Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Sorption of Eu (III) on Ca-bentonite: Effect of pH, Ionic Strength and Humic Acid

Yu T., Wu W. S., Liu Z.R. and Zhang S.W.

Sorption of Eu (III) on Ca-bentonite as a function of contact time, pH values, ionic strength, humic acid (HA) and temperature was investigated under ambient conditions. The results showed that sorption of Eu (III) on Ca-bentonite was strongly dependent on ionic strength at pH<4 and independent of ionic strength at pH>4. The sorption of Eu (III) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexes or ion exchange on Ca-bentonite surfaces at pH<4, whereas inner-sphere surface complexes were the main sorption speciation at pH>4. The presence of HA enhanced the sorption. Sorption of Eu (III) to Ca-bentonite increased with increasing temperature and Freundlich model could describe the sorption isotherms of Eu (III) on Ca-bentonite well. The ther-modynamic parameters (ΔH0, ΔS0 and ΔG0) of Eu (III) sorption on Ca-bentonite at different temperatures were calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms and it suggested that sorption process of Eu (III) was spontaneous and endothermic.

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Development of Analytical method for Extraction and Separation of Copper (II) using Cyanex 923

Nikam Gurunath H. and Mohite Baburao S.*

The selective and effective liquid-liquid extra-ction method has been developed for separation of copper(II). Copper(II) was found to be quantitatively extracted using 0.1 M Cyanex 923 in toluene from 1.0 M ammonium thiocyanate and from organic phase, it can be quantitatively stripped with 3.0 M nitric acid. The optimum extraction conditions have been evalu-ated by studying parameters such as ammonium thiocyanate concentration, Cyanex 923 concentration, equilibration time, various diluents, diverse ions and stripping agents. Based on these results sequential separation of copper(II) from associated metal ions was achieved. The method is successfully employed for the determination of copper(II) in some micron-trients, alloys and aquatic plants. The reliability of method is assured by comparison of the results with those obtained using AAS.

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Anystis baccarum - a Predatory Mite in UK Apple Orchards

Cuthbertson Andrew G.S. 1 and Murchie Archie K. 2

Increasing concern over the use of chemical pesti-cides is continuing to pressurise apple growers to look for alternative means of invertebrate pest control. The re-discovery of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Prostigmata: Anystidae), in UK Bramley orchards offers a potential alternative con-trol component for incorporation into IPM strategies. Anystis baccarum has been shown to readily feed upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Prostigmata: Tetranychi-dae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Misidentification of this beneficial mite species has resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within UK apple orchards. Apple growers must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve their populations.

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Pretreatment of MDF effluent by chemical-biological flocculation

Zhang W.Y.1* and Li C.G.2

This study deals with the pretreatment of medium density fiberboard (MDF) effluent aiming at the removal of SS, COD and SCOD by means of chemical biological flocculation. The experimental results sho-wed that the new process with chemical coagulant PAC (2g/L) and activated sludge (7.3g/L) at pH value of 5 proved to be very effective. The PAC should be added before the activated sludge in order to achieve high removal rate of SS. The SS, COD and SCOD removal rate is about 99%, 60% and 54% at the optimum operation condition. It could be observed through comparison that the COD and SCOD remo-val rate of chemical-biological coagulation was 20% and 10% respectively higher than that of traditional PAC coagulation. The sludge from chemical biolo-gical flocculation of MDF effluent has high concentration of C, H and O. The low calorific value of the sludge is equal to faulty coal and can be used as fuel. The results provided useful information for Indu-strial wastewater pretreatment whose water quality is similar to MDF effluent.

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Efficiency of Reactive Black 5 dye removals and determination of Isotherm Models in aqueous solution by use of activated carbon made of walnut wood

Mahvi Amir Hossein1, 2, Heibati Behzad 1, Yari Ahmad Reza3 and Vaezi Najmeh

Industrial textile colors and other industrial dying materials are one of the important organic materials that increase environmental impacts. There-fore, it is necessary to treat those effluents prior to discharge into environment. Various parameters including initial concentration of dye, effect of mass of adsorbent on color removal and pH were surveyed. For determina-tion of residual concentration of dye, a spectrometry set UV/VISLambda 25.UV/VIS(Perkin Elmer)at 599 wavelengths was used. Various parameters including initial concentration of dye, effect of mass of adsorbent on color removal and pH were surveyed. Results indicated that removal of Rea-ctive Black5 dye depend on Langmuir (R2>0.96), respectively. In the study kf was 1.47 and amount of adsorbed reactive black5 was qm(mg/g)=14.08 for mass unit of activated carbon. In general, the results of study showed that activated carbon made of walnut wood can be used as an effective adsorbent for the removal of Azo dyes.

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Determination of the quality of AKD dispersions by Gas Chromatographic Technique

Arora Avnish Kumar 1*, Kumar Pankaj 2 and Gupta Sanjeev 3

Analytical procedure for the determination of AKD content in the AKD dispersions has been established. AKD content dictates the quality of sizing so it is very important to quantify AKD in dispersion. AKD content in dispersion varies from 50 to 90% (w/w). Besides AKD as a main constituent, water and stabilizers are the other components of AKD dispe-rsion. This research study presents a simple and versatile methodology designed for determining AKD content in AKD dispersion. AKD contents in AKD dispersion are determined using gas chromatographic technique and particle size distribution by image analyzer. The developed method has been applied to three commercially available AKD dispersions and the obtained results are compared to determine the quality of these samples.

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ETAA Studies of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Samples –– Challenges and Applications

Pillay A.E.1* and Govender S.2

This study discusses some of the difficulties encountered in key areas of ETAA measurement of atmospheric heavy metal pollution. To satisfy our objectives, we investigated Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb in the range: 0.10 – 1.0g/m3. Collection media were 0.80 m-pore size membrane filters. The factors affecting linearity, reproducibility and sensitivity associated with microwave digestion, analyte recovery, standardization, solution stability and instrumental parameters are highlighted, and suggestions for possible amelioration are given.

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Comparative Study and Treatment of Copper UUssiinngg AAccttiivvaatteedd carbon and PPoollyy Vinyl Alcohol ccooaatteedd AAccttiivvaatteedd carbon as Adsorbents

Mordhiya Bhanupriya*, Daga Kailash and Vaishnav Vinod

The study aims at investigating the removal of copper (II) from wastewater using activated carbon (ACDS) and poly vinyl alcohol coated activated car-bon (PVAC-DS) as an unconventional adsorbent. The study determines the parameters that influence adsor-ption process such as pH of the solution, initial metal ion concentration, contact time and adsorbent dose. The equilibrium data of adsorbents used for the adsorption of metal ion from aqueous solution were analyzed in light of the various isotherm models. Comprehensive characterization of parameters indi-cates PVAC-DS to be a good material for adsorption of Cu (II) to treat wastewaters containing low metal ion concentration.

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Analyses of the vertical and temporal distributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria in sediments of Lake Erhai, southwest China

Zhang W.1, Wang Z. L.1* and Wang M. Y.

The distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the sediments of Lake Erhai was analyzed based on evaluation of the presence and quantity of six main groups of SRB in sediments collected during April and October. The results showed that four SRB groups (Desulfotomaculum, Desulfobulbus, Desulfoc-occus-Desulfonema-Desulfosarcina and Desulfovibrio -Desulfomicrobium) were present in October, while only three groups (Desulfotomaculum, Desulfobulbus and Desulfococcus-Desulfonema-Desulfosarcina) we-re detected in April. The distribution of each SRB group was wider in sediments collected in October than in April, they were mainly found in the upper sediments and they showed a greater overall presence and quantity in October than in April. These findings indicated that the environmental conditions in Octo-ber were more suitable for SRBs. Furthermore the results of this study suggested that Desulfovibrio-Desulfomicrobium were inactive in the sediments in April.

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Antioxidant Activity ooff Dihydroxy and Trihydroxyphenolic Acids - A DFT Study

Gupta Kartick

Eight structurally similar dihydroxy and trihydroxyphenolic acids ( protocatechuic acid, 3,4-dyhydroxyphenyl acetic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, 3,4, 5-trihydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 3-(3, 4, 5-trihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid and 3-(3, 4, 5-trihydroxyphenyl)propenoic acid were investigated for important radical scavenging descriptors like O-H bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE), ionization potentials and, HOMO energies, spin density at radical forming point in the radical forming point by density functional method. It is observed that the type of spacer between the carboxylic acid and the aromatic ring influences scavenging descriptors.

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Screening of fungal cultures for their dye degradation or decolorisation ability

Nadagouda Vijaya, Parikh Jatin* and Shukla M. D.

The dye industry is an important sector of the chemical industry. Textile and dye Industry generate 11% effluents across the world, out of which 2% is from manufacturing and 9% is from coloring. Color matter in waste water comes from the makers and users of coloring matter i.e. dyestuffs, pigments, textiles, dying and tanneries and users of raw materials with color as by-product i.e. pulp and paper sector and distilleries. These effluents have harmful or hazardous effects on environment. In this study four fungal cultures namely Ganoderma Lucidum (MTCC), Pleurotus sp. (PINK-PS) and two unknown fungi namely MG-13 & MG-16 cultures were investigated for their dye degrading ability to decolorize eight selected dyes of used in textile and dye industries. The degradation ability was analyzed by calculating the % of decolorisation after the fungal treatment. Except for dye BLUE 222 whose decolori-sation was the least, almost all the dyes were degraded or decolorized by varying degrees by the cultures studied. Also the effect of fungal culture on textile industrial effluent was checked. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was used as a measure of degradation of the effluent as a result of fungal activity. The effluent was degraded more effectively when it was treated with the mixture of all four cultures than when it was treated with only MTCC culture. This study demonstrated differences between fungal species in terms of their ability to degrade reactive dyes and reinforces the potential of this group of microbes for the decolorisation of textile effluents.

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Estimation of Soil Organic Carbon Concentration Accumulated in Mangrove FFoorreesstt Filtration System

Nipithwittaya S.1 and Sampanpanish P.2,3*

Rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and organic matter decomposition in mangrove forest was examined in a mangrove forest filtration system pond within the King’s Royally Initiated Laem Phak Bia Environmental Research and Development Project that is located in Laem Phak Bia Sub-distric, Ban Laem Distric, Petchaburi Province, Thailand. The study area was divided into two parts: 1) the study site; a mangrove forest filtration system adjacent to a municipal waste water area. 2) the reference site; the natural mangrove forests not affected by municipal waste water. Soil samples were taken at 285 places. The results found that the average of SOC accumulation in the study site at depths of 0-30 cm was 283.36 tons. From the reference site, the average of SOC accumulation was about 66.5 tons. The total area average of SOC accumulation was about 349.87 tons. The compared average values between study site and reference site found the SOC sequestration rate in the study site was higher than reference site at all times. The SOC sequestration had the same pattern in all seasons. The results show that SOC content in the three seasons were not significantly different (p<0.05). The distribution pattern of SOC was assessed by the spatial distribution pattern of SOC concentration interpolated by the Kriging method and indicated that the SOC sequestration rates in the study site were higher than the reference site and the Rhizophora mucronata species growing area contained the highest SOC sequestration.

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Composting of Chicken Manure with the Addition of Clinoptilolite and Pumice as Bulking Agents

Yavuz Ersan Hulya

This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of clinoptilolite and pumice as bulking agents for the composting of chicken manure without adding supplementary carbon sources. In vessel composting of chicken manure was performed in batch system with the addition of natural and cheap bulking agents. The aim of using bulking agents was performing an efficient aerobic degradation by increasing the porosity, ammonia adsorption and water holding capacities. It was observed that the addition of bulking agents increased the composting efficiency and the highest degradation was observed in the reactor containing clinoptilolite. Temperature values stayed above 60 C at least three days in all reactors which assure the pathogen removal. It was observed that all of the products were stable indicating that chicken manure can easily be composted alone in spite of the low initial carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) without addition of any carbon rich material. It was also observed that the ammonia adsorption capacity of clinoptilolite is quite high and this may reduce the odour problem during composting of chicken manure and to contribute the agronomic quality of the product as a nitrogen fertilizer. The results obtained in this preliminary study could pioneer the further studies on economical and ecological composting of chicken manure with the addition of natural minerals.

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Indoor air quality in offices and residences in urban areas ooff India-Mumbai and Kolkata

Majumdar Dipanjali, Chakraborti Rajat and Srivastava Anjali*

Volatile organic compounds (VOCS) were measured in indoor and outdoor air at 80 randomly selected public and private office buildings and residences re-presenting middle and high income group in across the urban areas of Mumbai and Kolkata. These VOC data and data on many other parameters associated with indoor air quality were collected to provide nor-mative data on typical office buildings. Between the winter of 2005 and 2006-07, 160 VOC samples were collected on multi-sorbent samplers and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These samp-les were collected at indoor locations and at outdoor location. Forty VOCs were detected indoors in Mum-bai and forty four in Kolkata. Nearly one fourth of the VOCs identified are classified as HAPs. Fourteen VOCs were found both in Mumbai and Kolkata indoors. In Mumbai, fifteen VOCs were found in all the sites studied and ten VOCs were found in all the sites in Kolkata. Indoor VOC concentrations ranged from 0.901μg/m3 to 4477μg/m3. Indoor/outdoor concentrati-on ratios for the same VOCS are also presented. Screening level health risk calculations have been used to prioritize the VOCs.

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Photo catalytic degradation of an organic pollutant,, 4-nitrophenol by zinc oxide - UV processes

Rajamanickam D. and Shanthi M. *

The photocatalytic degradation of 4-nitrophe-nol over irradiated ZnO suspensions was investigated in aerated aqueous solution. Complete degradation was achieved after irradiation with UV light being the reaction rate dependent on the initial pH. The effect of various parameters such as catalyst loading, pH and initial concentration of 4-nitrophenol on degradation has been determined. The degradation was strongly enhanced in presence of electron acceptors such as H2O2, K2S2O8 and KBrO3. The kinetics of heteroge-neous photocatalytic degradation is discussed in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetic model. The intermediates formed during the photo-degradation were identified by GC-MS analysis. The mineralization of 4-nitrophenol has also been confirmed by COD measurements.

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Application of Monitored Natural Attenuation and Risk-based Corrective Action at a Chlorinated-Hydrocarbon Contaminated Site for Risk Management

Dai W.C.,1 Tsai T.T.2 Kao C.M.,3* Chang Y.M.1 and Hsi H.C.1

In this study, a chlorinated-hydrocarbon spill site was selected as the case study site to evaluate the possible risks to site workers and local residents caused by the contaminated groundwater with the application of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as the remedial option. The main contaminants in site groundwater included trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE). The objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the possible exposure routes and human risks caused by the contaminated groundwater using tiered risk assessment approach at the studied site; (2) apply BIOCHLOR model to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation (NA) mechanisms on the control of contaminant plume; (3) apply probability and Monte Carlo analyses to develop more practical remediation goals; and (4) develop a realistic streamlined process and risk-based decision-making strategies for the management of the studied site. Results show that the calculated cumulative risk at 95% cumulative probability via ingestion route was 2.61×10-5 through the risk calculation using risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework developed by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and Monte Carlo analysis using @RISK software. The calculated cumulative risk at 95% cumulative probability via inhalation route and ambient (outdoor) vapor inhalation diffusion channels were 1.4×10-5 and 2.17×10-6 respectively. Because the calculated cancer risk levels are higher than the target cancer risk of 1×10-6 described in Taiwan’s “Soil and Groundwater Remediation Act”, appropriate remedial actions are required. With the application of MNA for contaminant removal and plume reduction, the site specific target level (SSTL) was 0.05 mg/L. Results indicate that the MNA process can be used as one of the risk management strategies for risk reduction.

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Electrochemical treatment of Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater using Iron and Aluminum Electrodes

Godini Kazem1, Azarian Ghasem2*, Nematollahi Davood3, Rahmani Ali Reza2 and Zolghadrnasab Hassan2

Electrochemical process for the treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater (PSWW) was studied. The effects of some key factors such as initial pH, current density, operating time and the kind of electrodes on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS), total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphors (TP) were investigated. It is clear that the process has a good efficiency. The highest removal amount of COD (95.6%) was achieved with aluminium electrode (pH value between 2 and 3 and charge passed 20.34×103 colons (current density 0.014 A cm -2). 95.3% of oil and grease was removed in the same conditions, of course, in the case of iron electrode. The maximum removal efficiency for TKN and TP were 77.8 and 89.6% respectively (pH 3, charge passed 30.51×103 colons and with aluminium). Consequently electro-coagulation is comparatively suitable process for PSWW treatment.

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Photo catalytic Oxidation of Organ phosphorus Pesticides using Zinc Oxide

Fadaei A.M.1* and Dehghani M.H.2

In recent years, the application of heteroge-neous photocatalytic water treatment processses has gained wide attention due to its effectiveness in degra-ding and mineralizing the pesticides. These pesticides are often found in many surface and groundwater sources and their concentration levels often exceed the drinking water permissible limits recommended by Iran and European drinking water standards. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of various parameters such as initial malathion and dia-zinon concentration catalyst amount, initial pH of the reaction medium and pesticide types on the photo-catalytic decomposition of pesticides in the presence of ZnO using an ultraviolet lamp as the light source. The best conditions for the photocatalytic degradation of pesticides were obtained. Results showed that the optimal concentration of catalyst was found to be 100 mg. L-1. The photodegradation efficiency of pesticides increases with the increase of the illumination time. The photodegradation rate of pesticides was higher in alkaline than in acidic conditions. The photocatalytic degradation rate of the malathion was more than diazinon. The photodegradation efficiency decreases with the increase in the initial concentration of pesti-cides. The photocatalytic system afforded the highest removed percentage at initial concentration for diazi-non and malatlion were 100 and 200 mg.L-1 respe-ctively.

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Adsorption of Amido black 10B onto cross-linked chitosan

Yang Bingchao1, Huang Ruihua2* and Liu Qian 2

The removal of Amido black 10B from aque-ous media by cross-linked chitosan was studied in a batch system. Adsorbent characterizations were inve-stigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of adsorbent dose, pH and ionic strength on the adsorption of dye onto cross-linked chitosan were investigated. The maximum adsorption occurred at the pH range 1.0-4.0. The presence of electrolytes decreased the adsorption of dye from solution. The adsorption process was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. The dye equili-brium adsorption data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, the former being found to provide the best fit of the experimental data. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for dye was 11.47 mg/g at 293K.

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Genotoxicity of Health Care Waste Waters: A Review

Sharma P.,* Mathur N. and Singh A.

The contamination of waters with genotoxic chemicals from hospital effluents is a worldwide problem of great concern. Genotoxicity tests are excellent means to study the toxicity and the risk associated with these releases. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature focusing on the toxicological evaluation of hospital waste waters. The test organisms most employed are plants, bacteria and aquatic organisms. Only one study employed Swiss albino mice (mammals) and there are two studies which had made use of animal cell lines. An essential issue is that the clear attribution of responsibility of appropriate handling and disposal of waste and efforts should be undertaken in order to establish a reliable battery of bioassays for the evaluation of this waste.

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Conducting polymer based potentiometric sensors

Kumar Pankaj1*, Sharma Harish Kumar2 and Kaur Sukhjeet2

Organic conjugated polymers have emerged as potential candidates for electrochemical sensors. Due to their straightforward preparation methods, unique properties and stability in air, conducting polymers have been applied to energy storage, electrochemical devices, memory devices, chemical sensors and elec-trocatalysts. Conducting polymers are also known to be compatible with biological molecules in a neutral aqueous solution. Thus, they were extensively used in the fabrication of accurate, fast and inexpensive devices, such as biosensors and chemical sensors. Conducting polymer based electrochemical sensors play an important role in the improvement of public health and environment because rapid detection, high sensitivity, small size and specificity are achievable for environmental monitoring.

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Polymorphism iinn Organic Crystal Structure

Dholakiya Bharat Z.,* Malani Mahesh H., Patel Jigarkumar R. and Dhorajiya Bhaveshkumar D

Phenomenon of polymorphism is most important for synthesis of more potent and bioactive pharmace-utical ingredients, including their different properties like packing arrangement, conformational and pseudo polymorphism. Nucleation plays major role for prepa-ration of different polymorph. Different parameters affect on crystallization and give their degree of freedom. Physical property affected polymorphism like packing, thermodynamic, spectroscopy, kinetic, surface and mechanical property. Various techniques for characterizing polymorphs are crystallography, morphology, phase transitions, molecular motion and chemical environment. Polymorphism plays vital role in drugs development.

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