Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Synthesis and Spectral Studies of Some Lanthanide Complexes with Tridentate Thiosemicarbazone Ligand

Dubey Raj Kumar* and Mariya Ayesha

Lanthanide complexes of the type [(Cl)2Ln(L)(H2O)4] and [(Cl)Ln(L)2(H2O)3] [where Ln= Nd(III), Gd(III), Sm(III) & Y(III), L= Schiff base ligand; salicylidene-thiosemicarbazide (stscH)] were synthesi¬z¬ed and characterized by various physico-chemical tech¬niques. The complexes were found to be coloured solid and were highly soluble in methanol, ethanol, DMF and DMSO. These complexes have been characterized by elemental (Ln, C, H, N, S & Cl) analysis and spectral (IR, 1H- and 13C- NMR) data, whereas the structure of the complexes has been tentatively determined by FAB-MS spectral studies. X-ray powder diffraction of one of the complex was recorded on Rigaku Model D/Max-2200 PC using Cu-Kα1 radiation (λ = 1.5406 Å). The crystallite size of the complex [(Cl)2Gd(L)(H2O)4] is 193.04 Å

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Study of Tin Accumulation Strategy by Cyperus Species in Pot Experiments

Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel 1*, Maah Mohd. Jamil 1 and Yusoff Ismail 2

The present investigation reports the results of the Sn accumulated by Cyperus Sp. in a pot experiment on different levels of Sn supply (0, 0.5, 2, 6, 25, 60 mg/kg). All tested Cyperus species showed the different abilities to remove Sn which depends on species and concentrations level. Sn accumulated by the leaves, twigs and roots linearly increased with increasing Sn supply levels. The higher concentration of Sn treatments significantly promoted the Sn accumulation. Cyperus rotundus L performed the stronger ability of Sn accumulation under different Sn supply treatments, while Cyperus alternifolius and Cyperus fastigiatus Rottb. had the poorer accumulation ability. Sn in soil was more intensively absorbed in the leaves and twigs for all three Cyperus species, was not retained in roots and was transferred to above ground plant tissues. The results indicated that Cyperus Sp. has excellent potential for Sn phytoremediation because of high accumulation ability.

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Wet Peroxide Oxidation of Oilfield Sludge

Guolin Jing*, Mingming Luan and Tingting Chen

Wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) of oilfield sludge was performed in a batch reactor. Effect of reaction parameters such as residence time, reaction temperature, HE and initial concentration of oilfield sludge was investigated. The experimental results showed that wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation can effectively remove the organic compounds of the oilfield sludge. The residence time and reaction temperature are the main factors for COD removal of oilfield sludge. Initial concentration of oilfield sludge and HE are also important. When the reaction temperature is 3200C-3400C, initial concentration of oilfield sludge is 4000mg/L, the residence time is 9 min, then COD removal oilfield sludge could reach 88.68%. The COD removal increases with the rise of reaction temperature and residence time.

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Removal of As (V) from Aqueous Solution by Coagulation and Ion Exchange

Lo Shang-Lien* and Lee Ya-Ping

This study was to remove As(V) from aqueous solution by using two methods: coagulation and ion exchange. In jar tests, the parameters like coagulant type, dosage, pH and turbidity were thought to affect arsenic removal during coagulation and co¬precipitation. It appeared that ferric chloride was the best coagulant for the removal of arsenic and the pH of the optimum removal efficiency of arsenic increased with increasing dosage of ferric chloride. Batch experiments of ion exchange (IRA-402) were conducted to assess the effects of reaction time, pH, initial concentration of As(V) and the type and concentration of competing ions. In column tests, the average exchange capacities for As(V) of IRA-402 were 84.7~85.9 mg-As/g-resin, which were approximately approaching the maximum exchange capacity of 80.2 mg-As/g-resin from modeling results of Langumir isotherms.

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Lanthanum (III) complexes of thiocarbohydrazones

Yadawe Mallikarjun S.1* and Patil Sangamesh A.2

Several complexes of Lanthanum (III) with thiocarbohydrazones have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectral data. The complexes have 1:1stoichiometry of the typeLa.L.NO3 H¬¬2O, La.L.Cl.H2O and La.L.NCS.H¬¬2O where ‘L’ represents doubly degenerated ligand. The IR spectral data suggest that, the ligands have coordinated through azomethine nitrogen atoms and reacted through hydroxyl groups via deprotonation. The PMR spectral data support the IR inferences. On the basis of these observations it is suggested that La (III) complexes exhibit co-ordination number seven in the complexes of the type La.L.NO3.H¬-2O and six in the type of La.L.Cl.H¬¬2O and La.L.NCS.H¬¬2O complexes. All the ligands and their La (III) complexes have been screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against bacteria and fungi.

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In Vitro Anti-Oxidant Studies on Various Extracts from Whole Plant of Ionidium suffruticosum (Ging)

Satheeshkumar D., Kottai Muthu A.* and Manavalan R.

In the present study, the antioxidant potency of successive extracts (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate & methanol) of the whole plant of Ionidium suffruticosum was investigated. The free radical scavenging activity of various extracts of the whole plant of Ionidium suffruticosum was assessed by hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion generating models. Ascorbate was used as standard and positive control for hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide scavenging methods and quercetin was used as standard and positive control for superoxide radical scavenging method. The methanolic extract of whole plants of Ionidium suffruticosum had shown very significant antioxidant activities evaluated by hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical , superoxide anion generating models compared to standard antioxidants. Thus the therapeutic property of the whole plant of Ionidium suffruticosum is attributed to the antioxidant principles which scavenge the free radicals responsible for pathological severity.

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Reversed Phase Partition Chromatographic Separation of La(III) from Picric Acid on Poly[dibenzo-18-crown-6]

Mahanwar K.R., Sabale S.R., Madane N.S., Nikam G. H. and Mohite B.S. *

A simple method has been developed for the separation of La(III) in picric acid medium. The effects of picric acid concentration, different eluting agent, foreign ions etc. were studied and the optimum conditions were established. The capacity of poly[dibenzo-18-crown-6] for La(III) was found to be 1.15±0.01 mmolg-1 of crown polymer. The separation of La(III),Th(IV), U(VI), Ba(II) in multicomponent mixtures has been achieved. The method was extended for determination of La(III) in real sample. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately ±2%).

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Differential Action of Mercury and Lead ions on the Stability of Lipid-Protein Organization of Photosynthetic Assembly

Panda Sunakar*, Panda Sumita Kumari and Dash A. K.

Differential actions of two toxic metal ions namely mercury ions (Hg2+-ion) and lead ion (Pb 2+ - ion) on the stability of lipid protein organization of isolated chloroplasts have been investigated during the photo incubation of the organelle in an isotonic buffer medium. The stability is monitored by studying changes in the composition of photosynthetic pigments, proteins and lipid peroxidation products and also alterations in the absorption and emission characteristics of the organelle. Both the toxic metal ion induce thylakoids membrane lipid peroxidation and bring about a drastic modification of both structural and functional characteristics as evident from blue shift of absorption peaks , lowering of chlorophyll-a fluorescence and loss of photosynthetic potential . It is quite interesting to note that although ( Hg2+-ion) accelerate the degradation of photo¬syn¬thetic pigments and proteins, Pb2+-ion retards the same. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain differential actions of two different toxic metal ions. Hg2+-ion induced disorganization has been attributed to binding of the cation to thylakoid surface, cation induced generation and entry of reactive oxygen species and poor stacking ability of the cation. But the detrimental effects of Pb2+- ion are explained in terms of cation specific activation of lipases through calmodulin and higher tendency of the cation to cause stacking.

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Anaerobic Oxidation of Ferrous Iron by Microbial Mixture and its Potential to remove Mercury and Nitrate from the Groundwater

Wu Guangyang 1, Zhang Daoyong 2 and Pan Xiangliang1*

Groundwater contaminated by nitrate and heavy metals was an important and cosmopolitan environment problem especially in the rural area. However, there are no efficient techniques to remove nitrate and heavy metals simultaneously at present. In this study a mixture of microorganisms was enriched from the sediments of anaerobic aquifer. Experiments demonstrated that the mixture has the ability to reduce nitrate to nitrite and gaseous end product N2 using Fe(II) as the electron donor in anaerobic condition. At the same time, the Fe(II) was oxidized to Fe(III) minerals. The microbial mixture and biogenic Fe(III) minerals have the ability to adsorb mercury ions. In this study, soluble mercury was reduced from 20 μg L-1 to 2.11 μg L-1 in 7 days of incubation in the presence of the microbial mixture and biogenic Fe(III) minerals. This suggests that nitrate and soluble mercury were directly or indirectly removed through the anaerobic oxidation of Fe(II) by AFODN.

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Photo-catalytic degradation of red HE8B dye by TiO2 in visible light

Jain Sukumal* and Khandelwal R. K.

The photo catalytic degradation of red HE8B dye was studied using TiO2 as semiconductor. Visible light was used as the source of energy. The effects of various parameters like amount of semiconductor, pH, dye concentration etc. on the photo degradation were investigated.

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Derivative Spectrophotometric Determination of Ruthenium (III) using Diacetyl Monoxime Isonicotinoyl Hydrazone (DMIH)

Reddy ChandraSekhar G.1, Devanna N.1 and Chandrasekhar K. B.2*

Ruthenium (III ) forms a purple coloured water soluble complex with Diacetyl Monoxime Isonicotinoylhydrazone(DMIH) reagent in acidic buffer pH 4.5 with λmax at 346 nm .The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity are 1.4 X 10 4 L.mol -1 .cm -1 and 0.0048 µg / cm 2 respectively .The Beer’s law validity range is 0.505 to 6.06 µg / ml. Ruthenium(III) forms (M:L) 1:1 complex with DMIH. Stability constant of the complex is 2.694 X 10 6. The derivative spectrophotometric determination of Ru(III) was carried out by measuring peak height method .The developed derivative spectrophotometric method was employed for the determination of Ruthenium (III) in synthetic samples of alloy and river water samples .The effect of various diverse ions is also studied .

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The Mathematical Model of Bubble Size based on the Bubble Nucleation Theory in the Process of Air-Flotation

Jiao Binquan1,2,3* and Liu Jin 1

Electroflotation is widely used in industrial waste water treatment. The pollutant removal efficiency is largely dependent on the size of the bubbles formed in the processes of electroflotation. Unlike dissolved air flotation and spraying air flotation, the electrolytic bubble is formed through the gas which was emitted on some contact interface according to the Bubble Nucleation Theory which is essentially different from the orifice bubble's formation. Therefore, it is difficult to follow the traditional conclusions of hydrodynamics in the research of bubbles produced in processes of electroflotation. In this paper, the Mathematical Model of Electrolytic Bubble Size was established based on the Bubble Nucleation Theory. A contrast analysis on experimental result showed that under low current the bubble size could be calculated through Mathematical Model.

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Superheated Water Extraction (SWE): A potential ‘green’ extraction technique for natural dyes

Tajuddin R. *, Tumin S.M., Muda K. and Abd Razak N.

Most of the natural dyes used for dyeing fabrics were extracted from plants using conventional boiling method with water which required long extraction time and plenty of water. In this study, a rapid and eco-friendly extraction method using superheated water (SWE) with regard to the amount and quality of dyestuff from several selected plants is introduced. SWE method employed water at different elevated temperatures as the extraction solvent for the natural dyes, using a fabricated extractor system whereby an HPLC pump was used to feed the water into an extraction cell placed in a Gas Chromatography oven. This method was then compared with boiling method which is commonly used in textile dyeing. The results showed that a more concentrated sample extract with higher intensity of colour was produced by SWE compared to boiling method. The silk fabric dyed with sample extract obtained by SWE gave a more intense colour shade and has comparable colour fastness on washing and rubbing based on Malaysian Standard Testing Method (MS ISO 105). SWE has the potential to be introduced in textile dyeing as it is rapid, simple and inexpensive to perform and is environmental friendly.

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Synthesis and Characterization of Polyurethanes of 2, 4-Toluene Di Isocyanate with Multifunctional Chromophores in the Main Chain

Sudheesh Kumar K.

A series of photosensitive polyurethanes with multifunctional chromophores, viz. bis (azo) and bis (o-nitrobenzyl) groups, were synthesized by polyaddition reactions of diols such as bis (4-hydroxyphenylazo)-2,2’-dinitrodiphenylmethane, 4-h¬y¬droxy-3-methylphenylazo-4’-hydroxy-phenylazo-2,¬2’-¬dinitrodiphenyl-methane and bis (4-hydroxy-3-methylphenylazo)-2,2’-dinitro-diphenylmethane with 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI), in dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) in the presence of di-n-butyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) as catalyst. All of them were characterized by IR, UV-VIS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, DSC and GPC.

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Analysis of the Carbofuran Pesticide Residue in the Banana Planted Soil of Wayanad District, Kerala

Devasia M.J.1* and Madhu G.2

Wayanad is a fertile highland of greenery in Kerala state. It is noted for its less atmospheric pollution compared to other parts of the state. Most of the people in Wayanad depend on agriculture for their living. However, recently the unscientific and increased use of harmful pesticides in banana plantation is noted in the district in connection with efforts of the farmers to enhance the productivity. This resulted in the boosted production but also in the tragic increase in the number of cancer patients, according to recent surveys. The present study was undertaken to detect and estimate the amount of the carbofuran in the banana planted soil of Wayanad district. The locations for the collection of the soil samples were selected on the basis of two factors such as the extent of use and soil types of widely varying physico–chemical properties. The recovery of carbofuran from the soil varied from 11.7 to 43.76 mg/L. Extraction and quantification of pesticide residues from the soil was carried out by using optimized cleaning procedures and concentration methods using HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Most of the soil samples contained carbofuran in varying concentrations. The amount of carbofuran retained from the soil from five different places in the district varied in the order Periya>Varayal>¬Vengo¬or¬>Alattil> Thav¬injal. This result could be very well correlated with the organic matter content of the soil from the respective place. Other factors such as manuring of the soil, moisture content, climatic conditions and temperature (below 35oC) etc. were also examined for possible correlations but none of them was found to be directly influencing the presence and persistence of carbofuran in the soil.

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Synthesis and Characterization of Tamarind Anthranilic Acid (TAA) Resin and its Role in Removal of Toxic Metal Ions from Effluent of Jackson Paint Industry, Jodhpur, India

Singh A.V.*, Monalisa and Singh Rakesh

A new tamarind based resin containing anthranilic acid group has been synthesized and its adsorption behavior for toxic metal ions has been investigated by batch and column experiments. Anthranilic acid group has been incorporated into tamarind by a modified Porath's method of functionalisation of polysaccharides. The tamarind- anthranilic acid (TAA) resin can selectively separate toxic metal ions which are present in industrial wastewater. The TAA resin was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and elemental analysis techniques. The distribution coefficient value of metal ions at different pH was also studied using batch equilibrium method. The effects of pH and adsorbent dose on the removal of metal ions from industrial effluent were investigated. On the other hand, the physical property of TAA resin was also studied. On the basis of the distribution coefficient, this material was successfully used for the quantitative separations of metal ion using column method. The removal of metal ions from industrial effluent by TAA resin follows the order: Cu (II)> Cr (III)> Zn (II) > Cd (II) > Pb (II). The resin is amenable for continuous process and can be regenerated several times.

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Characterization of an iron-rich kaolinite clay and its application as heterogeneous catalyst for the microwave-mediated dry synthesis of N-containing heterocycles

Phukan Kandarpa1, Jain Anamika2 and Devi Nirada3*

A number of five and six- membered heterocyclic compounds containing two nitrogen atoms have been synthesized in a simple and environmentally benign method from the reaction of urea, formaldehyde or benzaldehyde and a 1,2- or 1,3-diketone using a locally available natural clay as solid heterogeneous acidic catalyst and microwaves under solvent-free conditions in good yields and short reaction times. Characterization of the clay using XRD, SEM-EDXRA, thermal analysis, FT-IR spectra and elemental analysis revealed it to be an iron rich clay with kaolinite as the major component. The present method has the specificity that naturally available clay can be used as catalyst after simple mechanical treatment instead of more costly commercial clays. Further it has many obvious advantages over those reported in the literature including high efficiency, comparable yields with the commercial clay catalysts, cost efficiency, operational simplicity, environmental benignity, and the possibility of recycling the solid clay. The solid clay catalyst used in the first cycle of reactions was successfully recovered and reused in the second cycle, showing a gradual decrease in activity.

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Treatment of acrylonitrile production effluent by an advanced oxidation process

Zhang Jie, Ni Ming, Ran Xianqiang, Xue Binjie, Liu Xianghu and Fan Jianwei*

Fenton process can produce OH radical and other active oxygen with existence of H2O2 and Fe2+. In this paper pretreatment of acrylonitrile manufacturing wastewater by Fenton process was studied. Effects of dose of H2O2, pH value and ratio of Fe2+/H2O2 on removal efficiency of TOC and CODCr were investigated. Experimental results showed that highest TOC and CODCr removal efficiency were acquired at pH 3.0, with 5.54 g/L H2O2 and Fe2+/H2O2 ratio about 0.1. In addition, BOD5/CODCr value increased from 0.18 to 0.61 which meant that Fenton process also increased susceptibility of wastewater to microorganism degradation.

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Arsenic Toxicity in Potable Water: Hazards and Management

Jain J.K. and Gupta Nidhi

Arsenic removal technologies are highly important to irradicate the physical and mental health problems and their social impacts among the arsenic affected victims of the society. This article highlights the important efforts made by various researchers to remove the arsenic from potable water. The article covers the literature from 1990 to 2008.

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