Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Current state of the knowledge and prospects in development of new generation of environmental adsorbents

Chmielewská Eva

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Removal of Azo Dyes from Aqueous Solution by Coagulation/Flocculation with Strong Polycations

Ecaterina Stela Dragan and Ionel Adrian Dinu

The interactions of methyl orange and two benzidine type azo dyes, Congo Red and Direct Blue 1, with some strong polycations with variable charge densities, having cationic centers in the side chain, were investigated. Strong polycations were prepared by quaternization of poly (dimethyl-aminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEM) with benzyl chloride (Qx polycations). The influence of the polycation charge density on the coagulation/flocculation efficiency of the Qx polycations was evaluated. Polycation/azo dye complexes in the solid state were investigated by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy to get information on the strength of interactions in the complex formation.

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Comparison of Different Methods for Sludge Lysis

Zhang Guangming and Zhang Panyue

Sludge lysis is the key step for lysis-cryptic growth, an important mechanism for sludge reduction in wastewater treatments. This paper comparatively studies various methods for sludge lysis, including heating, alkaline addition, alkaline-heating, ozonation, hydrogen peroxide oxidation, and sonication, using efficiencies in sludge disintegration and supernatant characteristic changes. The results show that all these methods except for alkaline addition were effective for sludge lysis but none could completely liquify the sludge. The sludge structure was disrupted; the cell materials and extracellular polymer substances were released into the surrounding water. As a result, the soluble chemical oxygen demand, supernatant total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and polysaccharide increased significantly. At the same time, the suspended solids in the sludge decreased. The sludge dry solid and volatile solid reduction was lower than the inorganic matters decrease, indicating that sludge lysis was more effective for floc disintegration than for bacteria cell disruption. For increase of supernatant nitrogen, phosphorous, and polysaccharide, heating was best and hydrogen peroxide and sonication were the poorest. For sludge disintegration, alkaline-heating was the most effective with 73% sludge decomposition, and treatment time played a key role. Hydrogen peroxide was better than ozone because ozone is a stronger oxidant. Dose/energy saturation existed for ozone and ultrasound lysis due to oxidation of the supernatant soluble materials.

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Determination of Vitamin C in fruits and Commercial Fruit Juices by Derivative Spectrophotometry

Blagojeviæ Nada Z. and Vukašinoviæ-Pešiæ Vesna L.

Determination of vitamin C [ascorbic acid (AA)] in fruits and commercial fruit juices was performed by derivative spectrophotometry without using any pre-separation or background correction techniques. The method is based on the measurement of a peak–baseline amplitude in the second derivative spectra of the extracts at 267.5 nm. The following corresponding regression equation was used in 1.0 M HCl solution: 2D267.5=2.420x104 c+0.025; the correlation coefficient was 0.9993 and the detection limit 4.2x10-6 M. The results obtained by analysing 13 different species of fruits and commercial fruit juices demonstrated a possibility for application of the proposed method. The results obtained by this method were compared with those obtained by generally accepted 2,6-dichloroindophenol method.

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Heavy Metals Removal from Contaminated Soil by Siam Weed (Chromolaena odorata) and Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides)

Sampanpanish P., Chaengcharoen W.1 and Tongcumpou C.

The ability for heavy metals removal by C. odorata and V. zizanioides grown on contaminated soil and synthetic contaminated soil in experimental pots was investigated. Both contaminated and uncontaminated soils, for preparing the synthetic contaminated soil in this study, were obtained from Mae Sot district, Tak province. The contaminated synthetic soil was prepared by adding a solution of cadmium nitrate, zinc sulfate, lead nitrate and copper sulfate to uncontaminated soil to make the concentration of each metal: Cd, Zn, Pb, and Cu 100 mg/kg soil above its initial concentration. In both plants grown on-site contaminated soil and on the synthetic soil, although some abnormal symptoms such as chlorosis, scorching in leaves and necrosis appeared, the plants still grew well. Each part of the plant was examined for heavy metal uptake at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after planting. Root uptake was greater than that of stem and leaves in all samples. For the on-site contaminated soil, the highest concentrations found in the root part for Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu of C. odorata were 50.22, 123.45, 29.07 and 31.89 mg/kg on a dry weight basis respectively and of V. zizanioide were 11.24, 163.18, 40.63 and 15.62 mg/kg on a dry weight basis respectively. The synthetic contaminated soil plants also showed higher concentration in root part than the other two parts for all metals both in C. odorata and in V. zizanioide. This is due to the metals being present in a readily available form. Accumulation of Cd in mass for both plants grown in contaminated soil at the time of harvesting showed that C. odorata performed better than V. zizanioide, especially for the aboveground parts and the time for harvesting that yielded the highest uptake of Cd was at 120 days.

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Reactions of Organotin Chlorides with Triphenyl Phosphine, Arsine and Stibine

Bansal Deepika, Singhal A.P. and Mittal R.K.

Complexes of the type R2SnCl2.2L (where R= -CH3 and L=PPh3), R2SnCl2.L (where R= -C6H5 and L=PPh3.AsPh3 or SbPh3),R3SnCl.L (where R=-C6H5 and L=PPh3 and AsPh3), ROSnCl3.ROH.L (where R=-CH3 or –C2H5 and L=PPh3) and ROSnCl3.L (where R=-tC4H9 and L=PPh3) have been synthesized. Some adducts could be distilled under reduced pressure.

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Distribution of Heavy Metals in Mangrove Sediments of Cochin Estuary

Sarika P. R. and Chandramohanakumar N.

The distributions of Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd and Zn in three different mangrove ecosystems of Cochin estuary were examined. The order of abundance of metals were in the order Fe >Mn ~~ Zn > Zn ~~ Mn > Cu > Cd. The metal content in sediment was well within the range reported for metals from other mangroves of the world, with some exceptions. The average Cd content was greater than 1 mg/g at all three mangrove stations. The iron concentrations in mangrove sediments were higher than that reported for estuarine sediments. Two way ANNOVA (stations X months) showed significant spatial variations for all metals except Cd; monthly variations are found to be statistically insignificant.

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Simultaneous Determination of Abamectin and Praziquantel in Oral Paste (Veterinary formulations) using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Harlikar Jayvant Narayan and Amlani Arun Mahendra

The aim of the study is to develop a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay, for rapid, simultaneous determination of Abamectin and Praziquantel in Warmnil oral paste (Veterinary Formulation). The experimental procedure involved reversed-phase-HPLC with a Inertsil ODS column (250 × 4.6 mm ID, 5 mm particle size), buffer, methanol and acetonitrile in volume ratio of 15:33:52 as mobile phase, UV detection at 254 nm for both Abamectin and Praziquantel. The flow rate of the mobile phase was adjusted to 1.0mL per minute. Calibration curves were linear over the range 0.46-55.35 mg/mL for Abamectin and 0.59-711.3 mg/mL for Praziquantel. The recoveries ranged from 98% to 102%, the % RSD for intra day and inter day precision were = 2.0 for both Abamectin and Praziquantel. Formulation components did not give rise to any interfering peaks at the retention time of Abamectin and Praziquantel. Due to its simplicity and accuracy, the assay method is suitable for routine analysis of both drugs in oral paste formulations.

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Synthesis and Antimicrobial Potential of Novel Quinoxalinopeptide Analogs

Dahiya Rajiv and Bansal Yuganshu

A novel series of 2,3-diphenyl-6-quinoxalinoyl amino acids and peptides was synthesized by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino-propyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and diisopropylcarbodiimide (EDC.HCl/DIPC) as coupling agents and N-methylmorpholine (NMM) as base. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established on basis of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MASS spectral data. Quinoxalinopeptides were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and compounds 1iii, 1iv, 1viii and their hydrolyzed analogs 2ii and 2iv were found to possess higher bioactivity against pathogenic dermatophytes - Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii with MIC values of 6 mg/ml and compound 1ii and its hydrolyzed analog 2i exhibited better activity against Gram-negative bacterium - Pseudomonas aeruginosa and pathogenic Candida albicans, as compared to reference drugs - gatifloxacin and griseofulvin.

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Synthesis and Spectrophotometric Studies of 4-(2-benzothiazolylazo) - 2-amino -3-hydroxypyridine as an Analytical Reagent

Shanthalakshmi K. and Belagali S. L.

4-(2-benzothiazolylazo) -2-amino -3-hydroxypyridine (BTAAHP) was synthesized and its potential as complexing agent for determination of metals has been studied spectrophotometrically. The reagent is quite sensitive for determination of Copper and it reacts instantly with Copper (II) to form reddish purple complex (l max 540 nm) at pH 2.8. Under this condition, the selectivity of the reagent is excellent and most metal ions do not interfere except for Nickel and Cobalt. Molar absorptivity of the Copper complex is 9.8 x 105 L mol-1 cm-1 in aqueous acetone at pH 2.8 (l max 540 nm), the system confirms Beer’s law for 1.25 mg L-1 to 4.4 mg L-1of Copper. A further advantage of estimation of Copper using this reagent is that, an extraction procedure is not necessary and analytical procedure is therefore very simple. Estimation of Zinc and Cadmium can be done at pH 4.45.

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Synthesis of a-Si3N4 Whiskers from Rice Hulls

Rubio E., Rodríguez-Lugo V., Fuentes R. and Castaño V.M.

This paper reports the formation of a-Si3N4 whiskers through nitruration, at 1400°C, of ash rice hulls, which constitutes a good source of amorphous silica and carbon, both in intimate contact. The structural and morphological evolution of silicon nitride during the conversion process was examined by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

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Modeling of Lipophilicity in Benzoate Derivatives: A 3D Approach

Thakur A, Baghel S., Tiwari Kapil, Thakur M., Chandel K.S., Badole G. L. and Thakkar Atul

The work describes the role of molecular descriptors and various substitutions over the lipophilicity of the Benzoate derivatives. To perform the study two different sets of Benzoate derivatives of 9 and 17 compounds respectively are tested. Physicochemical properties and indicator parameters are used as descriptor to model the lipophilicity. The multiple linear regressions analysis indicated that a combination of adhoc molecular descriptors and the indicator parameters yielded a statistically significant model for modeling the lipophilicity of benzoate derivatives. The study of 3 dimensional features is made by the quantum molecular modeling.

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Application of Microwave Energy on the Stabilization of Copper containing Industrial Sludge

Kuan Wen Hui, Chen Ching Lung and Lo Shang Lien

Because of the high concentration of heavy metals in the sediment sludge produced from industrial wastewater treatment, direct disposal of this sludge in landfill sites will cause serious soil and groundwater pollution. Traditionally, the industrial sludge in Taiwan is first solidified and the products need to pass through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test prior to disposal on landfill. However, the increasing of sludge volume after a solidification process will shorten the lifetime of a landfill, especially in the land-limited Taiwan. The objective of this study is to develop a microwave process, which can reduce the volume and the leaching of heavy metals from the sludge and effectively mineralize the industrial sludge. The stabilization efficiency of the microwave process was evaluated in terms of microwave intensity and reaction time. The results show that the leaching concentration of Cu from the stabilized sludge after microwave processing was dramatically lower than the raw sludge. In addition, the moisture content and weight of sludge solid were reduced. The results imply that microwave process could effectively dry and mineralize the objective sludge.

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Activation Parameters of Flow through Micro Porous and Ion exchange Separators

Sharma Meena and Sharma Amit

Studies of the hydrodynamic flow of aqueous solutions of Acetonitrile and Dioxane through a micro porous and an ion-exchange separator are described. The permeability values are interpreted in terms of a psuedo-activation process. The enthalpy of activation DH* and the entropy of activation DS* have been estimated from Eyring’s rate equation.

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Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Some Isatin based Novel Spiroheterocycles for Anticonvulsant Activity

Bari S. B. and Mahajan B. M.

In the present work, nucleophillic addition of [(2-benzothiazolylthio) acetyl]-hydrazine (2) with derivatives of isatin (IIa-g) yield isatin-3-[N2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-thioacetyl]hydrazones (3a-g). Heterocyclization of compound (3a-g) on treatment with 2-mercaptoacetic acid in DMF in the presence of catalytic amount of zinc chlorides yields title compounds (4a-g). The entire synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of their elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR and mass spectroscopy and screened against Pentylenetetrazole induced anticonvulsant activity, by using Diazepam as standard. The anticonvulsant activity of title compound revealed that two compounds, (4d) and (4g) exhibited highly potent anticonvulsant activity, while (4b) and (4f) exhibited moderate anticonvulsant activity in a series of screened compounds.

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Studies on Complexes of Schiff bases with Ni II and Cu II metal ions.

Pandhare G.R., Shinde V.M. and Deshpande Y.H.

Ligation properties of Schiff bases derived from 2- aminophenol and substituted aldehydes have been investigated for this purpose. NiII and CuII complexes of these ligands are synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, magnetic, thermal and spectral studies. The complexes conform to 1:1 stoichiometry and are non electrolytic in nature. The coordination of the ligand takes place through azomethine nitrogen and phonolic oxygen of the Schiff bases in the octahedral environment. All the metal complexes show antimicrobial activity.

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Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiocyanate by Color Reduction Method

Dhomane A.S. and Venkatachalam A.

Spectrophotometric method for trace determination of thiocyanate has been developed based on reduction of absorbance of alkaline potassium permanganate solution by thiocyanate. Up to 5.0 ppm of thiocyanate can be determined with a standard deviation of 0.06 ppm.

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Catalytic Study of Activated Charcoal obtained from A. mexicana L.

Pingale Shirish S. and Pokharkar Rahunath D.

Activated charcoals have been prepared from the weed like Argemone mexicana L. by using chemical activating agents like Zinc Chloride, Ortho-Phosphoric Acid, etc. Adsorption studies on carbon obtained from Argemone mexicana L. activated with 10 % Zinc Chloride and also activated with 20 % Phosphoric Acid have shown that these materials have good uptake capacity for acetic acid and oxalic acid. The observations have been fitted into Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The plots of above samples are found to be linear indicating the applicability of the Langmuir equation. These observations obtained from preliminary studies of adsorption have given encouraging results.

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Mini Review-Green Cluster: Montmorillonite K-10: Recyclable and Useful Catalyst

Jordão Alessandro Kappel

From the possibility to recycle the catalyst Montmorillonite K-10 in various types of organic reactions, this clay is a very good alternative to synthetize a large group of molecules decreasing the risk of environmental pollution.

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