Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Oxidation of Naphthalene in Supercritical Water

Guolin Jing *, Shaopeng Qin, Ming Li and Shulin Li

Naphthalene was selected and its oxidation in supercritical water was investigated. The experi¬m¬en¬tal results showed that when the reaction temperature is 693K, pressure is 24MPa, the residence time is 10min and then the naphthalene removal could reach 97.6%. The residence time and reaction temperature are the main factors for naphthalene removal of oilfield sludge. The removal increases with the rise of reaction temperature and residence time. Reaction pressure and original concentration of oxygen are also important, but when the reaction pressure and oxidant concentration reach a certain value, the naphthalene removal changes little.

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Degradation of Lubricating Oil in Soil under Natural Environment: A Gravimetric and Gas Chromatographic Analysis

Sarma P. C.1* and Bhattacharyya Krishna Gopal 2

As a part of a series of soil remediation experiments involving crude oil and different refined petroleum products in order to investigate the extent of degradation of the oil at a stipulated time and to identify the persistent components; remains of lubricating oil in soil were recovered by Soxhlet extraction in a 90 days experiment. Gravimetric determination shows that 56.60, 57.74 and 44.82 percent degradation has occurred in the three samples having 1000, 5000 and 10,000 ppm applied pollutant concentrations respectively. Gas chromatographic separation of the recovered oils was done. It has been found that 64, 53 and 67 components and derivatives / degradation products taken together were found in the three soil samples. 32 peaks have been identified to be due to common compounds in the G C chromatograms on the basis of their similar retention time and percentage abundance indicating their persistency during the period.

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Different tissues of rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata as biomonitors of trace metal bioavailabilities in the Penang coastal waters, Malaysia

Yap C.K. *, Mohd Ruszaidi S. and Cheng W.H.

Rock oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) collected from Penang’s Bridge of Peninsular Malaysia were dissected into gill, muscle, mantle and remainder. All the 4 different soft tissues and shells were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn by using a flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The small sized group oysters (2.5-5.5 cm longitudinal length of flesh) generally accumulated higher concentrations of Cd, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn when compared to big sized group oysters (6-8.5 cm longitudinal length of flesh). The metal data found in this study were low in comparison to other polluted oyster populations in the literature. When compared to food safety guidelines, the concentrations of Zn in all the different soft tissues of oysters were above typical public health recommended limits. Overall, the baseline data can be used for regular ecological monitoring, considering the domestic and industrial growth besides heavy ferry and shipping activities around this important Island in Peninsular Malaysia.

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Isolation, Identification and Media Optimization of Thermostable alpha Galactosidase producing Geobacillus sp.

Chavan Sanjay and Sabharwal Sushma*

Thermophilic alpha galactosidase producing bacteria have been isolated by enrichment of the soil samples with soybean meal for 24 hrs at 60 °C. The isolated strain is aerobic and gram positive growing optimally at pH 8.0. This bacterial strain was identified as a Geobacillus sp. by its colony morphology and biochemical tests. The growth pattern of the bacteria was studied at various stress conditions. The alpha galatosidase activity was detected in the culture filtrate after 15 hours of incubation period. The bacterial strain used different carbohydrates as the carbon source; however the maximum production of alpha galactosidase occurred when 1.5% (w/v) soybean meal was used. The use of organic nitrogen favored the production of alpha galactosidase in the isolated strain compared to inorganic nitrogen sources.

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A convenient synthesis of ethoxyphthalimide derivatized quinazoline assembled isoxazoles and pyrazoles via common intermediate Chalcone

Dangi Raja Ram, Hussain Nasir, Pemawat Gangotri and Talesara G. L.*

In the present investigation, synthesis of 3- [4-{5-(4-substitutedphenyl)-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl}ph¬e¬nyl]¬-1-N-ethoxyphthalimidoquinazoline-2,4-dione (5¬a¬-d) and 3-[4-{5-(4-substitutedphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl}phenyl] -1-N-ethoxyphthalim¬idoquin¬az¬oline-2,4-dione (6a-d) is described. Nucleophilic aza substitution on isatoic anhydride with p-aminoacetophenone gave 3-(4-acetylphenyl) quinaz¬oline-2,4-dione (1). This on Claisen condensation with various aromatic aldehydes (2a-d) yields the corresponding 3-{4-[3-(4-substitutedphenyl) prop-2-enoyl]phenyl}quinazoline-2,4-dione (3a-d) derivate¬ives. This was condensed by bromoeth¬oxyphthalimide to afford - [4-{3-(4-subsitute¬dphe¬nyl)prop-2-enoyl}phen¬yl¬]-¬1-N-ethoxyphtha¬limi¬do¬q¬ui¬n¬azoline-2,4-dione (4a-d). These compounds (4a-d¬) were cyclized separately with hydroxylamine hydr¬och¬oride and phenyl hydr¬a¬zine in ethanolic media to give two series of final compound (5a-d) and (6a-d). Structures of synthe¬si¬zed compounds have been assigned on the basis of their analytical and spectral data.

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Pretreatment of Cyclohexanone manufacturing Wastewater by Iron-Carbon Micro-Electrolysis

Li Dongwei1,2 , Jiao Binquan1 and He Xiaoman 1

On the base of iron-carbon micro-electrolysis treatment technology, an important cyclohexanone manufacturing wastewater pretreatment technology is presented. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wastewater is 30000~40000mg/L, the chromaticity is 500~1024 times and the initial pH is 2~4. And the three factors i.e. iron-carbon quality ratio, the initial pH of inflow and reaction time were investigated. The experimental results show that the removal rate of COD can reach 55.35% for the wastewater at optimal pH of 2~3 after 4 hours pretreatment with air release. Pretreatment can imp¬rove the biochemical availability of the waste¬water. As shown in the gas chromatography of outfl¬ow, pre¬tr¬eatment can split organic molecules into sim-pler ones.

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Chromatographic separation and determination of Cd (II) by means of newly synthesized ion exchange resin

Loonker Sangeeta*, Kharadiya Saurabh and Rehdu Nitin

A newly synthesized (DVBS-mABA) ion exchange resin was synthesized for the separation and determination of Cd using column chromatography. IR spectroscopy data confirm the successful incorporation of chelating agent into polymeric data. Standard methods were used for resin characterization like nitrogen content, bulk density, moisture content etc. The effectiveness of the resin is supported by distribution coefficient data at various pH.

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Electrochemical Studies of Bi (III) with Succinic acid and Glutaric acid

Paliwal M.K. and Gupta O.D.*

The reduction of Bi (III) with Succinic acid and Glutaric acid is investigated polarographically in aqueous medium. Bi (III) formed 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 complex species with Succinic acid as well as with Glutaric acid. The stability constants of Bi (III) with Succinic acid and Glutaric acid were calculated by the method of DeFord and Hume. The reduction of the system in each case is quasireversible and diffusion controlled, involving three electrons. The therm¬odynamic parameters have been determined. The stability constants of these species at 300K for Bi (III) with succinic acid are logb1 = 1.81, logb2 = 3.97, logb3 = 6.11 and at 310 K are logb1 = 2.13, logb2 = 4.00, logb3 = 6.25 and thermodynamic parameters free energy (KCal mol–1), enthalpy (KCal mol–1) and entropy (Cal mol–1 deg–1) are -2.37, -50.08 and -0.15 (MX1), -5.21, -52.87 and -0.12 (MX2), -8.02, -43.53 and -0.11 (MX3), respectively. The stability constants of these species at 300K for Bi(III) with glutaric acid are logb1 = 1.55, logb2 = 3.07, logb3 = 5.07 and at 310 K are logb1 = 1.53, logb2 = 3.27, logb3 = 4.98 and thermodynamic parameters free energy (KCal mol–1), enthalpy (KCal mol–1) and entropy (Cal mol–1 deg–1) are -2.03, -42.00 and -0.13 (MX1), -4.03, -45.32 and -0.13 (MX2), -6.65, -41.80 and -0.11 (MX3), respectively. The mathematical Mihailov's method has also been applied for the comparison of stability constants values obtained by graphical method.

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Shaddock (Citrus grandis) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel

Sharma M. 1 and Ganguly M. 2*

A new non-edible low cost feedstock for the production of biodiesel is reported. The study shows that the seeds of shaddock which have high oil content, can be used as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The study reveals that the methyl ester obtained from shaddock oil fulfils most of the requirements of a biodiesel fuel. The physic¬chemical parameters of the oil and the methyl esters are presented.

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Antibacterial Activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. and its application in Water Purification

Sadgir Parag1*, Nilosey Vijyayshree2, Bhandari Ranu3 and Patil B.R.4

A vast rural Indian population is dependent on the supply of untreated water, which is the root cause of their ailments. The rural population is thriving on the contaminated water supply due to lack of financial resources and other pressing essentialities of life. Safe water is vital for improving the health and quality of life and for alleviating poverty. In the process of developing a plant based substitute for economical safe approach for water purification against conventional chemical constituents, plants were screened for evaluation of their efficiency for antibacterial activity. Ocimum sanctum is effective against Escherichia Coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas pyocyaneus, Vibrio Cholerae, Shigella dysenteriae and Proteus Vulgaris within specified contact time. O. sanctum is effective against Esc¬herichia Coli with increase in specified contact time.

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Bioremediation of Copper (II) from aqueous solution using Prosopis Cineraria leaf powder

Gupta Vikal*, Kulshreshtha Ruchi and Lal Magan

The biosorption of copper ions from aqueous solution by Prosopis cineraria leaf powder (PCLP) was studied in a batch adsorption system as a function of pH, contact time, copper ion concentration, adsorbent dosage and adsorbent size. The removal capacity of copper (II) ions from aqueous solution by PCLP was investigated. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. The isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model followed by Freundlich model with maximum adsorption capacity of 98.02 mg/g of copper ion on P.cineraria leaf powder. The experimental data were properly correlated with the second –order kinetic model.

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Ultra Sound Assisted Oxidation of Alcohols by Fe(NO3)3 as an oxidant in presence of Phase Transfer Catalyst

Nazeruddin G. M.*, Suryawanshi S. B. and Shaikh Iqbal N.

An efficient Sonochemistry methodology for the oxidation of alcohols to corresponding carbonyl compounds by Fe(NO3)3 as an oxidant in presence of tetra butyl ammonium bromide at ambient temperature is described. It has been observed that in case of primary alcohol the oxidation reaction is arrested at aldehyde level only. The aqueous phase containing oxidant and catalyst is reusable.

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Geochemical and microbiological characterization of some Azorean volcanic muds after maturation

Quintela Ana1*, Terroso Denise1, Almeida Salomé F.P.2, Reis Paula1, Moura Alexandra3, Correia António3, Ferreira Da Silva Eduardo1, Forjaz Victor4 and Rocha Fernando1

Four Azorean volcanic muds were submitted to maturation (ageing process) with mineral water for 60 days under different abiotic conditions. This study intends to assess the geochemistry of these natural resources before and after maturation and to evaluate the ability of materials to be colonized by microorganisms under different mixing and light maturation procedures. Besides the geochemical and mineralogical analyses, bacterial quantification and diatom community identification and relative quantification were also provided. Principal component analysis was carried out on geochemical data. Our data reveal that muds have potentiality for thermal application and the modifications induced by maturation are affected by raw materials properties. Slightly geochemical modifications were verified probably due to the weathering of primary minerals. The bacteria and mainly the algae development on samples under light and no mixing maturation conditions were recorded rendering to muds potentialities for therapeutic uses.

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Removal of Mercury (II) ions from Aqueous Solutions using Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and Kaolinite Clay from Mayouom in Cameroon: Kinetics and Equilibrium studies

Ketcha Mbadcam Joseph* and Bougo Tchamande Christelle

Adsorption of mercury (II) from aqueous solutions on Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and kaolinite clay from Mayouom (MY04) were studied as a function of different parameters: contact time, t, mass of the adsorbent, m and initial concentration C0 of the adsorbate. The results obtained showed that the amount of Hg (II) adsorbed increases with increased contact time and equilibrium is reached at 50 minutes for GAC and 90 minutes for MY04. The minimum adsorbent dose for an optimal removal within the concentration range considered (7-30 ppm) was 0.1 g for GAC and 1.0 g for MY04. Maximum removal percentage of 98.5 % was observed for GAC and 96.8 % for MY04. Adsorption isotherms observed were in agreement with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm for both GAC and MY04. The adsorption kinetic data obtained fitted the pseudo-first order kinetics on GAC and the pseudo-second order kinetics on MY04. These results showed that the kaolinite clay from Mayouom can efficiently be used to remediate mercury (II) from wastewaters.

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Comparative study of free volume and permeability coefficient of aqueous solutions of NaCl and NaC12H25SO4 across NylonTM Biobond Membrane

Sharma Meena, Sharma Amit Kumar* and Lal Roshan

Ultrasonic velocity (v), Adiabatic compressi¬bi¬lity (bad), Intermolecular path length (Lf) and Free volume (Vf) of aqueous solutions of NaCl and NaC12H25SO4 at different concentrations were calcul¬ated. The values of Free volume (Vf) so obtained were correlated with the Permeability coefficient (LP) values of these aqueous solutions through NylonTM Biobond membrane at three different temperatures (308,312 and 315K).The permeability coefficient (LP) has been found to be independent of the hydraulic pressure but is a characteristic property of the membrane and depends upon the concentration of the solute. The results showed that both Permeability coefficients (Lp) and Free volume (Vf) increase with decrease in concentration and decrease with increase in concentration in both the cases in accordance with their observed density (r) and viscosity (h) data.

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Cytotoxicity Screening of Alcoholic Extract of the Whole Plant of Phyllanthus rheedii

Sivajothi V. 1* and Leelaprakash G. 2

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer of alcohol (95%) extract of the whole plant of Phyllanthus rheedii. The MTT (methylthi¬azol¬yldiphenyl-tetrezolinum bromide) method was applied to compare the antitumoral activity of alcohol (95%) extract on lung carcinoma cell lines (A549), colon carcinoma cell lines (HCT-116), liver carcinoma cell lines (HEPG-2) and cervical carcinoma cell lines (HELA).

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Development and Application of a Water Resources Project Information System

Abbasi T., Chari K. B. and Abbasi S. A.*

A stand-alone water resources project information system, with several capabilities similar to that of a conventional GIS, has been developed. The system enables the user to store, analyze and display spatial information pertaining to a dam-based water resource project. The utility of the system has been illustrated with reference to its application to Sathanur Reservoir Project (Tamil Nadu, India). The database module of the Sathanur Reservoir Project Information System, SRPIS-DBM, enables the user to manipulate and update the database of the project on a real time basis. SRPIS has 31 pre-designed forms which enable cognition of a wide variety of data. The user can browse and print the existing information through forms, tables and reports, as one does when using MS Access. One has all the dynamism, flexibility, fluency and user-friendliness that distinguish MS Access. Another unique feature of SRPIS is a novel EIA sub-module which is integrated with the software’s database module. The environmental impact assessment ratings of the Sathanur reservoir project can be directly fed into this module by various observers: experts, end users and other groups. The personal details of each observer are stored in the table EIA_Personaldetails and the EIA ratings are stored in a yet another table called EIA-Matrix. In the latter, the values are saved cumulatively for each village and for each category of the observer. The map module of SRPIS, SRPIS-Mapper, has been designed specially for GIS requirements. The user can browse through various facets of SRPIS as map layers, thematic features, the attribute data related to these maps, hydraulic designs of Sathanur reservoir and information on tourist interests in-and-around Sathanur. All the maps have been designed to be self explanatory, with emphasis on clear legends and map scales. However, in SRPIS one can not edit, manipulate or create new thematic maps. To get around this shortcoming, installation of MapInfo Proviewer 6.5 and downloading of SRPIS Map Data from the SRPIS installation CD-ROM disk has been incorporated.

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Recent advances in development of eco-friendly solid composite propellants for rocket propulsion

Mahanta Abhay K.1 and Pathak Devendra D 2*

Significant advances have been made during the last decade in the field of solid composite propulsion. With the growing demand for environmental friendly chlorine free propellants, many attempts have been made to investigate a variety of oxidizers, which produce innocuous combustion products. This paper discusses various methods used to develop solid propellants that are environmentally benign than the current ammonium perchlorate-based propellant systems owing to reduction of the hydrochloric acid gas emissions in the motor exhaust. These methods include acid neutralization, acid scavenging, partial substitution of AP with other oxidizers and chlorine free propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these methods are elaborated based on current literature. Efforts have been made to cover the recent developments taken place in developing the eco-friendly solid composite propellants with special emphasis on the use of new energetic oxidizers i.e. ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF) in propellant composition.

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