Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Simultaneous Extraction of Organic Compounds with a Wide Polarity Range in Water using Solid Phase Extraction Technique

Osman Rozita, Saim Norashikin and Abdullah Md Pauzi

In this study, a rapid and selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) by stacking two cartridges, octadecyl bonded silica (C18) and polymeric sorbents (LiChrolut EN or Isolute ENV+) for the determination of organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorpyrifos, sterols, phenol and pentachlorophenol) in water was developed. The non polar and moderately polar compounds were trapped in the C18 sorbent while the more polar compounds were trapped in the polymeric sorbent. Using C18, acceptable recoveries of non polar compounds, PAHs (84.4–101.5%) and chlorpyrifos (99.4 %) were obtained in first elution with n-hexane while moderately polar compounds, sterols (89.7-98.6%) were recovered in the second elution using stronger eluting solvent (DCM). Factors affecting the recoveries of the target analytes such as addition of organic modifier to the sample, pH of sample and types of eluting solvent were considered. The presence of 10% (v/v) methanol was most appropriate for the enrichment of PAHs (3-6 rings), chlorpyrifos and sterols on C18. Acceptable recoveries (94.8-100.8%) of the more polar compounds (phenol and pentachlorophenol) from polymeric sorbents were achieved using DCM as the eluting solvent. The developed approach is able to shorten analysis time for the analysis organic compounds over a wide polarity range in water.

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Modeling of 2, 4 Dinitrophenol Degradation by Modified-Fenton Process via Multivariate Approach

Ahmadi Mehdi, Mesdaghinia Alireza, Naddafi Kazem, Nabizadeh Ramin, Nasseri Simin, Mahvi Amir Hosein and Vaezi Forough

2, 4 dinitrophenol (2, 4 DNP) is a priority pollutant that may enter environment from petrochemical, textile and dye stuff manufacturing. Due to ineffectiveness of biological processes in treatment of such a waste, advanced oxidation process (AOP) as a promising alternative has been introduced. Modified fenton process is an AOP process. The objective of this study is modeling of DNP degradation by modified fenton process, in this regard a full factorial experimental design was performed with H2O2 and Fe3+ concentration and also reaction time as the most important variables. The results show that the reaction time is very influential variable while H2O2 and Fe3+ concentration alone are much less important for the confidence level selected. The results also show that for high H2O2 concentration, higher Fe+3 concentration leads to lower degree of degradation due to catalytic effects of Fe+3 on the decomposition of H2O2 to H2O and O2. Finally a mathematical model has been proposed to estimate DNP degradation. Comparison of experimental results with proposed model shows the similarity in majority of experiments. The predicted model satisfactory describes the modified-Fenton process in DNP degradation.

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In-silico Optimization of Drug Likeliness of N-(furan-2-yl Methyl)-2-(1 H-tetrazol-5-yl) Acetamide

Dwivedi P. B. and Parikh J. A.

In present work, drug likeliness of N-(furan-2-yl methyl)-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) acetamide and its 14 hypothetical analogues based on toxicity, lipophilicity, solubility and molecular weight were calculated by Osiaris molecular property explorer. Lipophilicity of N-(furan-2-yl methyl)-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) acetamide is low (only injectable drug can be designed from it). To design a drug candidate of high lipophilicity so that it can be taken orally, hypothetical analogues were prepared keeping in mind to increase their lipophilicity, optimize their drug target interaction, fulfilling ‘ADME’ criterion as well as Lipinski Rule of 5. Osiaris predicts mutagenic, tumerogenic, irritant and reproductive effects qualitatively and lipophilicity, solubility, molecular weights quantitatively on atom type based increment system. Drug likeness was predicted based on atom fragment based contribution. Over all drug score combines all other into one grand total. Heat of formation and Lipophilicity of all analogues are also calculated by CHEM PRO 8.0. In early stages of designing an anti inflammatory and analgesic drug based on N-(furan-2-yl methyl)-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) acetamide, it is beneficial to do this in-silico study before synthesis work is under-taken with the aim of avoiding the synthesis of compounds that are predicted to have poor bio-pharmaceutical characteristics.

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An Unexpected Lactam from the Reaction of Pentachlororesorcinol (PCR) with Ammonia in Ether

Heasley Victor L. Tatum Luke A., Mitrovich Kristin E., Boerneke Jeffrey L. and Shellhamer Dale F.

The data in this paper show that pentachloro-resorcinol (2,2,4,4,6-pentachloro-5-cyclohexen-1,3-dione, PCR, 1), a humic acid model compound, reacts with ammonia, NH3 in ether to form an unexpected lactam (4). Mass spectra, x-ray crystallographic data and other evidence are presented that establish the structure of 3, 3, 5-trichloro-6-[dichloro(hydroxy) methyl]-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one (4). The proposed mechanism of reaction suggests that 1 reacts with NH3 in ether via a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl of 1 along with an internal rearrangement to form 4.

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Trace Metals Sequestration In Desert Plants Of Kuwait

Bu-Olayan A.H. and Thomas B.V.

Trace metals associated with rapid industrialization showed possible pollution impact in the Kuwait arid ecosystem. Desert plants that were apportioned in the six Governorate areas of Kuwait representing the residential, industrial and recreational sites (G I-VI) were assessed for trace metals. Trace metal concentrations were found high in leaves> shoot> root irrespective of the species. Trace metals concentrations were observed the least in soil when compared to the three parts of the desert plants. Tamarix aucherana showed high trace metals concentration than the other species. Governorate area (G2) showed high trace metals levels among the six Governorates indicating the significance of pollution due to urban development over the recent years. The mean metal-wise analysis in plants revealed the sequence of Cu (49.99 mg/g) > Zn(27.51 mg/g) > Fe (22.58 mg/g) > Ni 16.82 mg/g) > Pb 7.26 mg/g) > V 2.52 mg/g). Trace metal Translocation Factor (TF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in all the plants were >1, thus labeling these ANOVA tests on species-wise analysis revealed significant differences between TF and BAF. Thus, trace metals mobilization from soil to these plants characterized them as trace metals pollution indicators.

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Physical, mechanical, chemical properties and crystalline structure of heat treated oak (Quercus petraea Lieb.) wood

Akyildiz Mehmet Hakan, Ates Saim and Ozdemir Hasan

In this study, the effect of heat treatment on air-dry density (Dm), oven-dry density (D0), shrinkage (b), swelling (a), compression strength parallel to grain (sc//), bending strength (sb), modulus of elasticity (MOE) in bending, brinell-hardness (HB), equilibrium moisture content (EMC), chemical content and cellulose crystallinity of oak (Quercus petraea Lieb.) wood were examined. Wood specimens were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at three different air temperature (130, 180 and 230 oC) and two different time levels (2 h and 8 h). The results showed that value of Dm, D0, maximum moisture content (MMC), b, a, sb, MOE, sc//, EMC and holocellulose ratio were decreased whereas the values of density in volume (Db), HB, lignin content, 1% NaOH and alcohol solubility values increased depending on the heating temperature and the time. The changes in cellulose crystallinity of the specimens were not significant. At heat treatment process, 130 oC has minimum effect; on the other hand, 230 oC has maximum effect on all properties of treated wood. Accordingly, for heat treatment process, 130 oC for 2 h should be applied in place where mechanical properties are important. However, 230 oC for 2 h should be used in place where physical properties are preferred. Treated oak could be utilized in applications for several purposes such as musical instruments, kitchen furniture, outdoor furniture and windows frames.

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An Environmentally Method for Dyeing Rug Pile using Fruit Waste Colorant

Parvinzadeh Mazeyar

Today, natural colorants are emerging globally due to their safety and environmentally-friendly properties. Natural dyes have been employed in dyeing Persian carpet piles for many years. Food and fruit industry wastes are one of the main sources of colorants which can be employed for coloration of textiles. Eggplant (Solanum melongena), a member of the family Solanaceae, is used in food recipes. Anthocyanin pigments are responsible for the dark purple color of its skin. In this research, dyeing wool fibers was carried out using skin of eggplant powders. For this purpose, the Iranian wool was first treated with some metal salts including Fe(II), Sn(II), Cu(II), Cr(VI) and Al(III). These salts are commonly used as mordant to improve the wash and light fastness of natural dyed textiles. Wool fiber was then dyed with 50% owf powdered skin of eggplant. The colorimetric properties of the dyed yarns were evaluated with a reflectance spectrophotometer. The wash and light fastness of the samples were also measured according to ISO 105-CO5 and Daylight ISO 105-BO1. Results showed that skin of eggplant is a susceptible source for dyeing wool fibers.

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Nickel Removal from Wastewater by using Activated carbon prepared from Agro Industrial Wastes

Srinivasan K. and Hema M.

Activated carbons were prepared from agro industrial waste by products such as Coconut and neem oilcake by thermal activation at 800°C and were used as an efficient sorbents for the removal of nickel from water. The sorption conditions, such as pH, adsorbent dose and adsorbate concentration of nickel were examined. The coconut oilcake activated carbon (COCAC) shows more adsorption efficiency than neem oilcake activated carbon (NOCAC). The kinetic processes of Ni (II) adsorption on to activated carbons were described by applying pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and reversible pseudo-first-order rate equations. The kinetic data for the adsorption process obeyed pseudo-second-order rate equation for both carbons. The equilibrium data are described by the Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich isotherms models.

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Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Persistent Hydrocarbon Components of Crude Oil and their Oxygenated Derivatives in Soil

Devi Upama and Sarma Prahash Chandra

Crude oil and its different fractions constitute a class of soil pollutants. Under certain conditions, living microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, molds and filamentous fungi can alter and / or metabolize various classes of compounds present in crude oil, a set of processes collectively called oil biodegradation. This degradation is a process of oxidation which is limited by several factors. In the present experiment, extent of degradation of hydrocarbons from a crude oil sample collected 9 years ago is determined in a 90 days experiment gravimetrically by applying on a soil sample with no past history of oil pollution. The recovered oil, some known common aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives were subjected to GC analysis under identical conditions. It has been found that NPK nutrients and hydrogen peroxide applied separately expedited the process of degradation. Out of some common aromatic compounds examined, Anthracene, Benzoic Acid, Benzophenone, Cinnamic Acid and Naphthalene seem to be present while -Naphthol, -Naphthol, Benzoin, Benzil and Phthalic Acid are found absent in soil.

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Preparation and Characterization of Zinc Adipate and its Catalytic Activity for the Copolymerization between CO2 and Propylene Oxide

Du F. G., Wang J. T., Xiao M., Wang S. J. and Meng Y. Z.

Zinc adipate catalysts used for the co-polymerization between CO2 and propylene oxide were synthesized through several synthetic routes and their chemical structure and morphological features were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) techniques. Zinc adipate from zinc oxide exhibiting high degree of crystallinity and crystal quality produced poly(propylene carbonate) PPC with high molecular weight in a high yield. The NMR spectra revealed that the obtained PPC is having a highly alternating copolymer structure with high glass transition temperature (27.7 °C) and decomposition temperature (248 °C) respectively.

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Stability constants of Yb (III), Pr (III) and Ce (III) Chelates with some substituted Drugs

Sonar A.N., Khirnar M.D. and Pawar N.S.

The interactions of Yb (III), Pr (III) , Ce(III) metal ion with –1) ACARBOSE (Ligand 1), 2) HALOPERTIDOL (Ligand2), 3)SILYMARIN (Ligand3), 4) DOGOXIN (Ligand4) and 5)RIFAMPICIN(Ligand5) have been investigated by pH metric titration at 0.1 M ionic strength at room temperature in 70 % 1,4 Dioxane-Water mixture . The data obtained are used to estimate the values of proton-ligand stability constant (Pk) and Metal -ligand stability constant (logK). It is observed that lanthanide ion forms 1:1, 1:2 complexes with all the five heterocyclic ligands.

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Acoustic and Thermodynamic Studies of Ternary Liquid Mixtures at Different Temperatures

Thirumaran S., Suguna M. and Selvi S.R.

The ultrasonic study of velocity, density and viscosity has been carried out for the mixtures of alcohols, namely – isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol and glycerol with N-N dimethyl acetamide (DMA) in cyclohexane at 303,308 and 313 K. The experimental data have been used to calculate the acoustical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility (), intermolecular free length (Lf), free volume (Vf), internal pressure (i), molar volume (Vm) and acoustic impedance (Z). Some of the excess parameters have also been evaluated and fitted to Redlich Kister polynomials to test the validity of the excess values. It is observed in the present liquid mixtures that as number of O-H groups increases from isopropyl alcohol to glycerol, the strength of the molecular interactions between unlike molecules weakens.

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Ionic Balance of Drinking Water Supply in Delhi (India) with respect to raw water sources of Himalayan River Ganga and Yamuna

Akolkar Pratima, Semwal N., Jangwan J.S. and Gangwal M.L.

The chemistry of river water is dictated mainly by ions. Composition of ions in Himalayan rivers is predominantly governed by chemical weathering process followed by anthropogenic influences. Calcium and magnesium were the major ions, accounting for more than 85% of the total cation concentration of 1.408844331meq/l in River Ganga and 1.063554785 meq/l in River Yamuna, supporting the aquatic life of clean water quality. Total cation levels were increased in raw waters after diversion of these rivers into their respective canal at drinking water intake in Delhi. The cation level were found to be 2.115125212 meq/l in the water quality of Gang canal and 3.085396688 meq/l in Western Yamuna canal, having 80 - 84% of calcium and magnesium content. The levels of calcium and magnesium ions in drinking water supply of these sources were also in the range of 78 - 84% of the total cation concentration i.e. 3.0 meq/l. Bicarbonate and sulphate were the major anions accounting for 86% of total concentration of 1.499494169 meq/l in river Ganga and 1.084299371 meq/l in river Yamuna. The levels of bicarbonate and sulphate were raised to 92-94% of total anion concentration of 2.164310984 meq /l in Gang canal and 2.99235742 meq/l in Western Yamuna canal. Levels of bicarbonate and sulphate present in drinking water supply were at 75-83% of total anion concentration (3.0 meq/l approx.). The requirement of ionic levels for the existence of healthy aquatic life in raw waters was slightly lower compared to drinking water supply for human consumption.

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Dust Pollution – A Case Study in Old Town Area, Visakhapatnam

Martuhi Y. Avasn, Hossain Kaizar, Padma Priya B., Rao L. Neelakanta, Srinivas T. and Ramakrishna Rao S.

A preliminary survey of the Air mycoflora was done with the exposure of culture plates in old town area with respective to dust fall. A total number of six species namely Aspergillus sp, Rhizopus sp, Penicillium sp, Trichoderma sp, Fusarium sp and Mucor sp were recorded. Six fungal species which colonize in the atmosphere in old town area have been isolated and their pathogenicity examined. Aspergillus sp was responsible for incidence of infections. The collected health data reveal that the people residing in all sampling areas except control area were suffering from allergy, asthma and microbial infections particularly fungal in origin. This study reveals that the survival of the microbes is due to the prevalence of dust in the selected study area.

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Review Paper: Occurrence, Interaction with Heavy Metals and Behaviour of Complexing Agents in the Environment: A Review

Sillanpää M.E.T.

This review discusses the behaviour of the conventional complexing agents EDTA and DTPA in aquatic environment. EDTA and DTPA are used in extremely high amounts in different industrial and household applications and this has raised concern about their ultimate fate in the environment. These compounds are not expected to cause direct ecotoxicological effects at the levels typically found in natural waters. However, they do contain nitrogen and have the capability to affect metal balance in aquatic ecosystems.

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