Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Heterogeneous Photochemical Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium in the Montmorillonite KSF Suspended Solutions under UV-vis Irradiation

Yanxiang Liu and Feng Wu

The photochemical reduction of Cr (VI) in the montmorillonite KSF suspended solution under UV-vis irradiation (metal halide lamp, l ³ 365 nm) was investigated. It was found that Cr (VI) could be effectively photoreduced in suspensions. The pH effect on the photoreduction of Cr (VI) by KSF catalytic process was found to have the same adsorption of Cr (VI) by particles. The results showed that the photoreduction mainly occurs on the surface of montmorillonite KSF and Cr (VI) reduction is more effective for solution pH below 4.0. The quantity of Cr (VI) eliminated increased with increasing irradiation time and decreased with decreasing initial Cr (VI) concentration. The proposed mechanism is suggests that iron species [Fe (II) and Fe (III)] contained in montmorillonite KSF are thought to contribute to this catalytic event and the photoreduction of Cr (VI) was greatly enhanced in the presence of citrate.

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Spectrophotometric determination of mercury(II) in environmental samples using 2-acetylthiophene benzoylhydrazone

Saleem Basha V., Vidyasagar Babu S. and Hussain Reddy K.

The analytical properties of 2-acetylthio-phene benzoylhydrazone (ATBH) are described for the first time. The reagent gives coloured complex with mercury(II) in sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer (pH 6.0) medium. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of the mercury complex are 1.5 x 104 L. mol-1cm-2 and 0.134 mg cm–2 respectively. The colour reaction has been investigated for the spectrophotometric determination of mercury(II) in different environemntal (water, soil and liver) samples in aqueous medium.

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Synthsis of Copolymers and Homopolymers of Methyl Methacrylate and Styrene and Studies on their Viscometric Properties in Three Different Solvents

Ghosh Pranab, Das Tapan and Nandi Debabrata

Homopolymer of methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and styrene (PS) and their copolymers were synthesized and characterized. The viscometric measurements of the synthesized homopolymers as well as the copolymers were performed in three different solvents. Different equations were used to calculate intrinsic viscosity and viscometric constant values of the synthesized polymers. The values of intrinsic viscosity and viscosity average molecular weight obtained by the two methods (single point determination and graphical extrapolation) were compared. Measurements of viscometric properties included the determination of specific viscosity (it determines the contribution of solute to the viscosity of the solution), the reduced viscosity (that provides the measurements of the polymer capacity of increasing the solution viscosity) and intrinsic viscosity.

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Synthesis, Characterisation and Thermal Decomposition Studies of Cr(III), Mn(II) and Fe(III) Complexes of N,N’-bis [1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethylene] propane-1, 3-diamine

Prasad M. Alex1* and Aravindakshan K. K.

A bidentate Schiff base namely, N,N’-bis [1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethylene] propane-1,3-diamine was synthesized by condensing pipero-naldehyde (3,4-dioxymethylenebenzaldehyde) with propane-1,3-diamine. Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III) complexes of this chelating / bridging ligand were synthesized using acetates, chlorides, bromides, nitrates and perchlorates of these metals. The ligand and the complexes were characterised by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, UV-Vis and IR spectra, conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermo-gravimetric analysis. The ligand showed bridging nature in some of its complexes, as evidenced by magnetic and microanalytical data. The thermograms of three complexes were analysed and the kinetic parameters for the different stages of decompositions were determined.

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Potentiometric Studies on Transition Metal Complexes of Substituted Derivative of Coumarin

Vyas K. B., Nimavat K. S., Jani G. R. and Hathi M. V.

The formation constants of binary complexes of d10 metal ions Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Mn(II) with 3-[{3-(3’-bromo phenyl}-prop-2-enoyl]-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-chromene-2-one have been studied by using Irving-Rossoti method at constant temperature 30  1 C and ionic strength =0.1 M dM-3 was held constant using sodium Nitrate as an electrolyte. The factors influencing formation and stabilities of binary complexes have been discussed.

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Effects of Sugar Beet Industrial Wastewater toward Soil Hydraulic Properties

Najafi Payam, Tabatabaei Sayyed Hassan and Hussein Amini

The overall objective of this research was the assessment of sugar beet industrial wastewater (SIW) which could affect soil hydraulic property. A completely randomized design (CRT) was employed with three irrigation treatments and three replications in a plant located in the east of Isfahan during summer 2008. The treatments were normal water (T1), 50% normal water plus 50% SIW (T2) and 100% SIW (T3). The 21 columns used were made by Poly Vinil chloride (PVC) with a diameter of 110 millimeter (mm) and a height of 400 mm. The most important properties of soil hydraulic such as infiltration rate, soil basic infiltration rate and saturation hydraulic conductivity were measured. Some other parameters, EC, SAR and organic matter (OM) were also determined since they potentially affect the soil hydraulic properties. The irrigation water was added to the soil columns through surface irrigation by a constant volume and period during 12 irrigation events. The result shows that the soil basic infiltration rates after the 12 irrigation events increased as follows: 3.5, 5 and 54 percent in comparison with initial condition for T1, T2 and T3 respectively. At the end of the period, the soil hydraulic conductivity values changed to 0.77, 0.73 and 1.1 m/day. An explanation for this trend would be due to the increment of soil organic matter (OM) within the above period. The EC and SAR values did not significantly increase during that period. It was concluded that applicability of SIW values could enhance soil hydraulic properties of fields to some extent.

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Biomonitoring of Air Quality in the Industrial Town of Asansol using the Air Pollution Tolerance Index Approach

Choudhury Priyanka and Banerjee Dibyendu

Asansol city is an industrial urban area which is also part of the Raniganj Coalfield area and is located in the Burdwan district of West Bengal. Over the last five years there was hectic development in the area in terms of industries, vehicles and infrastructures. These have resulted in significant rise of the air pollutants over the city atmosphere; which is affecting human population, other animals and also the plant community. Although vegetation can absorb particulate and other gaseous pollutants into their system, but they also have some limitation and tend to show symptoms of damages after prolonged exposure. Based on this absorbing power and tolerance limit, vegetations can be classified as Highly Tolerant, Moderately Tolerant and Sensitive. This has been incorporated by scientists into a quantitative value of Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI), depending on the score of the plant physiology indicators, namely Leaf Extract pH, Relative Water Content, Ascorbic Acid and Chlorophyll Content. The vegetation monitoring in terms of its APTI acts as a ‘Bioindicator’ of air pollution and can be incorporated into assessment studies. A total of thirty plant species (trees, herbs & shrubs) available in the area were screened; sampled in polythene bags; tagged, brought to the laboratory and analyzed for pH, Relative Water Content, Ascorbic Acid and Chlorophyll content. The results were used to calculate the APTI for each plant and then their tolerance/sensitivity was assessed. The APTI score of <10 is considered ‘sensitive’; value within 10-16 is considered as ‘intermediate’ and >17 is ‘tolerant’. The pH value ranged between 5.53 (Psidium guajava) and 7.60 (Osimum sanctum); Total Chlorophyll content varied between 7.4 and 14.3 mg/g. The Ascorbic Acid content ranged between 2.89 to 9.1 mg/g, where as the Relative Water Content varied between 35% and 91.5%. Based on the APTI score, which ranged between 4.50 and 18.5, it is observed that about 55 % of the studied species of plants are ‘Sensitive’ to air pollution. Among them Thevetia peruviana and Rosa cinensis showed lowest APTI values and can be used as ‘Bioindicator’. Plant species like Mangifera, Azadirachta, Ficus, Psidum, Eucalyptus, Alstoni and Delonix were in the intermediate to tolerant zone of the index. Based on the investigation a green belt development plan for the polluted zoned of the city has been suggested.

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Adsorption of Acid Blue from an Aqueous Solution onto Activated Areca Nut Shell Carbon: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

Geetha A., Sivakumar P., Sujatha M., Palanisamy P.N. and Somasundaram T.

Acid blue adsorption from an aqueous solution onto activated areca nut shell carbon (ANSC) has been studied experimentally using the batch adsorption method. Adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics were investigated as a function of initial dye concentration, temperature and pH. Three simplified models, including first order Lagergren, pseudo-second order and Elovich kinetic models were used to test the adsorption kinetics. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption followed Elovich model. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption capacity of ANSC was found to be increasing with increase in temperature. Based on regression coefficient, the equilibrium data found fitted well to the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic parameters such as G°, H° and S° for the adsorption were evaluated. The thermodynamics of Acid Blue-ANSC system indicates endothermic nature of the process. It is found that the areca nut shell activated carbon is effective for the removal of Acid Blue from aqueous solution.

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Evaluation of Adsorption Potential of Reed Bed Substrates for Chromium(III) Removal from Tannery Effluent: A Batch Study

Sumathi K. M. S. and Mahimairaja S.

The adsorption capacity of riverbed sand, sawdust, vermiculite and soil for Cr(III) ions from tannery effluent has been investigated in detail in order to evaluate their possible application as filter material in reed bed treatment system. The adsorption isotherm was determined along with the effect of contact time, initial Cr concentration and pH on the efficiency of Cr removal. It was concluded that the maximum adsorption of Cr (> 90 per cent) was achieved by vermiculite and soil within 24 h. The equilibrium isotherm data for vermiculite was found to follow the Freundlich and Langmuir equations and a separation factor was used to judge the favourable adsorption. Vermiculite exhibited a higher adsorption capacity (Xm =100 mg g–1), followed by sand, sawdust and soil (Xm=20 mg g–1). The Cr retention capacity of adsorbents at different pH was calculated on the basis of the distribution coefficient (Kd) and the highest Kd value was achieved by vermiculite (61.1) at pH 5.0.

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Activated Carbon Supported Cu-Ni Bimetallic Catalyst for Direct Synthesis of DMC from CH3OH and CO2: Effect of Pretreatment of Activated Carbon Supports

Bian J., Xiao M., Wang S. J., Meng Y. Z. and Lu Y. X.

Activated carbon (AC) as catalyst support was treated with different oxidizing agents viz., HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 and HF. The effects of oxidative treatments on the physico-chemical properties of AC were thoroughly investigated using various characterization techniques. A series of Cu-Ni bimetallic catalysts supported on untreated and treated AC were prepared, characterized and tested for direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from CH3OH and CO2. It was found that oxidative treatments significantly changed the surface chemical properties and pore structure of AC. A number of oxygen surface functional groups were introduced on the resulting AC during the oxidative treatments. These groups improved the hydro-philicity of AC, increased the adsorption capacity of Cu2+ and Ni2+, improved the interaction of activate metal with supports, which resulted in a more homogeneous distribution of Cu and Ni particles on the supports and consequently improved the catalytic performance of catalysts. These results could be closely correlated with the surface acidity. Catalytic activity tests for DMC synthesis revealed that the activity of prepared catalysts based on the treated AC supports was closely related to the surface characteristics of catalysts. The order of catalytic activity in both the conversion of CH3OH and the selectivity of DMC was as follows: AC–H2SO4 > AC–HF > AC–HNO3 > AC–HCl > AC. The key role of AC surface chemistry was examined to rationalize these findings and the relevant mechanistic and practical implications were discussed.

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Microwave Synthesis of Ellipticine Analogues via Doebner-Miller Synthesis and their Biological Behaviour

Surendiran T., Balasubramanian S. and Sivaraj D.

The ellipticine analogues were synthesized via Doebner–Miller quinoline synthesis by the cyclocondensation of N-methyl -3-amino-carbazole1with chalcones 2a-g , catalysis of p-toluene sulphonic acid under microwave irradiation is disclosed. The structures of these derivatives were elucidated by spectral analysis and these compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial and antifungal activities.

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Measurement of Ecological Capital of the Ecosystem based on Remote Sensing Data

Yu Deyong and Shao Hongbo

Comprehensive evaluation on the conditions of ecosystem is important to protect regional eco-environment. The paper is mainly based on the data set of remote sensing and climate factor to calculate the ecological capital of ecosystem in Yunnan province. The results showed that ecological capital of the province from 2005 to 2008 was 225.02 billon yuan RMB, 207.78 billon yuan RMB, 191.11 billon yuan RMB and 195.48 billon yuan RMB respectively. Total and unit ecological capital showed a decreasing trend. The spatial distribution of ecological capital per area took on a pattern that the west was higher than the east and the south was higher than the north, ecological capital of forest, shrub and grassland, which constituted the main body of ecological capital took up a percentage of 79.94%, 80.52%, 81.44% and 80.48% respectively to the total in the province from 2005 to 2008.

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Trace Elements in Packaging Polymers

Al-Dayel O., Al-Horayess O. , Hefni J. and Al-Durahim A.

Packaging polymers may contain high levels of trace elements, which upon final incineration, may affect the environment. In the case of food contact packing, there is a concern of migration of some toxic elements into food. This may also affect the food quality. In this work, raw plastic materials in addition to food and drink plastic containers were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Fifty elements were investigated. Reference materials, SARM-18 and SRM 1632c, were analyzed in the same manner as other samples to assess the whole analytical procedures in this study.

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Short Communication: Impact of Cadmium Chloride on FAA and Protein Content of Phaseolus Seedlings under Laboratory Controlled Conditions

Sukla Mohanty

Toxicological effects of a heavy metal Cd on a crop plant Phaseolus Mungo, L. were studied. At 3 ppm of cadmium chloride 94.28% depletion of protein content in root was observed. Protein content in leaf (76.92%) and shoot (94.28%) decreased significantly with increase in toxicant concentration in exposed phaseolus seedlings when compared to control in 144hrs old seedlings in petriplate culture. In case of FAA content no significant trend was marked in 144 hrs of exposure in petriplate culture. Variation in toxicity was only due to the concentration of the toxicant.

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Mini Review: Green Cluster Hexafluoroacetone

Pinheiro Alessandra Campbell

Application of HFA as a bidentate protecting and activating reagent allows an efficient site-selective functionalization, saving steps compared to conventional methodologies.

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