Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by a Novel Nonporous Carbonaceou Sorbent derived from Sucrose

Zhang Deyi 1, 2,*, Ma Ying 2, Feng Huixia 1, Wang Yi 1, 2 and Hao Yuan 2

In this paper, the possibility of the utilization of a novel nonporous carbonaceou sorbent (NCS) derived from sucrose for removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution was investigated. The effect of experimental parameters, namely, pH, contact time and initial MB concentration for MB removal were studied. Equilibrium data were mathematically modelled using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption models to describe the equilibrium isotherms at different temperature. It was found that the Langmuir equation fit better than the Freundlich equation. Maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (Qm) calculated at different temperatures (298, 308 and 318K) was 522.44, 787.96 and 914.77 mg/g, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters and spectroscopy evidences of the adsorption process indicated that the adsorption of MB onto NSC was endothermic and physical in nature. Comparing with other sorbents reported in the literature, the reported sorbent exhibited more effective and could be used as a potential substitute of activated carbon for organic dye removal from waste water.

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Determination of bisphenol A in effluent water of analogue MBR wastewater treatment system using high- performance liquid chromatography

Wenhua Song1,3*, Zhen Li1 and Feng Ding2

In this paper, the concentration of bisphenol A (BPA) in the analogue MBR wastewater treatment system effluent was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Then the toxicity of BPA to photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum) was measured. Liquid-liquid extraction method was used for the pretreatment of water samples. In order to establish the liquid-liquid extraction-HPLC method used for the determination of BPA, the influences caused by the species and the usage amount of the extraction solvents in process of the liquid-liquid extraction were discussed and the HPLC conditions were optimized. A good linear correlation coefficient of the method linearity (R= 0.9997) was observed, and the detection limit was 10.5μg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The recoveries of BPA were between 94.16%~98.92% and the RSD of the determination were less than 6.9%. The monitoring result about the effluent concentration of BPA was 1.240mg/L after operating the analogue MBR wastewater treatment system for one month. The result of toxicity study showed that 2μg/L BPA had low toxicity to P. phosphoreum, according to water quality-determination of the acute toxicity of substance to the P. phosphoreum. This study established an easy and accurate method for the determination of BPA in the water samples.

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Effects of Cyclodextrin on Photodegradation of 4, 4'- Sulfonyldiphenol in Aqueous Solution

Guo Li 1,2, Wang Beibei 1, Wu Feng 1* and Deng Nansheng 1

The inclusion effects of α- and β-cyclodextrin (α-CD, β-CD) on the photodegradation of 4,4'-Sulfonyldiphenol (BPS) were investigated in aqueous solution under UV irradiation (λ=254nm). The inclusion interaction of α- and β-cyclodextrin with BPS was ascertained by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The influence of complexation with β-CD was found to enhance the light-induced decomposition of BPS and that of α-CD inhibited BPS photodegradation, however β-CD inhibits photomineralization of BPS. The kinetics of BPS photocatalytic degradation with different BPS initial concentrations was investigated by first-order reaction model. The experiments demonstrated that the change of pH and β-CD initial concentration could significantly affect the photodegradation of BPS. The effects of cyclodextrin inclusion complexation on photoreaction rate of BPS were also discussed on the basis of experimental data.

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Comparative performance of different white rot fungi in decolorization of acid, direct and reactive textile azo dyes

Rani Chhavi, Jana Asim Kumar* and Bansal Ajay 121

Different white rot fungi were compared for their ability to decolorize a wide range of structurally different acid, direct and reactive azo dyes. P. chrysosporium, P. radiata and D. flavida showed better ability to decolorize the dyes compared to P. sanguineus, F. flavus and T. hirsuta on agar plates. Favourable culture conditions were identified to enhance the decolorization ability of P. chrysosporium, P. radiata and D. flavida. Shaking of culture inhibited the decolorization of amaranth by these strains. Under favourable conditions, more than 90% decolorization of amaranth was observed in 5 days by D. flavida. Whereas, P. chrysosporium and P. radiata required 7 and 8 days respectively for more than 90% decolorization of amaranth. D. flavida was found more efficient than P. chrysosporium and P. radiata. 99% decolorization of amaranth, 74% decolorization of metanil yellow, 96% decolorization of trypan blue, 63% decolorization of chlorazole black E and 42% decolorization of red M8B was observed in 5 days with D. flavida. It is the first time that different white rot fungi have been compared in terms of their ability to decolorize a wide range of acid, direct and reactive azo dyes. The results would help in identifying an efficient culture for effective decolorization of these azo dyes.

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Adsorption Characteristics of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by fly ash

Xiaodong Liu1 and Hongqin Xue2*

This work examined the adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) onto fly ash by batch adsorption experiments. After elementary characterization of fly ash, different parameters influenced the Pb(II) adsorption process such as contact time, different dosage level of adsorbent, initial pH and temperature have been studied. Results showed that adsorption equilibrium attained within 80 minutes. Increased in adsorbent dosage led to increased in Pb(II) adsorption due to increased number of adsorption sites, however the rise rate of the removal ratio slack-off after the adsorbent dosage exceeded 100 g/l. The optimum pH was found to be around 5.8. The optimum temperature for removal ratio of this adsorption process was 40oC.

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Rapid, Reliable and Validated Method to remove Sodium Do Decyl Sulphate (SDS) from Waste Water of (Durg- Bhilai Region) by using Natural Bioadsorbate

Sar Santosh K.*, Verma Chanda and Tomar Poornima

Present work deals with the removal of Sodium do decyl sulphate by the seeds of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) and leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi). The scope of the work is to investigate and search biosorbents for surfactant (anionic) uptake, potential, batch equilibrium mode removal studies and kinetic studies at varying pH 2-6, contact time biosorbent dosages (2–100 g/L) and initial surfactant concentration (2-200 mg/L). The development of batch kinetic model and determination of order studies were investigated. It was observed that pH had sharp effect on the surfactant uptake. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to correlate equilibrium data on sorption of surfactant (anionic by using both Karanj and Tulsi) at room temperature 250C and pH 2–9 and different coefficients were calculated. The biomass was successfully used for removal of surfactant from waste water which is technically applicable and viable.

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Kinetics, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Studies of Adsorption of Congo Red From Aqueous Solution onto COCOA Shell Activated Carbon

Theivarasu C., Mylsamy S. and Sivakumar N.*12

The adsorption of Congo red (CR) by Cocoa Shell Activated Carbon (CSAC) was investigated by varying the parameters such as agitation time, concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was determined as ~6.0. The adsorption of CSAC was found to be increasing with increase in temperature. Adsorption kinetics was determined by pseudo first order and pseudo second order models to the experimental data. The results indicated that the pseudo second- order model proving the best description of CR onto CSAC. The experimental adsorption equilibrium data was analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption models. Based on correlation coefficient (r2) values, equilibrium data found fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters like ΔH_, ΔS_ and ΔG_ were measured based on Van’t Hoff’s Plot. The thermodynamics of CR-CSAC system indicates endothermic nature of process. The structure and morphological of activated carbon was characterized by SEM analysis.

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Mathematical modeling for desalination by electrodialysis

Han Chunjie* and Yan Tie

Under this condition of direct current (DC), according to the property that ion electromigration happens on the external electric field, mathematical modeling for desalination by electrodialysis (ED) was established on the basis of Na+ separation experimental data. A assumption was given to establish the mathematical modeling: (1) quasi-steady state; (2) negligible electro-osmosis transfer; (3) incompressible fluid; (4) this ion exchange membrane was ideal film and had ideal selectivity for the ion transport; (5) this solution only contained salt of sodium chloride. The mathematical modeling started from a differential equation of steady-state mass balance, derived the equation and was validated by experiments. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of voltages and flow rates on ED cell performance and the model parameter was calculated using the outlet concentration in the dilute compartment. The result showed that there is a good consistency between the experimental and calculated data; it was found that the mathematical modeling could be used to well predict the process.

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Water quality of Dhulikhel area, Nepal

1,2,Shrestha R. A. , Kafle B. K. 1 and Sillanpää M. 2*

This study consisted of the determination of the physiochemical properties of different types of untreated water in Dhulikhel area of Nepal. The aim was to ascertain the quality of river water, ground water and pond water. Only the concentration of chloride exceeded the permissible limits of the World Health Organization drinking water quality guidelines. The four out of five ponds had very low dissolved oxygen content. In an average, the water in this area was slightly polluted. A simple pre-treatment is enough to make the water potable.

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Biodegradation of Hydroquinone Using Sequential Batch Reactor: A Preliminary Study of Industrial Effluent

Suresh S.

This paper presents the experimental results of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating synthetic hydroquinone (HQ) wastewater under identical conditions of influent HQ concentration and aeration time. The performance of the reactors was evaluated according to substrate removal efficiency, HQ profiles, sludge settleability and effluent suspended solids concentration. The optimum value of mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS) concentration to be maintained in the reactor is found to be 5012 mg/l. The optimum values of react and settle phase is found to be 1.75 h and 0.75 h in a 5 h cycle i.e. 35% and 15% of the total cycle time. The optimum value of aeration time shifted in fill phase is found to be fully aerated and it is found that this concept of aerated fill phase shows considerable effect on the removal efficiency of HQ. At influent HQ concentrations (100 mg/l), the SBR performed better than the other influent concentration. However, when the influent HQ concentration was high (>500 mg/l), HQ biodegrade was deceased and led to a reduction in substrate removal efficiency and the growth of dispersed biomass. SVI of solutions having initial concentration of 100 mg/1 and 500 mg/l treated at MLSS concentration of 5012 mg/l was found to be 123.3 and 230.6, respectively. So the sludge obtained was found to be light and bulky in nature which can be settled using appropriate coagulants. From the filterability test the value of specific cake resistance (α) and the value of filter media resistance (Rm) of the sludge were 7.543 × 1011 and 3.396× 108 1/m, respectively. Filterability test suggested that the specific cake resistance (α) for the sludge wasted from SBR is very low as compare to that of the sludge from the municipal sewage plant and has good filterability. The proximate analysis shows moisture content, volatile matter, ash and fixed carbon of sludge were 0.78%, 67.2%, 21% and 11.02%, respectively. The heating value was found to be 15.2 MJ/kg. The thermal analysis of the sludge showed the completion of the oxidation process at 575 oC for the activated sludge with total degradation of 98%. The filtered sludge can be dried and fired as fuel in the furnaces/incinerators for its heat recovery.

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X-ray, Thermal and Biological studies of Ru(III), Rh(III) and Pd(II) Schiff base metal complexes

Chavan V. L. and Mehta B. H. *

The Schiff base synthesized using 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and o-phenylene diamine was used to synthesize Ru(III), Rh(III) and Pd(II) complexes using 1:1. metal: ligand stoichiometric proportion. Then Schiff base and its metal complexes were characterized by various analytical techniques. The structures of Schiff base and metal complexes were proposed on the basis of elemental analysis, Molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and various analytical techniques viz. UV-Vis., IR, 1H-NMR, X-ray and thermal analysis. Ru(III) and Rh(III) complexes may exhibit octahedral geometries and Pd(II) may exhibit square planar geometry whereas the Schiff base was appeared as tetradentate ligand. The Schiff base and its metal complexes were screened for biological studies and its result indicate that they exhibit moderate activity.

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α-mangostin and β-mangostin from Cratoxylum laucum

Wei Chung Sim, Gwendoline Cheng Lian Ee* and Sukari Mohd Aspollah

Our continuing interest in xanthones and anthraquinones from the Cratoxylum genus has led us to look at Cratoxylum glaucum. This resulted in the isolation of α-mangostin (1), β-mangostin (2), fuscaxanthone C (3), 3-geranyloxy-6-methyl-1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (4), β-sitosterol (5), 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylanth-raquinone (6), stigmasterol (7), friedelin (8) and betulinic acid (9). Structural elucidations of these compounds were achieved by using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic experiments. Cytotoxic assays indicated that the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts demonstrated cytotoxicity against the MCF7 cancer cell line. Meanwhile, the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. glaucum inhibited the HL-60 cancer cell line activity.

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Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and DNA cleavage activity studies of Metal (II) complexes with a benzofuran Schiff’s base

Halli M. B. *, Vijayalaxmi and Patil B.

Metal complexes of the type MLX2, where M = Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), Zn (II), Cd (II) and Hg (II), X = Cl and L = PMBC, Schiff’s base derived from the condensation of Benzofuran-2-carbohydrazide with Pyridine-2-aldehyde have been synthesized. The structure of the complexes have been proposed in the light of analytical, IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, DART-MS, ESR spectral data and magnetic studies. The complexes are soluble in DMF and DMSO. The measured molar conductance values indicate that, the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. On the basis of these studies six coordinated octahedral polymeric structure has been assigned to Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) complexes and four coordinated tetrahedral geometry to Zn (II), Cd (II) and Hg (II) complexes. The Schiff’s base and their metal complexes have been tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by MIC method. The DNA cleavage activities of all the complexes were studied by agarose gel electrophoresis method.

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One Pot Synthesis of 12-aryl -8, 9, 10, 12–Tetrahydrobenzo [a]-xanthen -11-one Derivatives Using Amberlyst-15 as a Recyclable catalyst under Solvent Free Conditions

Nazeruddin G.M.,* Shaikh A. A. and Pandharpatte M. S.

A three component condensation of β-naphthol, aromatic aldehydes and cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds catalyzed by of Amberlyst-15 as a recyclable catalyst to furnish 12-aryl- 8,9,10,12-tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthen-11-ones under Solvent Free conditions is described.

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Synthesis of New D-Arabinose Derivatives

Yahia Nasser Mabkhoot12 , Daiekh A.A Abod*, Salem Slayyem Al-Theyab1, Saud Ibrahim, Al-Resayes1 and Zeid Abdullah Al-Othman1

D - Arabinose was converted into new allylic furanosyl and pyranosyl glycosides by applying two different reaction conditions. The glycosides then were treated with sodium azide to get triazoline compounds via a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new glycosides and the triazoline compounds were identified by I.R, 1H – and 13C – N.M.R. spectroscopy.

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Spatial and Temporal Variation of Surface Ozone and its Precursors in Burdwan Municipality Area

Gupta Srimanta11*, Chattopadhyay Subrata and Mondal Swagata 1

Present study deals with the surface or ground level or tropospheric ozone along with its precursors in different zones of Burdwan Municipality area. During the month of March and April concentrations of surface Ozone (O), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen di oxide (NO32) are monitored over three times a day for one hour duration at four sampling sites. Meteorological conditions are also taken into account for more detail study. In the month of March the range of O3, NO2, CO, temperature, humidity and wind speed ranges from 9.7-33.5 ppb, 2.67-19.85 μg/m3, and 0.325-10.25 ppm, 30.7-42.72°C, 27-80.14 % and 0-14.1 km/hr respectively. While in the month of April the variation of O, NO32, CO, temperature, humidity and wind speed are 3-33 ppb, 14.32-41.24 μg/m3, 0.35-11.95 ppm, 30.62-50.3°C, 26-81.9 % and 0-16.3 km/hr respectively. The predominant wind direction is South West, South East and North East in the March while in April it is in the direction of South West, South and South East direction. It is found that the concentration of O is not only function of its precursors viz. NO32 and CO but also a function of prevailing meteorological conditions as sometime it is observed that the concentrations of O3 are increased with the decreasing concentration of its precursors and vice versa.

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Evaluation of heavy metal exposure in oil drilling sites

Das Chutia A.1, Unni B. G.1∗ , Bhattacharjee M.1, Baruah P. K.2, Das S.1, Wann S. B.1, Sahu O. P.3, Borah T.2 and Rao P. G.1

Anthropogenic activities by oil drilling and industrial processing are the main sources of heavy metal contamination in the environment. Heavy metals are extremely persistent in the environment and are non-biodegradable and non-thermo degradable and thus readily accumulate to toxic levels. Further they also become available for plant uptake through contaminated soil and water and finally consumed by man through food. A study was undertaken in the vicinity of oil drilling site at Borholla (Assam). Higher level of toxic elements such as lead, arsenic and manganese were detected in the water samples and the nutritional quality was found low in the vegetables cultivated in the nearby soil.

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Degradation and mineralization of organic contaminants by Fenton and photo-Fenton processes: Review of mechanisms and effects of organic and inorganic additives

Sahoo Mihir Kumar

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) catalyzed by iron, Fenton ( and photo-Fenton () processes have been shown to have great potential in the treatment of various hazardous chemicals like dyes, agrochemicals, drugs etc. More than six decades after the discovery of Fenton’s reagent, it has gained considerable importance in such a context. The present work reports details of operational parameters such as the pH, the concentrations of the target molecule, iron salt, hydrogen peroxide etc. for the working of Fenton and photo-Fenton processes efficiently. This review emphasizes two relatively neglected areas of research concerning Fenton and photo-Fenton processes, i.e. the influence of aromatic & aliphatic hydrocarbons and various inorganic cations () and anions (e.g. , , , , , , etc.), generally found in industrial wastewaters on the two processes. A general mechanism of degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon systems including azo dyes has been outlined. It is concluded that hydroxyl radical mediated degradation of all aromatic hydrocarbons follows two distinct paths yielding aliphatic carboxylic acids: one through the cleavage of peroxyl radical and the other through the cleavage of quinone. Complete mineralization is achieved when the acids on further oxidation produce

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Investigation of Hg2+ on TnC- skeletal muscles

1Raouf Mahmoud and Mahdavian Leila 2*

One of the effects of industrialization is the consumption of chemicals which is very dangerous and lethal. Mercury metal is a serious hazard for human and environmentl. In this study the effects of Hg2+ on TnC (Troponin C) are investigated. Biochemical and structural studies on the interaction of muscle's myosin and the binding sites on actin are based on positions of tropomyosin (Tm) and troponin (Tn) on the thin filament. TnC controls the calcium in muscle contraction and is the Ca2+-binding subunit of the troponin complex. We simulated TnC-Hg2+ interaction and calculated their thermodynamics parameters by DFT and semi empirical methods. The calculations were conducted using Gaussian and CHARMM software's using semi-empirical methods, together with Monte Carlo simulation.

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