Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Monitoring Nickel Uptake in Date Palms from Nickel-Contaminated Soil

–Williams J. R. and Pillay A.E.

This study involved measurement of total nickel in dates and leaflets from date palms grown in soil containing appreciable levels of the transition metal. This contamination probably arose from debris and remnants from previous construction sites in and around the area. It was shown that toxicity of nickel in date palms is low, despite growth in arid soil containing above-average levels of this metal. The soil showed a mean nickel concentration of 91 mg g–1 dry mass at a depth of 25-45 cm, a value higher than the Omani maximum permitted limit in soil of 75 mg g–1 dry mass, the United Kingdom threshold of 70 mg g–1 dry mass and the European Union limit of 30-75 mg g–1 dry mass. At a soil depth of 2-22 cm, the nickel levels were even higher. Despite these relatively elevated nickel levels in the soil, concentrations of this element in date palm fruit and leaflets were within acceptable limits. In addition, the date palms appeared to show no ill effects. Consequently, it is feasible to grow date palms in soil containing appreciable levels of nickel. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the fruit growth stage (Kimri, Bisir and Rutab) affected nickel levels in the leaflets, but not in the fruit at the 95% confidence level. The same statistics revealed that the presence of nickel in the date palm fruit and leaflets had no direct connection with the alternate bearing effect. Furthermore, the date palm was found neither to accumulate nickel nor act as an indicator species for this metal. There was, however, some correlation between nickel levels in the soil and those in the dates and leaflets. More specifically, high nickel levels in the soil were found to be synonymous with relatively high concentrations in the leaflets. In contrast, low nickel levels in the soil were associated with relatively high concentrations in the fruit.

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A Study of the Interactions of Ni-Exchanged Montmorillonite with Benzotriazole

–Sapietová M., Jóna E., Šnircová S., Lajdová L., Janík R. and Mojumdar S. C.

The mode of interaction of benzotriazole with Ni-exchanged montmorillonite was studied. Among the factors controlling the intercalation process, pH of saturated solution and the nature of exchangeable cation appeared to be the most influential. The extent and mechanism retention were determined using elemental analysis, XRD and IR spectroscopy. The obtained results indicated that a cation-exchange reaction proceeds (benzotria-zolium cation is intercalated) in the acid solution. In the neutral solution benzotriazole is coordinated to Ni2+ cations as neutral molecule and in the basic solution as benzotriazole anion.

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Synthesis and Characterization of some Novel Ethoxyphthalimide Derivatives of Pyrazolothiazolo-pyrimidines

–Sain Devendra Kumar, Bapna Archita and Talesara G. L.

Ethyl 4-(4-substituted phenyl)-6-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4- tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate (1a-b) were obtained by three component acid catalyzed condensation of 4-substituted aralde-hydes, thiourea and EAA. Tetrahydro-pyrimidines (1a-b) on treatment with chloroacetic acid in absolute ethanol and fused sodium acetate yielded ethyl 5-(4-substituted phenyl)-7-methyl-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-5H-[1,3] thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate (2a-b).On treatment with various aromatic aldehydes (3a-e) in glacial acetic acid and fused sodium acetate, compound (2a-b) furnished arylidine derivatives (4a-b) which on further cyclisation with hydrazine hydrate in absolute alcohol and few drops of acetic acid afforded ethyl 3,8-di(4- substituted phenyl)-6-methyl-3,3a-dihydro-2H, 8H-pyrazolo [3’,4’:4,5] [1,3]thiazolo [3,2-a] pyrimidine-7-carboxylate (5a-b). Sub-sequently compounds (5a-b) were converted to ethyl 2-N-ethoxyphthalimido-3,8-di(4-substituted phenyl)-6-methyl-3,3a-dihydro-2H,8H-pyrazolo [3’,4’:4,5][1,3]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine-7-carboxylate (6a-b) on treating with phthalimi-doxyethyl bromide.

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Thermal Decomposition of LDPE-LLDPE-EVA Copolymer Mixture using Microwave Energy

Jeon Jong-Ki, Choi Hye Young, Park Young-Kwon, Kim Hyunook and Kang Tae Won

In this study, the influence of microwave energy on the chemical characteristics of the gases and oils produced by decomposing LDPE-LLDPE-EVA copolymer was evaluated. In addition, the result was compared using conventional heating. The selectivity of C20+ products was very low when pyrolysis was carried out at 250W or higher microwave energy, while conventional pyrolysis showed a wide range of product distribution from C1 to C32. The selectivity to C2 and C3 hydrocarbon increased with increasing of microwave energy. The olefin fraction in C2-C4 went up to 81.5 wt % microwave-induced pyrolysis, which was greater than that for conventional pyrolysis. Microwave-induced pyrolysis could be a more favorable option than conventional pyrolysis in generating light hydrocarbon from a polymer mixture.

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Removal of Chromium (III) from Aqueous Solution by Pretreated Microbial Waste Biomass

–Sharma Indu and Goyal Dinesh

Removal of chromium (III) from aqueous solution was studied by two pretreated microbial waste biomass obtained as byproduct of pharmaceutical industry involving fermentative production of certain antibiotics by Aspergillus sp. (MB1) and Streptomyces sp. (MB2). Percentage Cr(III) removal efficiency was improved by pretreatment of native biomass MB1 with certain chemicals in the order of sodium hydroxide (96.21%) > sulfuric acid (70.92%) > acetone (68.006%) > methanol (64.13%)> chloroform (63.011%)> hydrochloric acid (62.02%) > diethylether (54.28%), whereas by MB2 biomass it was in the order of hydrochloric acid (77.72%) > sodium hydroxide (76.647%) > sulfuric acid (75.82%)> diethylether (74.49%) chloroform (69.06%) > methanol (58.98%). Both alkali and acid treatment showed significant removal of Cr(III) from aqueous solution than the organic solvent. This indicates that such waste microbial biomass could be used as an alternative source for Cr removal from industrial effluent and its pretreatment with dilute alkali or acid can significantly enhance the metal removal efficiency.

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Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Surficial Sediments of a Complex Micro-Tidal Estuarine System in Southwest India

–Renjith K.R. and Chandramohanakumar N.

Seasonal and spatial variations of heavy metals along with the mineralogy in the surficial sediments of the Panangad region in the southern arm of Cochin estuary were analysed to identify the factors governing their geochemical distribution. Finer sediment fractions were rich in clay mineral like illite, kaolinite + chlorite, smectite and gibbsite where as quartz and feldspar dominated in coarser fractions. Mineralogical composition of the sediments represents hinterland flux. Higher amount of minerals resulted in characteristic enrichment of trace elements, particularly in the fine fractions of the sediments. Quartz and feldspar have inverse effect on the sedimentary heavy metal distribution. The order of metal abundance also signals to the chemical weathering in the catchment area. Seasonal variations were not observed in the heavy metals distribution, while their spatial variations could be related to the granulometry. Highly significant interrelations between heavy metals propose a common origin. Sediment enrichment factor analysis pointed towards anthropogenic contamination for Ni and Pb. Principal component analysis was employed to find the major geochemical processes leading to the distribution of heavy metals in this estuary.

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Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Nickel (II) with 2-Hydroxy 3-Nitro 5-methyl Acetophenone Oxime (HNMA)

–Sawant Abhay D., Barhate V.D. and Lokhande R.S.

2-Hydroxy 3-Nitro 5-methyl Acetophenone Oxime (HNMA) extracts nickel(II) quantitatively (99.50%) into chloroform from an aqueous solution of pH 6.8 to 8.0 and from 0.5 M solution of sodium acetate. The chloroform extract shows an intense peak at 410 nm (lmax). Beer’s law is obeyed over the Ni(II) concentration range 0.2-8 mg cm-3. The molar absorptivity is 11176 dm3 mole–1 cm–1 at 420 nm. Composition of extracted species is found to be 1:2 (Ni:HNMA) by Job’s continuous variation and mole ratio method. Interference by various ions has been studied. Proposed method has been applied for determination of Ni(II) in steel, simultaneous determination of Co(II) and Ni(II) in high speed steel and simultaneous determination of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II).

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Removal of Cr (VI) by a Low Cost Adsorbent prepared from Alternanthera Bettzichiana (Regel) Nicols Plant Material

–Patil A. K. and Shrivastava V. S.

The Alternanthera bettzichiana (Regel) Nicols plant material (ABPM) were used as low cost, easily available and renewable adsorbent for the removal Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies demonstrate that the adsorbent prepared from Alternanthera bettzichiana (Regel) Nicols plant material (ABPM) has a significant capacity for adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The parameters investigated in this study include pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial Cr(VI) concentration. Adsorption of Cr(VI) is highly pH dependent and the results indicate that the optimum pH for the removal was found to be 2. Cr(VI) removal efficiency was found to be 98.8% at initial Cr (VI) concentration of 10 mg/L in 2 hours contact time. An adsorbent dose of 4 g/L was sufficient for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution. The adsorption process of Cr (VI) is tested with Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption isotherm followed Freundlich better than Langmuir isotherms. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions on the adsorbent was evaluated for the pseudo first-order, the pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models respectively. The pseudo second-order kinetic model was found to correlate the experimental data well.

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Study of inclusion complexes of Acridone and its thiosemicarbazone derivative with b-cyclodextrin

–Nayak Swapna Sankar and Panda Sunakar

Acridone scaffold is an important pharmacophore for the designing of several chemotherapeutic agents. Acridone has been prepared starting from N-phenylanthranilic acid and acridone thiosemicarbazone derivative has been prepared by the nucleophilic addition of thiosemicarbazide with acridone. Both acridone and its derivatives being insoluble in polar medium, may have poor pharmacological activity. In order to enhance bio-accessibility of these drugs, the inclusion complexes of acridone and its derivative have been prepared with b- cyclodextrin . The spectral characteristics (UV-Vis, FTIR) of these compounds have been studied with and without inclusion complex formation. The phase solubility studies reveal 1:1 stoichiometry between guest (acridone and its derivatives) and host (b- cyclodextrin). The determination of thermodynamic stability constants indicates weak intermolecular forces between the compounds and b-cyclodextrin. The thermodynamic parameters DG, DH, DS of the complexes have been calculated. The values of DG and DH suggest that complex formation is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Further higher negative value of DH than DS indicates the dominance of enthalpy factor over entropy factor during complex formation.

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Effect of Hydrotropes as Media for Reactions between 1, 3-cyclic diketone and Aromatic Aldehydes

–Maharao Anagha, Babar Mahesh and Patil Pratibha

In this paper, a reaction between 1,3-cyclic diketone and aldehydes is studied in 3 different hydrotropes at various concentrations and tempera-tures to yield bismethones. An increase in the temperature and concentration of the hydrotropes resulted in an enhancement of the yield. The recyclibility of the hydrotropes gave comparative yields with same chromatographic purity.

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Impact of Physico - Chemical Properties of Soil on Population of Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria

–Arora Neena V., Maini Pramila and Shukla N.P.

Physico -chemical properties of soil play a very important role in growth and survival of nitrogen fixing bacteria. Four soil samples [black, yellow, sandy and red soil] were collected from different parts of Madhya Pradesh region having different colour and different physico chemical properties. These soils were analyzed for soil texture, pH, electrical conductivity, water holding capacity, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium content. For a living organism to exist in soil, the environmental conditions should be ideal. The highest population of Rhizobium bacteria was found in black soil sample having high organic carbon content while sandy soil was found rich in Azotobacter bacteria. The lowest population of nitrogen fixing bacteria was recorded in red soil which may be due to low pH and high available nitrogen content.

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Physico-Chemical Studies of Pd (ii), Pt (ii) and Zr(iv) Chelates with p-chloroisonitroso Acetophenone (p-clinap)

–Raut R.D., Chaudhari M.D. and Yadao Anupkumar

Synthesis and characterisation of Pd(II), Pt(II) and Zr(IV) complexes with ligand p-Chloro isonitrosoacetophenone (p-ClINAP) are reported. The complexes of formula Pd(IMAP)2, Pt(IMAP)2, Zr(IMAP)3 have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic data, electronic spectra etc. and their possible structures are discussed. The diamagnetic nature of Zr(IV) complex indicates octahedral geometry while the diamagnetic and spectral features of the Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes suggested square planer geometry.

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Effect of Cross Linking Agents on the Formation and Properties of Nanopolymer Composites of Chitosan

–Sudha P.N. and Kanchana V.

Composite materials combine and maintain two or more distinct phases to produce a material that has properties far superior than either of the base materials. Nanoparticles made of chitosan, a naturally occuring polymer isolated from crab and shrimp shells, have shown to be promising as carriers of anticancer drugs, antitumor genes and other novel therapeutic agents. Cross-linking agents improve the properties of polymers and their products. Hence in the present work nanochitosan was prepared using polyphosphoric acid and composites of nanochitosan were prepared with methyl cellulose in the presence of two different cross-linking agents. The two composites were analyzed for their thermal stability. Glutaraldehyde cross-linked nano chitosan methyl cellulose showed higher thermal stability than formaldehyde cross- linked nano chitosan composite.

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Exterior Surface Functionalization or Zeolite pelletization to enlarge capturing of Anionic Solutes

–Chmielewska E. and Peterlik H.

The nanotechnology resolution affects many areas of science including chemistry and chemical engineering since 1970, when enormous advances in the synthesis, characteri-zation and clarifying of high surface area materials have taken place. Development and commercial use of methods like sol-gel synthesis, chemical vapor deposition or laser induced sputtering allowed manufacturing of new advanced and highly efficient materials including porous adsorbents, at laboratory and commercial scale. In addition, characterization of these novel materials was being revolutionized by an availability of new analytical and high resolution microscopic instruments such as SAXS, HR TEM, STM, AFM and many others.

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Short Communication: An Ecological Viewpoint on the Variations of Water Temperature, Salinity, Conductivity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen during a 45-minute Tidal Outflow at a Small Tropical Estuary

–YAP C. K.

The study of ecology includes how a living organism interacts with its surrounding which includes living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) components. KTBatu of Pahang is a pristine recreational rocky shore (Figure 1), located in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (Figure 2). Therefore, this allows study on the natural variation of physico-chemical parameters more effective with minimal anthropogenic impact.

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Elevated Levels of Rare Earths from Sewage Plant attached to Hospital Complex

–Pillay A.E., Williams J.R., Khan T., Al Saidi S. and Yaghi B.

A preliminary ICP-MS investigation of potable and treated sewage water (TSW) showed that the rare earths were present at levels up to 20 mg/L in TSW (20 mg per ton of TSW); whilst nothing was detected in the potable water samples. A total of 12 samples were studied and the analytical performance of the ICP-MS system (detection limit 0.001 mg/L for rare earths) produced relative errors of <10% in general. TSW samples (1L each) were collected at a site fed from a hospital sewage plant. Our study showed that TSW originating from this particular source could be considered a useful source of rare earths and from this perspective our research is significant. Human waste from hospitals could contain elevated levels of rare earths, and the feasibility of extracting rare earths from TSW of this nature is discussed.

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Mini Review: Green Cluster Synthetic Transformation mediated by Cerium (IV) Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) : A Green Catalyst

–Naaz Ruby

Cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) has been found to be a green catalyst for the solid phase synthesis of organic compounds. It catalyses various chemical reactions encouraging the design of products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.

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Review Paper: Biodynamics – A New Science Field ?

–Teodorova Svetla E.

The assessment of various damages and environmental influences on living organisms could be advanced if there are prompt and easy methods for recording of their health status. In this context new science field, biodynamics is suggested. We understand here biodynamics as a science field (like thermo-dynamics, electrodynamics etc.) but not as a field containing different non-linear and others mathematical models describing dynamical systems, including biological objects. New state variables: vitality and optimal vitality as integral pheno-menological characteristics, uniquely determining the status of a living system, are stated. Vitality is presumed to be in biodynamics a quantity of a similar rank as temperature in thermodynamics. Quantities biological energy and synergy are introduced. The synergy is assumed as a measure of Selfregulation quality. Biological principle for maximum synergy is stated. The conception proposed is illustrated on the case of recovery process of biological object after some transitory disturbance. Based on variational principle an equation describing recovery process of the biological object is obtained. The possibility to measure such quantity as vitality could provide a great benefit for biology and medicine, for example, for a quick evaluation of the health status in human.

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