Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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The Influence of Some Pyrazole Derivatives and matching Newly Synthesized Ni(II) Complexes in the Inhibition of Phomopsis viticola(Sacc.) Sacc.

Radović Ana, Latinović Nedeljko and Jaćimović Željko

An insignificant number of registered fungicides in Montenegro used to eradicate Phomopsis viticola(Sacc.) Sacc., the cause of cane and leaf spot disease, indicates that there is a need for a multidisciplinary approach aimed at discovering new active fungicide substances. This has especially become the case after the withdrawal from use of DNOC (4,6 dinitro-o-cresol). Cane and leaf spot disease appears on an annual basis, especially with the types of grape Vranac and Kratosija, the most widespead sorts of vine in the Podgorica area. Starting from the practical use of pyrazole derivative as an active fungicide substance, the biochemical role of nickel in ecosystems, the definition of the selected pyrazole derivative inhibition effect to the fungicide substance Ph. viticola has been done: derivatives (3(5)-amino-5(3)-hydroxy pyrazole (L1=Pz-OH) , 3,5- dimethyl 1-thiocarboxamide pyrazole (L2= Pz-CS), as well as the newly synthetised Ni complexes: Ni(L1)2Cl2 and [Ni(NCS)2(L2-3H)4][Cl]2 . 2 C2H5OH. The results of the inhibition effects as one of the parameters of biological efficiency of the selected pyrazole derivatives indicate their antifungicide effect and the fungotoxic effect of the newly synthesized Ni complexes.

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Isolation of Endosulfan degrading Acinetobacter haemolyticus with agronomic significance

Akshi and Malik Deepak Kumar

Endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a, 6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,3,4-benzo-dioxathie pin-3-oxide) is a cyclodiene organochlorine, currently used as an insecticide all over the world and its residues are posing a serious environmental threat. Ten bacterial cultures were isolated from endosulfan contaminated soil by using enrichment technique. All the isolates showed good growth in basal salt medium containing endosulfan and suggested their ability to utilize endosulfan as sole carbon and energy source. All the ten bacterial cultures were examined for various plant growth promoting properties, out of ten only one bacterial culture Acinetobacter haemolyticus DKE7 was positive for various plant growth promoting activities (phosphate solubilization, protease activity and IAA production). The resting cell study confirmed that the bacterial strain DKE7 degrades endosulfan by 73 % within 2 days. Isolated bacterial culture can be used successfully for the removal of endosulfan from contaminated soil along with plant growth promotion, but further research is required before commercial utilization of this isolate in removing endosulfan from contaminated soil.

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Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of benzyl phenyl ethers by N-chloronicotinamide in aqueous acetic acid medium

Priya V. and Mathiyalagan N.

Kinetics of oxidation of benzyl phenyl ethers [C6H5CH2 O C6H4 - X], {X = H, o-Me, m-Me, p- Me, o-Cl and p-NO2 } by N-chloronicotinamide (NCN) in aqueous acetic acid medium in the presence of hydrochloric acid and sodium perchlorate have been investigated by iodometric method. The oxidant, NCN is prepared by the chlorination of nicotinamide which is a biologically important compound. The observed rate of oxidation is first order in both [NCN] and [HCl] and zero order in [benzyl phenyl ethers]. An increase in the dielectric constant of the medium decreases the rate. Addition of nicotinamide, the reduction product of NCN, has slight retarding effect on the rate of oxidation. The reaction rate remains constant with the increase in [NaClO4].The stoichio-metry of the reaction is found to be 1:2. The reaction fails to induce polymerization of acrylonitrile under the experimental conditions employed. The kinetic and thermodynamic activation parameters Ea, DH¹, DG¹ and DS¹ have been calculated. The corresponding ester has been identified as the major product of oxi-dation.

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Removal of Copper (II) and Nickel (II) using Mangifera indica (Mango) bark

Sahare A.B.

Dried and powdered tree bark of Mangirfera indica (Mango) has been used for the removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) metal ions from synthetically prepared wastewater. The adsorption process was studied as a function of pH (2-9), contact time (0-120 min), initial concentration (20-55 mg/L), doses of bark (1-4g) and temperature (32-90ºC, It was observed that the pH has marked effect on Cu(II) and Ni(II) uptake. Result shows that about 80% removal of Cu(II) an about 90% removal of Ni(II) takes place over the pH range of 5 – 6 and contact time of 1 hour at initial concentration of 20 mg/L. The adsorption of Cu(II) and Ni(II) was tested by Fruendlich adsorption isotherm and is inversely related to the temperature. The bark was found to be efficient media for removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) in continuous mode using fixed bed column. The column having 2 cm diameter with bed depth of 30 cm was used for the treatment of water containing Cu (II) and Ni (II) separately at concentration of 20 mg/L and flow rate 9.5 ml/min. The column parameter like adsorption at different time intervals was studied. The isotherm data were compared with experimental breakthrough curve. 0.01N HNO3 solution was used for desorption of adsorption column and column regenerated using distilled water.

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Kinetic Study on adsorption of Reactive Yellow dye by Bentonite and Organo-bentonite

Dianati Tilaki R.A.

Many researchers focused their study to find sorbents that are cost-effective for textile dye removal. Mineral materials such as bentonite, bleaching earth and bauxite have been studied for dye removal from textile wastewater. Recently some researches showed that organo-bentonite is an efficient textile dye sorbent. The aim of this study was determination of sorption capacity of organo-bentonite and comparison with ordinary bentonite for removal of a textile dye from water. Natural bentonite clay was modified using cationic surfactant Cetyltrime-thylammonium bromide (CETAB). Removal of Reactive Yellow K-RN (Y.3) from aqueous solution by ordinary bentonite and modified bentonite at different concentrations and adsorbent dose was studied. Sorption of dye was reached in equilibrium within 2.5 h of contact time. 25 g/L of organo-bentonite removed completely 100% of dye with concentration of 100 mg/L from solution. Efficiency of organo-bentonite (with concentration 10g/L) for removal of dye from solution was grater than 90%, while efficiency of 50 gm/L ordinary bentonite in the same condition for removal of dye was only 25%. Sorption data were evaluated for applicability to sorption models and corresponding constants of both models were calculated. Organo-bentonite is an excellent textile dye sorbent.

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Benzophenone constituents from the roots of Garcinia eugenifolia

Jong Vivien Yi Mian, Ee Gwendoline Cheng Lian, Sukaria Mohd Aspollah, Taufiq-Yapa Yun Hin, Khong Heng Yen and Chan Margaret Kit Yok

Our recent phytochemical investigation on the roots of Garcinia eugenifolia gave a new benzo-phenone,(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)(3-hydroxy-5-metho-xyphenyl) methanone(1), one other benzo-phenone,(3-hydroxy-phenyl)3,4,5-trihydroxyp-henyl) methanone (2), together with four triterpenoids, magniferolic acid (3), euphadienol(4), β-sitosterol (5) and friedelin (6) as well as two xanthones, 5,9-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)Pyrano[3,2-b] xa­n­then-6(2H)-one(7)and1,3,6,8-tetrahyd roxyxant-hone (8).The structures of these compounds were fully characterised by NMR spectroscopic analysis.

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Properties of Jute Pulps prepared from Ethanol-Water Pulping Process

Sahin Halil Turgut

A number of ethanol (EtOH)-water based pulping trials was carried out to produce a jute pulp with low residual lignin content and high physical properties. The effects of pulping conditions on the yield, degree of delignification and selected physical properties were evaluated. It was found that the delignification ability of ethanol-water system for jute was moderate at low temperatures. It was necessary to use high temperature and longer cooking times to give sufficient delignification. However, the extended delignification with increasing temperature, strongly affected the strength properties. The highest burst strength of 1.8 kPa m2/g, tear strength of 9.6 mN m2/g and tensile strength of 32.3 N m/g were found at various reaction times and temperatures in ethanol (EtOH)-water pulping trials.

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Batch studies and Effect of Environmental parameters on microbial degradation of perchlorate using acclimatized effluent sludge

Anoop Raj J.R. and Muruganandam L.

Perchlorate (ClO4‑) is a soluble anion which is widely used in explosive industries, rocket fuel manufacturing plants, demilitarization of weaponry and so on. It causes serious health implications in human by impairing the function of thyroid gland. Hence there is an urge to develop technologies for perchlorate remediation in contaminated sites or contaminated water. Present work deals with the laboratory scale study of perchlorate degradation using an acclimatized effluent sludge and the effect of various environmental parameters on its degradation. Anaerobic biodegradation of perchlorate was carried out in a laboratory scale batch reactor using a mixed microbial consortium. Perchlorate reduction was monitored through routine analysis of parameters like pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), salinity, ClO4‑ concentration using ion selective electrode and mixed liquor suspension solid (MLSS) levels. Perchlorate degradation in the absence of nitrate was more rapid compared to cells grown on perchlorate and nitrate mixture. The optimum pH and salinity for the reductive bioremediation by perchlorate enriched microbial consortium was found to be 8.0 and 0.25% NaCl. The stochiometric requirement level of ClO4‑ to acetate for the effective degradation was found to be in 1:2 ratio.

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Dairy Wastewater Treatment by Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor – a study on the Reactor Performance and Optimum Percentage of Inert Media Fill inside Reactor

Sathyamoorthy G.L. and Saseetharan M.K.

Industries which use water as their raw material or in their process are commonly known as Wet Industries. The dairy industry is one of the major wet industries which generate three liters of waste water while processing one liter of milk. In the present study an attempt has been made to treat dairy wastewater using the Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor (AHR) which offers the advantages of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASBR) and Upflow Anaerobic Filter Reactor (UAFR). The main characteristics of AHR are use of sludge blanket at the bottom of the reactor and a region of attached biomass on inert media in the upper portion of the reactor. The inert media in the AHR are used to increase the solids retention time, to provide enough surface area for attachment of biomass and to avoid the short circuiting of the influent. In order to determine the optimal inert media fill percentage inside the reactor, for better mixing and fluidization, an air hydrodynamic study was carried out with different percentage of inert media and the results were analyzed. The study reveals that the 60% of volume of the reactor could be filled with inert media for the better performance of the Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor without clogging and washout of biomass.

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Advanced treatment for Coke-plant effluents by Fenton Oxidation together with adsorption of Modified Fly Ash

Tang Hai

The advanced treatment of coke-plant effluents was conducted by Fenton oxidation together with adsorption of modified fly ash (MFA). It was observed that pH of 3.0 and MFA dose of 6.0 gL-1 were the optimum values for MFA adsorption, about a percent COD removal of 72.7 % was achieved. Adsorption isotherms indicated that the adsorption of COD could be very well described by the. The percent COD removal increased with the increasing of molar ratio of [Fe2+]/[H2O2] from 0.02 to 0.3 and decreased with a continuous increasing of the ratio by Fenton. The highest percent COD removal of 97.3 % by Fenton oxidation was obtained at the experimental conditions: pH of 4,ratio of 0.08, H2O2 dosage of 30 mM. The coke wastewater by Fenton degradation can be adequately described by the pseudo-first-order kinetics model which fitted well with all reactions.

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Removal of Reactive Red 120 and Direct Red 81 dyes from aqueous solutions by Pumice

Mahvi Amir Hossein and Heibati Behzad

Dyes are the main pollutants existing in wastewater of textile industries. Dyes are produced naturally or artificially and can cause fabrics to take different colors. The main objective of this work was to investigate adsorption of Reactive Red 120 (RR 120) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) dyes by pumice. This fundamental-practical study was conducted in lab-scale batch system. Chemical structure and composition of Pumice was determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and electronic microscope. The effects of contact time and initial solution pH on adsorption process were also evaluated. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to describe adsorption equilibrium. The results of adsorption isotherm experiments show that the removal of RR120 and DR81 dyes follow Langmuir (R2>0.964) and Freundlich (R2>0.932) isotherm models. It was found that the affinity coefficients, Kf, for DR81 and RR120 dyes were 10.56 and 2.32 respectively, indicating higher adhesion of pumice to DR81 than RR120. In general, the results of the study showed that pumice can be used as a cheap and effective adsorbent for removal of dye from textile industrial effluents.

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Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Breakthrough Studies of Biosorption of Cr (VI) using Arachis hypogea Shell Powder

Singh J. and Ali A.

Activated Arachis hypogea shell powder has been applied for studying kinetics, thermodynamics and breakthrough studies of Cr (VI) biosorption from synthetic and electroplating industrial effluents using batch and column processes. To optimize the conditions for the maximum biosorption in batch process, the following parameters have been varied (i) contact time, (ii) initial Cr (VI) concentration, (iii) pH and (iv) adsorbent doses. Both Freundlich and Lang­muir adsorption models have been used to study the batch equilibrium data and better fitting was observed with Langmuir model with correlation coefficient of 0.99. The maximum biosorption capacity of Cr (VI) in batch process was found to be 131.57 mgg-1 at pH 2 by Langmuir isotherm. The experiments were performed to study the kinetics of the Cr (VI) biosorption and obtained data were best fitted with pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters viz., Gibbs free energy (ΔGº), enthalpy (ΔHº) and entropy (ΔSº) changes were also calculated and the observed values supported the spontaneity of the biosorption process. Two kinetic models viz., Thomas and bed depth service time model were applied to predict the breakthrough curves at different flow rates and bed depths and the best results were obtained when Cr (VI) solution of 50 mgL-1 concentration was used in a bed depth of 20 cm with a flow rate of 2.0 mLmin-1 at 2 pH. The activated Arachis hypogea shell has also been successfully employed for the biosorption of Cr (VI) from electroplating effluents to demonstrate its industrial application.

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Fixed bed column studies for the removal of manganese using electric arc furnace slag: applying response surface method

Beha C.L., Chuah T.G., Nourouzi Mohsen and Choong Thomas S.Y.

This study investigates the ability of the electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) to adsorb heavy metal manganese in a fixed bed column. Thomas model was used to predict the break through curves for adsorption of manganese at different flow rate (5-9 mLmin-1) while bed-depth/ service time (BDST) model was used to express the effect of bed depth (30-100 cm) on breakthrough curves. Results showed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on bed depth and flow rate. At the highest bed depth (100 cm) and the lowest flow rate (5 mLmin-1), the maximum adsorption was obtained (109.9 mgg-1 according to the Thomas model). Both the BDST model and Thomas model adequately described the adsorption of manganese onto the EAFS while the accuracy of response surface method (RSM) model was slightly higher than that for the Thomas model (average R2 = 0.99 and 0.91 respectively).

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A comparative study on the protein content of skin and muscle of nemipterus japonicus in relation to klebsiella infection from the coast of Visakhapatnam

Diana T. C. and Manjulatha C.

Biochemical alterations preside cellular and systemic dysfunction so that if appropriate parameters are monitored, an early warning sign of distress may be detected. The present investigation is aimed to understand the alterations in protein content of skin and muscle tissues in Nemipterus japonicus infected with Klebsiella species from the harbor water of Visakhapatnam compared with normal fish collected from the offshore waters. This revealed an abnormal elevation in protein levels of muscle and a moderate decline in skin. Hence the tissue biochemical changes can be used as indicators of fish physiological stress and health.

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Molecular Iodine as a catalyst

Mishra Nidhi and Sehegal Preeti

Molecular iodine acts as a catalyst in many organic reactions. It provides an inexpensive and quick method of organic synthesis.

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Unique Structure and Solute –Solvent Interaction in Imidazolium based Ionic Liquids

Gonfa G., Bustam M.A., Man Z. and Abdul Mutalib M. I.

Ionic liquids have attracted wide attention lately and their potential applications in different areas have been explored. Most of the current researches on ionic liquids are concentrated on investigating what can be done by ionic liquids and why they work the way they do. The latter provide the insight into the molecular factors that determine their properties ranging from quantitative thermodynamic and physical data and qualitative tends that guide in searching the best ionic liquids for particular purpose. Many of the applications rely upon the interaction of ionic liquids with other components. Ionic liquids exhibit nanoscale phase segregation into polar and nonpolar- regions. The nanoscale self-organisation is the result of interplay between Coulomb and van der Waals interactions which leads to the formation of high charge density permeated non-polar regions. This characteristic determines how different molecular solutes interact with certain domain of the ionic liquids and distinct local environment. However, the complexities of the nature and size of cation-anion interactions and intermolecular forces in liquids phase give rise to controversies. This review discusses the current development in understanding molecular structure, cation- anion interaction, intermolecular forces and their effects of solvation. This work is mainly concentrated on imidazolium based ionic liquids.

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