12 (maximum growth at pH 8), interestingly the strain could hydrolyze casein, starch and gelatin. The G+C content was 40.2 mol % and the major fatty acids are iso-15:0: 30.52%, primary-C15: 0 (29.29 %), iso-14:0 (16.15%) anteiso-C17: 0 (4.03%). Another isolate was Salinicoccus sp. JS20 The DNA G+C content was 50.4 mol % and the major fatty acids are anteiso-C15: 0 (26.23%), iso-15:0, (17.62%), 16:0 (11.5%), anteiso-C17: 0 (7.7 %), iso- C16: 0 (10.20 %), iso-17:0: (5.43%) and iso-C14: 0 (3.97 %).

These isolates are also producers of many extracellular enzymes such as protease, amylase, inulinases, gelatinase and β-fructofurinosidase above the optimal conditions. Oceanobacillus sp. JAS12 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity is 99% similar to the reported genera. Salinicoccus sp. JS20 indicated 96% 16S rRNA sequence similarity with near species Salinicoccus genus, thus, they were found to be novel concerning to their genetic makeup and biochemical features.

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Biosurfactant: process optimization by classical one parameter at a time approach

Dange S.S., Gulve R.M., Deshmukh R.B., Jadhav P.V., Marathe R.J., Phatake Y.B. and Dange S.R.

Page No: 141-147

Abstract:In the present study, biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas sp. and Serratia sp. were isolated and screened from oil contaminated soil samples. The biosurfactant producing ability of these isolates was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by using haemolytic assay, oil displacement test and emulsification index. To improve the yield, biosurfactant production process was optimized by using classical one parameter at a time approach for pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and salt concentration. Bacterial growth and yield of the biosurfactant were found to be maximum at 27oC, pH 7, 4.5% NaCl conc. in presence of engine oil as a carbon source and NaNO3 as nitrogen source in Bushnell Haas medium. The produced biosurfactant was extracted by solvent extraction method and characterized by FTIR spectrum range from 4000 to 400 cm-1.

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Strain Improvement Strategies for Medicinal Mushroom: Cordyceps species

Gupta Diva and Sandhu Sardul Singh

Page No: 148-157

Abstract:The medicinal mushroom Cordyceps species are entomopathogenic which bestows biologically as pharmacological drug for health since ancient times. It has a variety of bio-metabolites having far-ranging activity. Its constituents like cordycepin, adenosine and polysaccharides are involved in plethora of biochemical and molecular processes. With this interest, the bottlenecks like excessive harvesting, commercial cultivation, low frequency of artificial stromata formation are still on pace. The genus Cordyceps has characteristic genomic expansion and studies like identification of mating type genes, metabolite producing genes and strain improvement techniques are in great demand.

Hence, in the current review, strain improvement strategies for this mushroom are reviewed. Along with this; nature, cultivation, constituents and applications are also well explained to understand the present demand of this important mushroom. This fulfills to interpret the situation and necessity of mushroom in present world and also helps to maneuver this fungus for developing drugs against dreadful human diseases.

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Bacterial Lipases: An Overview of Sources and Production

Golani Mahima, Hajela Sumati and Hajela Krishnan

Page No: 158-171

Abstract:Lipases are triacylglycerol hydrolases mostly produced by microorganisms. Bacterial lipases are usually produced by submerged fermentation process at a commercial scale. Mostly bacterial lipases are produced in a medium that contains fatty acids, oils and an organic nitrogen source. Most lipases are active in a wide range of pH and temperature, though alkaline bacterial lipases are more common. The present review discusses the most important bacterial lipase producing strains and their production strategies.

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