Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Hybrid Ceramic Beads synthesized from Natural Minerals and Titanium Dioxide for Cleaning Wastewater

Akiyoshi Sata, Masanao Hirose, Junichi Kurawaki, Yoshifumi Kusumoto and Katumitu Hayakawa

Porous hybrid ceramic beads were synthesized by burning at 1090°C in a reducing atmosphere. They consisted of the natural mineral graphite silica (GS), the pyroclastic deposit “shirasu” and titanium dioxide. The beads bleached aqueous solutions of the dyes rhodamine B, acridine orange, methyl orange and methylene blue and degraded the surfactant dodecylpyridinium bromide and humic acid. The rate of dye decolorization was monitored using absorption spectra under UV irradiation and in the dark. The performance of repeatedly reused ceramic beads was comparable to that of new ceramic beads for decolorizing the dye solutions. The rates for ceramic beads with different components and structures were compared. The effects of anatase titanium oxide on the ceramic surface and UV irradiation were not clear. The ceramic beads performed well when used to decolorize cattle urine pretreated with microorganisms.

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Colorimetric Determination of Ferric Iron with 1, 8-Naphthalenediol

Mazen T. Saleh1, Subhash C. Mojumdar and Marc Lamoureux

1, 8-naphthalene diol (1, 8-Nadol) is a prototype of a new class of synthetic antioxidants. Solutions of freshly prepared and properly stored 1,8-naphthalene diol are colorless. However, it oxidizes in air and the solution turns charcoal in colour. This compound was investigated for its ability to form complexes with various metal ions to take advantage of this formation. We found that 1,8-naphthalene diol forms a complex with ferric ion resulting in the formation of a green colour, absorbing maximally at 650 nm. This complex formation occurs within minutes and precedes air oxidation of the antioxidant. 1,8-naphthalene diol forms less stable complexes with Cu(II) and Ag(II), producing precipitate of brown and black colour, respectively. The complex with Fe(III) forms preferentially at alkaline pH at ambient temperatures. This antioxidant may thus provide a useful alternative for the quantitative determination of ferric ion.

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Microwave assisted degradation of H-acid

A. Braroo, T. Chakrabarti, A. M. Deshkar and V. A. Mahisalkar

This investigation pertains to microwave assisted complete degradation of recalcitrant H-Acid (1-amino, 8-naphthol, 3,6-disulfonic acid). This is one of the major dye intermediates used in India for the synthesis of direct reactive and azo dyes. H-Acid can impart toxicity to the environment following biotransformation to naphthylamine derivatives. The influence of major physical and chemical variables of Microwave Assisted Process (MAP) on degradation of H-Acid was studied. The operating parameters such as magnetron power output (350 Watts), the reagents (Fe2+/H2O2 –20/500 mg l-1), pH (2.5) and the time of contact i.e. heating time (6 min) were determined. The rate of reaction for degradation of H-Acid was found to be fast in the presence of microwave radiations and followed zero order rate kinetics. This was due to the formation of vast number of free radicals and hydrated electrons following exposure to microwaves, which resulted in the breaking of this molecule.

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Application of Interpolymer Complexes of Novel Poly (ampholyte-electrolyte) as Soil Structuring Agents and for Extraction of Radioactive Strontium

S.E. Kudaibergenov, L.A. Bimendina, M.G. Yashkarova and L.K. Orazzhanova

Novel linear copolymer exhibiting poly(ampholyte-electrolyte) behavior was involved into complexation reaction with anionic, cationic and nonionic polymers. The formed interpolymer complexes showed soil structuring effect and the ability to extract the radioactive strontium from the polluted topsoil of Semipalatinsk Test Site.

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Interactions of Different Heterocyclic Compounds with Monoionic Forms of Montmorillonite. I. Diffraction and Spectral Study of Co(II)-Montmorillonite with 3- and 2-R Pyridines (R = Me, Cl, NH2).

E. Jóna, E. Rudinská, M. Sapietová, M. Pajtášová and D. Ondrušová

Interactions of 3-R- and 2-R pyridines (R = Me, Cl, NH2) with Co(II)-exchanged montmorillonite were investigated. The intercalation of these compounds was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction of the products. Infrared spectral data of studied samples shows that the Lewis and/or Brönsted type of interactions of pyridine derivatives is connected with different steric and inductive effects of the substituents (R) on the pyridine ring.

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Preparation and Properties of Biodegradable Poly(propylene carbonate) Foams using OBSH as Chemical Blowing Agent

L. T. Guan, F. G. Du, M. Xiao and Y. Z. Meng

Completely biodegradable foams of poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) derived from carbon dioxide and propylene oxide were produced using 4,4’- Oxybis (benzenesulfonyl hydrazide) (OBSH) as main chemical blowing agent. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and gas evolution behavior of OBSH were fully investigated. The formulation of the blowing agent mixture, the foaming condition and the morphology of the produced PPC foams were studied accordingly. Gel permeation chromato-graphy (GPC) and thermal analyses (DSC and TGA) revealed that OBSH can act as both chain-extension agent and blowing agent. The foamed PPC exhibited superior mechanical properties for packaging material.

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Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activity of Schiff bases derived from Diamine and their Metal Complexes with Manganese, Oxovanadium and Dioxouranium

Zoeb A. Filmwala, Sanjay M. Nandavadekar and Raju M. Patil

A series of Polydentate Schiff bases have been prepared by the condensation of 2-2’– diaminodibenzyl with substituted salicylaldehydes. The Schiff bases were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral methods. The metal complexes of Mn(II), VO(II) and UO2(II) have been prepared by the reaction of Schiff bases. The analytical and spectral data support the octahedral structure for Mn(II) and UO2(II) and square pyramidal for VO(II) complexes. The biological activities of Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been studied by screening the compounds against micro organisms such as E..coli, S .typhi, B. subtilis and S.aureus.

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Improvement of the Biological Treatability of the Effluents of the Tannery by the Use of the Fungic Biomass

K. Louhab and N. Sahmoune

To implement a process in view of purifying effluents of the tannery containing chromium toxic element, tests of biosorption of chromium (III) were realized on a mycelium biomass of Streptomycine rimosus type. This biomass is an industrial by-product of fungic fermentations resulting from the antibiotic industry of the pharmaceutical complex. They are residues of the cultivation of filamentous mushrooms into fermentor for the production of organic compounds such as organic enzymes, acids, antibiotics and certain vitamins. They present properties of interesting absorption and accumulation with respect to heavy metals. Their cellular coating contains a strong proportion of chitin and/or chitosane as well as anion groupings which present a high absorbent capacity with respect to the majority of the metal cations. To that effect, our aim is to show the possibilities of using a dead biomass of Streptomycines rimosus type resulting from the antibiotic activity of the complex of SAIDAL, Médéa in order to eliminate chromium from the effluent of the tannery. To this end, we have studied the influence of the physicochemical parameters such as concentration of the chromium ion, the influence of the pH on the capacity of absorption of chromium on the biomass. To implement a process of biological purification by the activated sludge of the effluents of the tannery, tests of biosorption of chromium by the biomass were realized in the presence of the activated sludge as well as the influence of the physicochemical parameters.

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Effect of Surface Charge on Reduction Rate of Erythrosin-B photosensitized by ZnO

Ritu Sharma, Harish Swarnkar and Suresh C. Ameta

Photocatalytic bleaching of erythrosin-B in presence of zinc oxide powder was carried out in presence of light. The effects of variation of different paramaters, like concentration of erythrosin-B, pH, amount and particle size of semiconductor, light intensity, cations, anions and ligands on the rate of bleaching were observed. A tentative mechanism for the photocatalytic bleaching of erythrosin-B has been proposed.

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Hydro-biological assessment of water quality of River Bhagirathi with reference to Hydel Projects in Uttaranchal (India)

N. Semwal and and P. Akolkar

River Bhagirathi has a great potential to serve as a major source for a number of Hydro-electric power projects situated on its entire stretch in Uttaranchal state. The present study deals with the ecological assessment of River Bhagirathi, through bio-monitoring of about 225 km river stretch from Gangotri to upstream of confluence point to River Alaknanda at Devprayag. The field studies were carried out during the month of May 2005 for biological water quality assessment. The hydrological status of river Bhagirathi was compared with the bio-assessment of water quality at 15 locations selected for five ongoing Hydro-Electric Power Projects. River Bhagirathi has a steep gradient with an altitudinal difference of 3038 msl from Gangotri to 475 msl at upstream of its confluence to River Alaknanda. The water body is turbulent in its upstream reaches thus maintaining an average Dissolved Oxygen levels of 11.15 mg/l throughout the stretch. Presently, the running water body is blocked only at Hydro – electric projects. The river bed gets deposited mostly at downstream stretches of Hydro – electric power projects. Alteration in substratum composition of riverbed has a significant anthropogenic influence on water quality in terms of change in biological composition of benthic macro – invertebrates inhabiting the river. Clean water quality of River Bhagirathi could be observed only in the undisturbed upstream stretches starting from Lohari Nag–Pala to upstream of Old Tehri at Malideval. At Gangotri the water quality of River Bhagirathi gets slightly polluted due to various religious human activities. At Dharasu, the water quality becomes moderately polluted . Heavy pollution due to siltation in River Bahgirathi was observed resulting from the hydrological changes at the Reservoir of Maneri Bhali Hydro project phase–1. Total absence of the Benthic Macro – invertebrates was indicated by severe pollution Class “E” of Biological water quality Criteria (BWQC), in River Bhagirathi at old Tehri town near Mosque, downstream of Tehri Dam at Zero point, inlet of Diversion tunnel at THDC Koteshwer and at upstream of Devprayag. Maneri Bhali Hydro Electric Project reservoir site provided various habitats supporting equal distribution ofArthropods, Molluscs, Annelids and Platyhelminthes. The family Heptagenidae has specifically indicated the non availability of proper substratum.

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Spectrophotometric Determination of Micro Gram Quantities of Selenium using 3, 4, 5–Trimethoxy Benzaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone

D.V. Rathnam and V. Surayanarayana Rao

The colour reaction between selenium (IV) and 3, 4, 5–TMBTSC is used to develop a sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of the metal ion. A pH of 3 is found to be appropriate for maximum colour development. Effect of metal ion concentration and reagent concentration is studied. Interference of various metal ions and anions is also investigated. Compositions of the complex, stability constant, molar absorptivity are also calculated using Job’s method and mole ratio method. The method has been applied to the analysis of fire-refined copper.

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2D QSAR Studies on Some Bakers Triazine Derivatives

P. Sudele, A. Thakur, M. Thakur, S.L. Gargh, S. Baghel, A. Agrawal and B.K. Tiwari

QSAR study of some 33 triazine derivatives have been performed as a trial set. along with two extra triazines as test set. The regression analysis resulted into multi parameter model using Physico-chemical properties and indicator parameters. The results are discussed critically on the basis of regression parameters. Authors also tried to model a new molecule and calculate the activity of the molecule from the mathematical model. Molecular mechanics and ab intio calculations have been performed on the test set molecules. Geometrical parameters, certain physico-chemical properties, dipole moment and atomic charges are reported.

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Kinetics and Mechanism of Ru(III) Catalysed Oxidation of p-hydroxy Benzoic Acid by Sodium N-Bromobenzenesulphonamide in Perchloric Acid Medium

Jyoti Verma, V.K. Srivastava and R.A. Singh

Kinetics studies of the oxidation of p-hydroxy benzoic acid(p-HBA) by sodium N-bromobenzene sulphonamide (Bromamine-B or BAB) have been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 350C. The rate shows first order dependence each on [BAB] and [p-HBA] and depends on first power of concentration of catalyst [Ru(III)]. During the reaction, it is observed that there is an inverse first order with respect to [H+]. The rate remained unchanged with the variation in the ionic strength of the medium for [p-HBA], indicating interaction in the rate determining steps is ion-dipole type, not ion-ion type. The addition of benzene sulphonamide [BSA], which is one of the reaction products, had no significant effect on the reaction rate. Thermodynamic parameters were computed by studying the reactions at different temperatures (303-318K). The rate laws derived are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Plausible mechanisms are suggested.

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Distribution and abundance of Bithynia tentaculata (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) in Lake Naroch (Republic of Belarus)

Sergey E. Mastitsky and Oleg A. Makarevich

The largest waterbody in the Republic of Belarus, Lake Naroch, is actively used for recreational purposes. In recent years medical services of the region are confronted with problems of cercarial dermatitis in swimmers (“swimmers’ itch”) caused by larvae of avian shistosomes. Among several possible intermediate hosts for shistosomes in Lake Naroch, important one is gastropod mollusc Bithynia tentaculata. We found disproportionate bathymetric distribution of this snail within the lake, with maximal values of density, biomass and occurrence pointed out at 2 m depth. At the same time, degree of snails’ spatial aggregation at depth of 2 m was the least (estimated via standardized Morisita index of dispersion). Since B. tentaculata is highly phytophilous hydrobiont, its distribution in Lake Naroch is discussed in relation to that of submerged macrophytes and epiphyton growing on their surfaces.

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Adsorption Behavior of Alachlor in Soil in different Humic Acid Levels

Shiny Mathews

Alachlor [2-chloro-2’, 6’-diethyl-N-(methoxy methyl) acetanilide] is a major pre-emergent herbicide being used widely on agricultural crops. The adsorption of alachlor in soils in presence of different concentration of humic acid levels was carried out following batch equilibration method. Adsorption of alachlor continued to increase with increase in solution concentration in natural soils and adsorption increased with increase in humic acid concentration. The adsorption can be characterized as L type adsorption isotherm, which signifies that soil had high affinity for alachlor.

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Synthetic and Ion-Exchange Studies on a Lead Selective Acrylamide Thorium (IV) Phosphate Hybrid Fibrous Ion Exchanger

S.C. Mojumdar, K.G. Varshney, Puja Gupta and Arun Agrawal

Acrylamide thorium (IV) phosphate has been synthesized as a new hybrid fibrous ion exchanger. It has been characterized using IR, TGA, XRD and SEM studies in addition to its ion exchange capacity, pH titration, elution and concentration behaviour. The distribution behaviour towards several metal ions in different media/concentration has also been studied and the material is found to be highly selective for Pb(II). Some binary separations of Pb(II) have been achieved on the column of this material. X-ray studies reveal its poorly crystalline behaviour.

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Review Paper : Advances in Extraction Techniques of Pesticide Residues in Food and Environment

Irani Mukherjee and Praveen Kumar Sharma

An advance in analytical methodology allows the detection of the most minute trace amounts of pesticide residues present in any substrate. Extraction is the single most important process in the determination of pesticide residues. Current methods of extraction are often too time-consuming, expensive and labor-intensive. Recent techniques such as Microwave Assisted Process (MAP), Accelerated solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and solid-phase microextaction (SPME) and Super critical fluid extraction (SFE) make the process of extraction more sensitive, more precise and a reliable analytical technique.

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Chemical Speciation of Trace Metals in Aquatic Environment- An Overview

Ramesh kumar and P. Riyazuddin

The need for speciation related information of trace metals in aquatic environment is critically evaluated. The importance of metal speciation in different areas of science is established. The role of hydrogen ion activity (pH), redox potential (Eh), dissolved organic matter (DOM), colloidal matter, microorganisms, natural and anthropogenic ligands present in the aquatic media on the speciation of metals particularly arsenic, chromium, mercury and selenium are reviewed. Methods of speciation of trace metals and their limitations have also been discussed.

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