Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Fingerprint Detection of Nitroaromatic Pollutants using 266 nm Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

Pei Kemei, Chen Lin and Zheng Xuming

The 266 nm excited resonance Raman spectra of nitroaromatic pollutants in water were measured at different concentrations. The fingerprint bands of nitroaromatic pollutants are the strong fundamental, overtone and combination bands of the aromatic ring C=C stretch and NO2 symmetric stretch. In the concentration range 40 -500 uM/L, the intensity of NO2 symmetric stretch increases linearly. 266 nm ultraviolet resonance Raman technique enables detection of nitroaromatic compounds at 4×10-5 mol/L (about 6 ppm concentration) and is proved to be a robust method for the on-line or off-line spectroscopic detection of nitroaromatic pollutants.

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Effects of Resuspension on the transfer and Transformation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus species at Sediments-Water Interface in Simulative Lake System

Peng Hong

The effects of resuspension on the transfer and transformation of the nitrogen and phosphorus species at the sediments- water interface in simulative lake system were investigated. The concentrations of different species of nitrogen and phosphorus under different conditions in the water and sediments were determined respectively. Results showed that at the higher disturbance frequency, the more ammonia was released from the surface sediments and the equilibrium of total phosphorus concentration in water can be arrived in a short time.

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Effects of Soil Treatments amended with Organic Manure on Lubricant Oil Degradation

Gopamma D. and Srinivas N.

The use of organic manure or compost in bioremediation of oil sludge is gaining importance. The effect of organic manure on biodegradation of soil contaminated with lubricant oil was investigated. The soils contained in plastics bags were contaminated with lubricant oil at the rate of 5g/kg. The soil samples were amended with organic manure at different proportions such as 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, and 75%. The experimental samples were setup and monitored for period of 30 days. The control and treatment of soil samples were characterized for pH, microbial respiration, organic carbon and hetero­trophic bacterial count. The experiment results showed enhanced biodegradation of lubricant oil due to organic manure addition. The maximum removal was 19.8% after four week study period at 75% of amendment. The result showed that nutrient supple­mentation enhanced the biodegradation rate of lubricant oil.

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The influence of a new-synthesized Zinc(II) Dithiocarbamate Complex on Fungus Phomopsis viticola Sacc

Leka Zorica and Latinović Nedeljko

A new zinc(II) complex is synthesized with the recently derived polydentate dithiocarbamate ligand, triammonium-N-dithiocarboxyiminodiacetate(NH4)3L. The complex is characterized by microanalysis and IR spectroscopy. The IR spectrum study of the complex suggests that dithiocarbamate ligand coordinates to zinc(II) ion through the sulfur atoms from the dithiocarbamate group. Fungi toxicity of the derived zinc complex, as well as already used dithiocarbamate ligand, was tested on fungus Phomopsis viticola which causes Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot diseases of grapevine. Given results were then compared to the efficacy of the commercial dithiocarbamate fungicide- mancozeb used for control of this disease.

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Pervaporation of Water–Isopropanol Mixtures through Ferrierite Zeolite Membrane

Sharma Aarti and Tomar Radha

Ferrierite zeolite membrane was successfully prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. Crystallization was carried out at a static condition under autogenously high pressure and temperature of 1800C. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern of ferrierite and its membrane shows similar peaks. The crystal species were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Elemental detection of ferrierite zeolite was carried out by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and different groups present in ferrierite zeolite can be determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Effect of various parameters such as separation time, temperature, molar concentration of water-isopropanol mixture and amount of zeolite on pervaporation of water –isopropanol mixtures has been studied. Membrane was analyzed and it was observed that selectivity increased simultaneously with increase in zeolite content in the mixture. It can be explained on the basis of enhancement of hydrophilicity, selective adsorption and molecular sieving action including reduction of pore size of membrane matrix. Selective separation of the membrane was determined with the help of Gas Chromatography.

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Pyrene Removal by White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete Chrysosporium immobilized on Sugarcane Bagasse

Khodddam Masoumeh , Nasernejad Bahram , Khoddam Mohammad Ali and Mehrnia Mohammad Reza

Effect of pyrene concentration on Phanerochaete chrysosporium growth and its manganese peroxidase activity, both in form of free cell and on-bagasse immobilized were studied. Experiments were conducted at pyrene concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/L and each time biodegradation extent was measured till 10 days after pyrene injection. Biomass dry weight of the fungus increased with pyrene concentration and its largest value, considering both free cell and immobilized forms, pertained to the case with 200 mg/L and corresponded to 2.1 and 6.2 g/L respectively. The enzyme activity exhibited a declining trend with pyrene concentration increase up to 200 mg/L for the free cell form which attributed to the inhibitive role of pyrene within the culture medium. In the immobilized form, the enzyme activity increased up to a peak (23 U/L) at concentration of 100 mg/L followed by a descending zone where the counteracting factor of immobilization against pyrene inhibitory effect is overweighed by high pyrene concentrations. Also, the time needed to observe the highest enzyme activity was lowered from 7 to 4 days. It was found that the use of bagasse-immobilized P. chrysosporium would hinder inhibitory effect of pyrene up to a specific extent and thus will favor its biodegradation.

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The Bioleaching Effect of Mine Tailings by Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans within Direct Current Magnetics

Li Dou, Li Dongwei and Lu Lili

Mine tailings from the chalcopyrite flotation process contain several elements (such as As, Cd and Cu) which are harmful if they are released to the soil and underground water. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the bioleaching effect of mine tailings by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans within direct current magnetics. The dissolved As, Cd, Cu and Fe concen- trations were studied at 32 oC with 5% pulp density in bioreactor and the experiment performed for 24 days in the 9K basal medium ( without FeSO4.7H2O) at the initial pH=2. A control experiment was set without DC magnetics. The results showed that the dissolved As and Cd concentrations of control test were always higher than that of DC magnetics test. DC magnetics improved the bioleaching effect of Cu and Fe and DC magnetics might change the structure of water molecule to alter the solvent nature.

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HPLC-ICP-MS Speciation Analysis of Arsenic in River Water of Sungai Kinta Malaysia

Baharuddin Norshidah, Saim Norashikin , Osman Rozita, Zain Sharifuddin Md. , Juahir Hafizan and Siti Rafzah Saari

The toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic depend on its species. A procedure for the separation of the arsenic species namely arsenite As (III) and arsenate As (V) by liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) is described. It has been successfully applied to the analysis of arsenic in river water of Sungai Kinta, Malaysia. No interference of 40 Ar, 35Cl and 75As was observed using the developed method. The separation of arsenic species produced peaks of As (III) at 1.6 min and As (V) at 4.8 min. The detection limits were found to be 1.0 and 0.5 ppb for As (III) and As (V) respectively. Standard addition method confirmed the accuracy with acceptable recoveries of As (III) and As (V). The results revealed that As (V) was more prominent than As (III) in most sampling sites.

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Preparation and Modification of Activated Carbon from Oil-Palm Shell and its Adsorption Capacity through Speciation of Chromium

Rahman M. M. and Yusof A. M.

A preparation and modification of activated carbon from oil-palm shell has been investigated in this paper. A pretreatment method has been established to avoid partial fusion and swelling in the carbonization stage. Carbonization has been studied at different temperatures and the structure of the microporous chars has been characterized. Activated carbon has been prepared from steam gasification of chars obtained at 800 OC. This activation increases both total and narrow microporosity and develops a substantial mesoporosity. Activated carbon with different pore size distribution is impregnated with zirconium chloride and iron chloride salts to give impregnated carbon with different metals loading. The presence of active metal on an impregnated activated carbon surface greatly affects the adsorption affinity since some inorganic compounds will then be adsorbed preferentially.

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Properties of the Sintered Product based on Electrofilter Ash depending on the Mineral Content of Binder

Krgovic Milun, ZejaRadomir K., Ivanovic Mileta, Vukcevic Mira, Boskovic Ivana, Knezevic Milos and Zlaticanin Biljana

The aim of the investigation was to determine the influence of the mineral content of clay as a binder on the properties of the sintered product based on electrofilter ash. Electrofilter ash was used as a component of the raw material mixture. The second component was illite-kaolinite clay. Four types of illite-kaolinite clays were used to investigate the influence of their mineral content on the properties of the sintered product with regard to the linear and volume shrinkage, total porosity and compression strength. The ash content in two-component raw material mixtures was constant (30 wt%) and the comparison of the named properties was performed on the basis of the mineral content of clay as a binder.

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Facile Synthesis of Some N-Ethoxyphthalimido-4-(5-(4-Substitutedphenyl)-3-Phenyl-4,5-Dihydropyrazol-1-Yl)-2-Substitutedphenyl-1Hbenzo[B][1,5] Diazepine

Hussain Nasir, Dangi Rajaram and Talesara Ganpat L.

Pyrazolo benzodiazepine compounds contai- ning alkoxyph thalimide moiety have been synthesized through a multiple step pathway starting from chalcone la-c. Cyclization of these with hydrazine hydrate in acetic acid yielded 1-[5-(4-substitutedphenyl)-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]ethanone 2a-c. Base catalyzed condensation of 2a-c with various aldehydes yielded 3-(4-substitutedphenyl)-1-(5-(4-substitutedphenyl)-phenyl-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl)prop-2-en-1-one 3a-f. These compounds on treatment with o-phenylenediamine gave compounds 4a-f. These 4a-f on refluxing with bromoethoxyphthalimide yielded final compounds N-ethoxyphthalimido-4-(5-(4-substitutedphenyl)-phenyl-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl)-2-substitutedphenyl-1H ben zo[b][1,5] diazepine 5a-f. In another path way chalcones 1a-c were refluxed with o-phenyl- enediamine gave2-(4-substitutedphenyl)-4-phenyl-1H-1,5-benzod -iaz epine 6a-c. In final step 6a-c on treatment with bromoethoxyphthalimide gave compounds N-ethoxyphthalimido-2-(4-substitute­dphe­n­yl) -4- phenyl-1H-1,5-benzo diazepine 7a-c.

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Thermal Degradation Studies of HTPB Based Polymer with the Influence of Chromium Based Catalysts

Pandey M., Jha S., Jha A. and Jha R.R.

The thermal degradation of HTPB based polymer has been analysed with the influence of chromium based catalysts through thermo gravimetric analyser (TGA). The TGA results reveal that cured HTPB degraded in two steps one at lower and other at high temperature zone. Among the additives, the degradation of HTPB at lower temperature zone is found to accelerate with Copper Chromate and delayed with Ammonium dichromate (ADC), Potassium dichrate(KDC), Lead chromate(PbC) and Cr2O3. Before reaching the high temperature degradation zone, cyclisation reaction is found to dominate over the degradation, as a result a slow degradation is recorded with HTPB. Ammonium dichromate (ADC), Potassium dichrate(KDC) and Cr2O3 are found effective in the second region. These catalysts accelerated polymeric degradation over the cyclisation process preponed the second zone degradation. The kinetic energies are calculated higher for all catalysed system in the first degradation zone and lower values in the second degradation zone than uncatalysed system.

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Quantifying Spatial Variability of Peat Soil Carbon and Nitrogen using Infrared Spectroscopy, Statistical and Geo-Statistical Models

Aslan Guler , Fatih Evrendilek and Nusret Karakaya

Chemical and biological analyses of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are time-consuming or require fresh material in cases of intensive in situ sampling. Infrared spectroscopy is one of the rapid and non-destructive methods that can be applied to a large number of soil samples. In this study, Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the range of 600 to 4000 cm-1 was assessed using partial least squares (PLS) regression model to predict total C and N of peat soils. ATR/FTIR-based PLS models had r2 values of about 0.8 for fitted functions and 0.7 for leave-one-out cross-validations. Using an independent dataset to compare soil C and N values estimated by ATR/FTIR-based PLS models versus those measured using CHN elemental analyzer led to r2 value of 0.97 for both soil C and N. The combined use of ATR/FTIR-based PLS models and inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation appears to be a promising method to estimate total C and N of peat soils for rapid data acquisition across spatially extensive areas.

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A study of Age Related Decrease in Zinc and Chromium and its Correlations with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Singh Ruchi and Kumar Ashok

The aim of this study was to compare the levels of zinc and chromium in serum samples (fasting and postprandial) of type 2 diabetic (NIDDM) subjects age ranged (30-75: n=56) with those of age matched non diabetics as normals (n=40) of both genders and further access a correlationship on the basis of age. The concentration was measured by means of an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer after wet acid digestion of serum samples. The results of this study showed significantly lower level (p<0.001) both for zinc and chromium in fasting and postprandial samples of diabetics than normals. Age wise decline in zinc and chromium status in human serum was also observed. These results are in consistence with those of earlier studies confirming that trace metals may play a role in the development of NIDDM subjects.

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Assessment of Toxic Effects of Chloramphenicol in Rats and its Amelioration by Coconut water

Dubey Chetan, Saxena Abhilasha, Gupta Rakhi, Singh Poonam, Bansode F.W. and Singh R.K.

Chloramphenicol was administered at dose levels of 150 mg/kg in rats for 14 days which caused significant haematotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Haematotoxicity and hepatotoxicity were reversed with the use of coconut water (20 ml/kg) in 14 Days establishing that coconut water has potential for amelioration of chloramphenicol toxicity. Glucuro­nidation of chloramphenicol followed by its elimination from the body is done by vitamins of group B (flavins) present in coconut water on stimulation of metabolism of drug. Abundance of its aqueous enhances the dilution effect which is responsible for rapid increase in degree of absorption of chemicals in gastrointestinal tract.

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Eco-Friendly supported Nanoparticles as a Green Approach

Sadegh Rostamnia

Nanoparticles based on toxic properties of quantum dot (Q.D.) have some limitation in environment and green applications. In view of the great attention paid to the development of eco-friendly and green chemistry approaches and based on recent advances in green support media, eco-friendly supported nanoparticles are used as catalyst that have led to a rational approach to the design of new heterogeneous green catalysts. Amongst the advantages of supported nanoparticles, the most significant is their large size (no Q.D.) and hence they can accommodate a greater number of eco-friendly surfaces such as clays, zeolites etc. for better catalytic activity and green media under controlled conditions.

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A Review on Functionalized Ionic Liquids – based on Benzimidazolium Cation: Solvents for Synthesis and Catalysis

Muskawar Prashant Narayan, Sythana Suresh Kumar, Aswar Sachin Arunrao, Parasuraman Karthikeyan and Bhagat Pundlik Rambhau

Functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) based on Benzimidazolium cation as environmental friendly solvent and catalyst, high activity and selectivity and easily recovered materials were used to replace traditional volatile organic solvents which generally suffered from disadvantages such as waste products, corrosion and environmental problems. Benzimi­dazole based ILS offered a new possibility for developing environmentally friendly basic catalyst with transition metal (Ag, Pd). They are flexible, nonvolatile, noncorrosive and immiscible with many organic solvents. This review presents an overview of the preparation, extraction and applications in various reactions like Alkylation, Esterification, Acetalization, Benzoin reaction and Metal mediated catalyst in Suzuki, Suzuki Miyaura, Heak cross coupling and reduction, also in Anion Sensor, Solar Cell, Proton Conduction, Malaria Parasite and Biodiesel.

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