Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Environmental Geochemical Research for the Levels and the Sources of Toxic Metals in the Agricultural Soils of Dimitra-eleftherion and Platycampos Region, Thessaly, Greece

K. Skordas, D. Alexakis, E. Kelepertsis and A. Kelepertsis

The contents of eleven elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Mn, Fe, As, V, Cr and Mg) have been assayed in the agricultural soils of Dimitra-Eleftherion and Platycampos region (Thessaly, Greece). One hundred twenty two top soil samples were collected and analysed by ICP-AES after digestion with a mixture of HClO4-HNO3-HCl-HF. Mean concentra-tion of elements (μg g-1) in soil samples were: Cu,43; Pb,16; Zn,78; Ni,216; Co,27; Mn,1032;Fe 4.1%; As,5; V,109; Cr,254; Mg,2.5%. The contamination of the soils was assessed on the basis of comparison with average soil composition, phytotoxic levels and GLC guidelines. All the elements analysed except Pb and As have mean concentrations above the average soil comparison. The metals Zn, Ni and Cr show mean concentrations clearly higher than the phytotoxic levels. The metals Ni, Mn, V and Cr show concentrations that according to G.L.C guidelines the Dimitra-Eleftherion and Platycampos soils are classified as slightly contaminated to contaminated. Correlation analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the data matrix to determine which elements have a common origin. PCA revealed that the studied area was mainly influenced from four sources, namely: natural (factors 1 and 2), traffic (factor 3), agricultural sources (factor 4). Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe and V are associated together in iron and manganese oxides-hydroxides; so grouping of these variables in the first factor reflects the adsorption of Cu,Zn,Co and V by the Fe-Mn oxides-hydroxides, as well as their weathering products. The existence of Ni,Co,Cr and Mg in the second factor explains the weathering products of ultrabasic rocks. The third factor is dominated by Pb and is related to the traffic emissions. Finally, the fourth factor is dominated by As and is related to the use of phosphate and other fertilizers.

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A Caution on Forthcoming Volcanogenic Tsunami in Indian Ocean

G. Manimaran and Antony Ravindran

Tsunamies are generated due to sudden displacement of vertical sea water column during the events of earthquakes [Magnitude>7], eruptions of submarine and coastal volcanoes, sudden slumping of marine sediments, land slides near the coast, the large meteor impact on sea from space and manmade nuclear explosion in the sea. Recently on 26 December 2004, a destructive Tsunami of Indian Ocean was generated due to the second largest earthquake of the world ever recorded (Magnitude 9.3) which occurred at off the west coast of Northern Sumatra. Subsequently on 28 March 2005 a weak tsunamigenic but great earthquake of magnitude 8.7 occurred at western shelf region of Northern Sumatra. Northernly moving thousands of after-shocks of December 2004 earthquake up to Burma border and Southeasternly moving hundreds of after shocks of March 2005 earthquakes occurred upto Java are still going on and releasing tremendous energy along this seismic belt. The couplet of the great earthquakes and their aftershocks were triggered eruptions of inland volcanoes like Talang volcano of Central Sumatra and of Barren Volcano of Andaman. A chain of hundreds of active volcanoes are seen along the Andaman – Indonesian Volcanic Arc System. It is a right time to remember the tsunamigenic, violent explosion of Krakatau Volcano on 27 August 1883, which was triggered due to the Tsunamigenic Car Nicobar earthquake (Magnitude 7.9) occuring on 31 December 1881 and had its aftershocks upto August 1883. On considering the above scenario, it is possible for a consecutive great earthquake of December 2004 and March 2005 with their ongoing aftershocks to trigger and explode any one of the submarine volcanoes of the Andaman – Indonesian Arc System. As a result, a Volcanogenic Tsunami may be generated in Indian Ocean probably before the end of the year 2007 or in near future.

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Interaction of Different Heterocyclic Compounds with Monoionic Forms of Montmorillonite Iii: Effect of Various Substituents on the Pyridine Ring on the Type of Bonding with Cu(ii) Montmorillonite

E. Jóna, M. Sapietová, V. Pavlík, G. Rudinská, D.Ondrušová, M. Pajtášová and S.C. Mojumdar

The X–ray diffraction and IR spectral analysis were used to study the interaction of 2–R and 3–R pyridine(py) derivatives (R = CH3, NH2) with Cu(II)–exchanged montmorillonite (Cu-MMT). It was shown that pyridine derivatives are intercalated into the interlayer spaces of montmorillonite. The formation of the Lewis and/or Brönsted type of interactions of pyridine derivatives is connected with different position and nature of the substituents on the pyridine ring.

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Molecular Polarizability and Vibrational Spectra of 2, 6 - Dihydroxypyridine Hydrochloride

B. S. Yadav and Ritu Saran

Molecular polarizability of 2, 6-dihydroxy pyridine hydrochloride has been calculated by using Lippincott and Stutman model. Raman and IR spectra have been recorded in the regions 30-3750cm-1 and 400-4000cm-1 respectively. The observed bands have been explained on the basis of similar molecules reported earlier.

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Quantification and Management of Pollution Load in Pharmaceutical Industry

Sandeep Bodkhe, Aquila Qureshi and S.R. Wate

A pharmaceutical industry manufacturing antibiotics has proposed to manufacture new antibiotics to stand prevailing market demands. The change in production may correspondingly change nature and quantity of pollutants emitted and cause adverse environmental impacts. Assessment of pollutant load has been carried out in this study. The study is termed as pollution load assessment (PLA) which involves assessment of pollution load due to existing emissions and its comparison with the computed pollution loads due to new products. The study indicated change is the quantity of production of new antibiotics in such a way that environmental pollution before and after the proposed production would remain same. The PLA study has inferred that there could be no additional pollution load to ambient environment due to the proposed change in production. Environmental Management Plan (EMP) including improvements such as better techniques for recycle, reuse, mitigation measures etc. have been suggested to control the pollution load to the existing level.

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Utilization of Proteolytic Extract from Carica Papaya For the Preparation of Chitin from Shrimp Shell Waste

G. Indra Jasmine, K. Rathnakumar and G. Athiveerarama Pandidurai

Shrimp shell waste is an important source of chitin and chitosan which have many applications in industry such as sizing of stabilising and thickening agents, rayon, cotton, synthetic fibres, wool, paper, cellophane as adhesives and in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics etc. Current research has focussed on ways to extract chitin from the shrimp shell waste. In this experiment, the effect of adding proteolytic extract from Carica papaya on the degree of hydrolysis of shrimp waste protein was investigated. The quality of the chitin was compared with that produced by conventional chemical method.

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Adsorption Studies of Cu (II) from Aqueous Medium by Tamarind Kernel Powder

Vikal Gupta, Jaya Agarwal, Manisha Purohit and Veena

The adsorption technique using tamarind kernel powder was applied for the removal of Cu+2 from aqueous samples. The extent of removal/ adsorption was dependent upon the pH, amount of adsorbent used and the time of contact. The experimental results revealed that the adsorption occurred as a spontaneous one. The adsorbent is effective for quantitative removal of Cu+2 in acidic conditions and equilibrium has been achieved in 10 min. This method is quite feasible, economic, time saving and low cost.

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The Structural Aspects and Physico Chemical Properties of Binary Polar Liquids in Nonpolar Solvent under a Gigahertz Electric Field

U. K. Mitra, N. Ghosh , S. Acharyya and P. Ghosh

The mixtures of two polar liquids N,N-dimethyl formamide DMF(j) and N,N-dimethyl sulphoxide DMSO(k) in a nonpolar solvent benzene C6H6(i) are studied in terms of the ternary(ijk) high frequency (hf) orientational susceptibilities cijk’s at different experimental temperatures in 0C to arrive at the structural and associational aspects of those polar liquids. The estimation of binary relaxation time tjk and dipole moment mjk and several thermodynamic energy parameters like the enthalpy of activation (DHt)jk, the entropy of activation (DSt)jk, the free energy of activation (DFt)jk of the binary solutes are ,however, obtained in order to reach the conclusion. The dimensionless parameter d = (DHt) jk / DHhi estimated from the slope of the linear equation of lntjkT against lnhi where hI is the coefficient of viscosity of the solvent used, provides one with the information of the solute-solute and solute-solvent molecular associations among the molecules concerned. Almost constant values of Debye factor tjkT / hi unlike Kalman factors tjkT / hid indicate the Debye relaxation mechanism obeyed by the solutions of binary associated molecules in C6H6. The measure hf binary dipole moment mjk in terms of estimated binary relaxation time tjk are compared with the theoretical dipole moments mtheo’s obtained from the bond moments of the substitutent polar groups attached to the parent molecules only to support their conformations of associations. The disagreement between mjk’s and mtheo’s indicates the inductive, mesomeric and electromeric effects of the substitutent polar groups in addition to their H-bonding in a gigahertz electric field.

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Removal of As(III) from water by oxidation/coprecipitation-adsorption on Fe/Al hydroxide – Process Demonstration

Pritam Singh, Wensheng Zhang, Robert G. Robins1 and Graham Hubbard2

Arsenic contamination in groundwater is a major health problem for populations who utilise that water for drinking. Arsenic(III) is often the main oxidation state that occurs in water and its pre-treatment by oxidation to arsenic(V) is considered to lead to more effective removal in subsequent coprecipitation processes. Hypochlorite is an effective oxidant for As(III). The change in solution redox potential (EH) when OCl- is added to As(III) can be used as a means for monitoring additions of the oxidant. Undesirable excessive addition of OCl- to water under treatment could be minimised through EH monitoring. The slow kinetics of the oxidative reaction by OCl- can be catalysed by Br- ions in solution. A bench scale process unit has been developed for demonstrating the arsenic removal process in which oxidation and the use of a mixed Al(III)/Fe(III) coagulant is applied.

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Evaluation and Mapping of Impacts of Land Use /Land Cover on Groundwater Quality using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques

S.S. Asadi, Padmaja Vuppala and M. Anji Reddy

Increase in population and built up area results in an increase in the pressure on the civic amenities, which directly affect the quality of environment. Most of the lakes and rivers are forced to serve as drainage channels, which in turn affect the ground water quality of the surrounding area. Need for a study to understand the correlation between land use and environmental parameters is longfelt and a methodology to derive this correlation has been worked out using Remote sensing and GIS. Keeping this in view an attempt has been made to identify the problematic areas in Zone-X under Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad by evaluating the quality of ground water and the impact of land use /land cover on it. Two types of database (spatial and attribute) created using Remote sensing and GIS are integrated for the generation of maps showing spatial distribution of water quality parameters using curve fitting technique of ARC/VIEW GIS software for identifying the problematic areas. Water Quality Index (WQI) was then calculated to determine the suitability of water for human consumption. For places like Hasan Nagar, Nandi Musalaiguda, Falaknuma and Fateh Darwaza the WQI was found to be >100 indicating that the groundwater in these areas is unfit for drinking and in rest of the areas the water quality was found to be moderately polluted.

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Adsorption of Ferrous Ion from Aqueous Solution by Acid Activated Low Cost Carbon obtained from Natural Plant Material

B.R. Venkatraman, M.Hema, T.Rajachandrasekar and S. Arivoli

Batch experiments were carried out for the sorption of Ferrous ion onto acid activated carbon prepared. From this the operating variables studied were initial metal ion concentration, pH, temperature and contact time. Equilibrium data fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. From this adsorption efficiency, adsorption energy, adsorption capacity, intensity of adsorption and dimensionless separation factor were calculated. From the kinetic studies the rate constant values for the adsorption process were calculated. From the effect of temperature thermodynamic parameters like DG°, DH° and DS° were calculated. The mechanism of adsorption for the ferrous ion onto carbon has been investigated by using the experimental results and confirming by FT- IR, XRD and SEM images.

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Washing of Mgo from Chrome Sludge in an Acidic Environment

P. Mokrejs, M. Mladek, F. Langmaier, D. Janacova, K. Kolomaznik and V. Vasek

Chrome sludge is a solid residue left after enzyme hydrolysis of leather shavings. The chrome sludge contains chromium, magnesium oxide and residual protein. MgO was used as a promoter in enzyme hydrolysis of leather shavings. For further processing (e.g. in a pigment manufacture) the chrome sludge has to be depleted of undesirable components, protein and MgO. Present work deals with washing of MgO from the chrome sludge in an acidic environment running in two stages. First of all, washing of the chrome sludge with water to the purpose of removing unbound MgO was carried out and secondly, washing of the chrome sludge with diluted sulphuric acid (pH = 6) to the purpose of removing bound MgO. Total efficiency of two-stage washing-out of magnesium oxide from the chrome sludge is nearly 79% (related to starting content of MgO in the chrome sludge).

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The Screening of Photodynamic Toxicity of Dyes by Means of a Bioassay using Amphibian Embryos

Jorge Herkovits, Cristina S. Pérez-Coll, Juan C. Stockert and Alfonso Blázquez

The toxicity and photodynamic toxicity of 10 dyes on Bufo arenarum embryos employing lethality as end point were evaluated. Embryos at the stage of complete operculum (S25) were treated with the dyes at different concentrations and using several incubation and irradiation times. For standardization purposes, the embryos were treated at NOEC values for 48 h and then irradiated with white light for 10 min (72 mW/cm2, 43.2 J/cm2). Methylene blue, toluidine blue, rose bengal B, acridine orange and phloxine B were found to be photoactive, whereas trypan blue, remazol brilliant blue R, pyronine Y, indigocarmine and luxol fast blue MBS did not show photochemical toxicity. The survival of control (only irradiated) embryos was not affected. By comparing the NOEC and NOEC+light values the photochemical damage induced by dyes could be easily assessed. These results point out the possibility to evaluate the phototoxic effect of chemicals by means of a simple test employing the amphibian embryo as a whole organism.

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Destruction of Alkaline Cyanides by Electric Discharges

Avaly Doubla, Jean-Louis Brisset, David Moussa, Eugen Hnatiuc and Radu Burlica

Alkaline cyanide solutions get degraded and lose their toxic character when exposed to an electric discharge of the gliding arc type i.e. a non thermal quenched plasma at atmospheric pressure operated in humid air and oxygen in ordinary conditions. The overall degradation reactions are 1st order and the kinetics constants are 10-4 sec-1 and 2.78 10-5 sec-1 respectively. The efficiency of the discharge depends on the nature of the feeding gas. It is higher in humid air than in oxygen, which underlines the part of the NOx radicals in the degradation process, complementary to the other oxidising species identified in the discharge.

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Electrochemical Behaviour of Carbon Allied Steel using a Zinc Electrode as Sacrificial Anode in aerated NaCl 3% and Influence of the Number and Arrangement of Zinc Anodes

M. Khettab, L . Talbi, F. Kerkouche and M.A. Ladjouzi

The resistance of carbon allied (0.18% in mass) steel ( AP15 L nuance – M-X52 grade) was improved at 25 °C in aerated NaCl 3%, using a pure zinc sacrificial anode. The comparison of log (i) = f (E) curves showed the protection of steel with respect to zinc which corrodes. Moreover, the effect of the number and the arrangement of anodes around steel were studied. The interpretation of such curves and the micrographic observation confirm this influence.

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Mini Review-Green Cluster: TiO2 Nanoparticles – a Versatile Catalyst

Vishal Mishra

Titanium dioxide is an important catalyst with many intrinsic properties. This catalyst is effective because of its small size particles. TiO2 Nanoparticles are prepared by various methods and their synthetic applications are many.

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Phosphomolybdic Acid (PMA)

JDavid Rodrigues da Rocha

Phosphomolibidic acid is an environment-friendly and economically feasible catalyst which can be applied in many organic reactions.

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