Research Journal of Biotechnology

Indexed in SCOPUS, Chemical Abstracts Services, UGC, NAAS and Indian Citation Index etc.

Research Journal of Biotechnology

Molecular Modeling and Docking Studies of Protein Kinase C in Prostate Cancer for Rational Drug-Design

Singh Shailza, Sharma D.K. and Malik B.K.

Protein Kinase C, an enzyme involved with the cell signaling mechanism of prostate cancer is an important target protein for drug-design. In order to understand the mechanisms of ligand binding and the interaction between the ligand and the protein kinase C (PKC), a three-dimensional (3D) model of PKC is generated using MODELLER. Docking studies reveal that flavonoids (e.g. luteolin, apigenin, quercetin) and two structurally related flavonolignans (silibinin, hydnocarpin) show significant influence on the catalytic domain of Protein Kinase C and inhibit with different binding affinities. 5-hydroxy flavone was the least effective. The hydrogen bonding interactions also play an important role for the stability of the complex. This effect may contribute to the various beneficial effects of these ubiquitous plant secondary constituents.

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Biodegradation of Blend Films in Soil and Soil with Chorume. I. PVC/PCL

Campos A., Martins-Franchetti S.M., Marconato J.C., Agnelli J.A.M. and Monteiro M.R.

Blends of synthetic and biodegradable polymers can be important in attaining material plastic degradation in the environment. Biodegradation using soil and chorume (liquid waste from landfill) microorganisms is a promising area these days. This paper intends to study the PVC/PCL blend degradation in soil using aerobic biodegradation (Bartha respirometer). The morphology and structural changes of the blends were studied by FTIR, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and contact angle measurements. Blend films prepared by the casting of dichloroethane solutions were buried in a Bartha respirometer containing soil and soil plus chorume and kept there for 120 days. During this time CO2 evolution was measured from time to time. The results showed that PCL films degrade faster than PVC/PCL and PVC films.

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Properties of Industrial Raw Material Quality Tannase Produced by Rhizopus Oryzae through Modified Solid-state Fermentation of mixed Agro-products

Mukherjee Gargi and Banerjee R.

The optimal characteristics of tannase produced by modified solid-state fermentation of mixed agro products by the filamentous fungus, Rhizopus oryzae in a bioreactor were studied. For studying its properties, it was purified upto the industrial raw material level by organic solvent precipitation and DEAE-Sephadex column chromato-graphy. This tannase revealed a temperature and pH optima of 40oC and 4.5 respectively. The optimum incubation period required by this enzyme was 4 min, optimum initial substrate and enzyme concentrations being 0.35 mg/ml and 0.08 v/v respectively. The enzyme half-life period, thermal stability, kinetic constants (Km, Vmax) at 40oC were also determined.

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Evaluation of Antibiotic Sensitivity and Resistance of Klebsiella Species From Humans Respiratory and Urinary Tract Infections

Kulkarni Raj Kumar, Dharmi Sunithi, Das Prabhavathy G. and Jamil Kaiser

Klebsiellae are ubiquitous in nature and in humans they may colonize the skin Pharynx, gastrointestinal tract and may be implicated in causing nosocomial infections. Extensive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has led to both increased carriage of Klebsiella and subsequently the development of multi-drug resistant strains that produce extended spectrum beta lactamases. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 276 isolates of Klebsiellae obtained from 318 subjects suspected with gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. After growth on Urichrome II medium the drug sensitivity and resistance patterns were detected by disc diffusion assay using about 24 different antibiotics. The Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from urine were uniformly resistant to azithromycin, clarithromycin, Ampicillin + cloaxacillin, roxithromycin, augmentin and lomefloxacin. The strains isolated from respiratory specimen were uniformly resistant to roxithromycin, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, cefaclor, nalidixic acid furoxone, amplicillin, augmentin, ceftrioxone and lomefloxacin. Amoxycillin, cefotaxime, gentamycin and netilmycin can be used as empirical therapy for Klebsiella infection of the urinary tract. Ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin and cefoperazone may be used as the drugs of choice for Klebsiella infections of the respiratory tract. This study could help in updating the common antibiotic sensitivity patterns when starting empirical antibiotic therapy in Indian subjects suffering from Klebsiella infections.

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Protein A extract from a Local Strain of Staphylococcus aureus inhibited in vivo the activities of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rats

Oke Adeyeye J.

Protein A extract from a local strain of Staphylococcus aureus was administered intraperitoneally into sets of albino rats pre-infection with pathogenic Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Protein A at 50 microgram into rats not only prevented the death of the rats, but also no organism was detected in their livers. In the control rats, 4.0 x 107 cfu of E. coli and 4.0 x 107 Ps. aeruginosa were detected in their livers, which led to their death. Protein A also prevented lungs collapse and alveolar haemarrhage; fatty degeneration in the liver caused by the microorganisms in the control rats. The locally prepared Protein A compared favourably with imported Protein A.

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Effect of Cyclo Butane Platinum Di Carboxylic Acid as Novel Platinum based Compound on the Inhibition of Bacterial Cell Division

Chehregani Abdolkarim and Sabounchi Seyed Javad

Platinum based compounds have been used as antitumor drugs in many countries. Cisplatin is used in treatment of a number of cancers, but its applicability is still limited to a relatively narrow range of tumors. These compounds have toxicity. The toxic side effect of cisplatin limits the dose that can be given to patients. For those reasons syntheses of new platinum based compounds are of our interest. Cyclo Butane Platinum Di Carboxylic Acid (CBPDC) has been synthesized as a novel compound and its ability regarding inhibition of cell division in some bacteria. Our results indicate that CBPDC could act as antimitotic compound. It was inhibited growth of some microorganism as experimental organisms. The most antimitotic effect was seen in pseudomonas aeurginosa. Application of CBPDC in all concentrations inhibited division and growth of other bacterial cells. Although Escherichia coli is less sensitive to CBPDC than others, but inhibition of growth is significant in E.coli.

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Taguchi Approach for Optimization of Acid-stable Amylase Production by an Isolated Apergillus sp.

Rao P. Venkat

Statistical optimization of extracellular acid-stable amylase production by acido-phillic fungus, Aspergillus sp. using different nutritional (soluble starch, corn steep liquor, casein, KH2PO4 and MgSO4.7H2O) and physiological (pH, Temperature and Inoculum level) factors were optimized. At individual level, pH of the medium, soluble starch, casein and magnesium sulfate were contributing to more than 96% of total amylase production, while at interactive level, maximum severity index was observed with corn steep liquor verses potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The improvement in the enzyme production was observed to be more than 48% with optimized conditions. Maximum production impact was observed with pH of the medium (31%) and soluble starch (29%) at optimized environment.

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In Focus: Single Enzyme Nanoparticles for Biocatalytic Applications

Karmee Sanjib Kumar

This article describes the synthesis and use of single enzyme nanoparticle to improve the stability and activity of biocatalyst.

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Revise Papers: Ozone Phytotoxicity and Plant Defense Responses

Patil Virupakshgouda U.

Global atmospheric concentrations have risen about 36% since the preindustrial times. Rapid industrialization and human activities have contributed significant amounts of this toxic gas pollutant to the tropospheric environment that pose significant threat for the survival and productivity of native and cultivated ecosystems. Currently 25% of the global forests are at the risk from damaging ozone concentrations (>60 ppb) and it is predicted to increase to 50% by 2100. Stratospheric ozone shields biologically harmful UV radiations from reaching the earth’s surface, however, somewhat paradoxically; tropospheric ozone is toxic to biological organisms. Ozone is one of the most powerful oxidizing agents. In plants primary damage by ozone is largely confined to leaf mesophyll (major productive unit). Ozone on reaction with water and solutes forms Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), triggering the oxidative burst in plants. The effects of ozone on plants are numerous and vary with the intensity and duration of the exposure. Ozone induces hypersensitivity response (HR) and ultimately induces the programmed cell death leading to reduced rate of photosynthesis. The present study deals with the various plant cells signaling pathways induced by ozone, which ultimately lead to the programmed cell death and also various secondary signaling molecules in the plant cell.

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Bioinformatical Tools for Proteomic Studies

Zargar Sajad M., Joshi Manisha and Mushtaq Roohi

Bioinformatics is the use of mathematical tools to solve biological problems usually at molecular level. Bioinformatics has become an important tool for the genomic and proteomic studies. The utilization of bioinformatical means in proteomic studies helps in exploring the nature and functionality of a biologically active protein. The information regarding various websites have been provided in this article which can be used to determine the nature, structure and the activity of a protein.

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Drug Delivery: Techniques for Polymeric Microsphere Preparation

Mukerjee Anindita and Pruthi Vikas

Biomedical and pharmaceutical engineering are emerging as a fascinating new field with diverse applications in drug targeting and drug delivery. Polymer microspheres can be employed to deliver medication in a rate-controlled and sometimes targeted manner. Drug is released from a microsphere by drug leaching from the polymer or by degradation of the polymer matrix. The techniques used for the preparation of the polymeric microspheres have a distinct effect on the microsphere characteristics with reference to drug loading, particle size, morphology and drug release from the microspheres. This article reviews techniques of preparation for the polymer-based microspheres alongwith the advancements made in developing effective drug delivery systems.

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