Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Investigation of the Heavy Metals content in Cypress Tree bark (Cupressus sempervirens L. var. pyramidalis) on the Territory of the Central and Southern part of Montenegro

Roganovic D.,1* Djurovic D.,2 Blagojevic N.3 and Vujacic A.2

Investigation of the heavy metals content (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni and Mn) in cypress tree bark was carried out on three locations (Zeta, Vranjina and Petrovac) in the central and southern part of Montenegro. On each of these sites 20 spots were chosen for collecting 31 samples of cypress bark. The samples were collected in April and May 2012. The highest concentration of heavy metals in cypress barks was found on the territory of Zeta. Variations in the heavy metals concentration in the cypress barks depended on the industrial activities and traffic intensity. The results of this research show that cypress tree bark can be a reliable bioindicator of air pollution.

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Geochemistry of Core Sediment from Antarctic Region

Nair Manju P., Akhil P.S. and *Sujatha C.H.

Southern Ocean (SO) is the fourth largest Ocean comprising the southern portions of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Sediment core sample (660 34’S and 580 40’E)was collected onboard O.R.V Sagar Nidhi from January to March 2010 in the Fourth Southern Ocean expedition cruise launched by the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, Goa . Sedimentary records from this area reveal the sensitivity and climatic variability’s of the region over a large time scale. Organic matter (OM) and textural behaviour of the samples were analyzed and processed concurrently. Distribution of OM, Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Protein, Lipid and Carbohydrate along with the trace metal was highlighted. Textural variation was in the array of Sand >Clay >Silt. Sand content ranges from 30.29% to 80.11%. The order of relative distribution of OM was Lipid >Protein > TOC > Carbohydrate. The average concentrations of TOC, Protein, Lipid and Carbohydrate were 2.2 mg/g, 1.2 mg/g, 3.3 mg/g and 1.1mg/g respectively. Protein to carbohydrate ratio and lipid to carbohydrate ratio were also encountered to understand the respective freshness and nutritional quality of the sediments. Trace metal distribution showed the average concentration was maximum for Mn and minimum for Co.

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The Effect of Application of Transverse Rumble Strips on Traffic Noise Levels

Haron Z.*, Othman M. H., Yahya K., Hainin M.R. and Yaacob H.

Transverse rumble strips (TRS) are widely used by local authorities to reduce vehicle speed and to alert the driver of road conditions ahead. This study investigated the application and effects of installation of TRS on the roadway to the traffic noise climate condition. The evaluations were carried out through changes in noise levels and changes in traffic noise index (TNI) which indicate the dissatisfaction. The samplings were performed at a road installed with two types of TRS t which has most noise complaints, located at a highway that passes through a rural area of South Malaysia. Results show that TRS increase the sound level indices LAeq, L10, L90 significantly and also increase the TNI values. All TNI values exceed the value intended for planning purposes. Therefore, engineers should compromise the environmental effects and the role of TRS as a tool in safety aspect.

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Electro-Catalytic Treatment of Phenols

Kuo B. Divya, Keerthi and Balasubramanian N.*

The day-to-day human activities and industrial revolution have influenced the quality and quantity of available fresh water. Many industries like textile, refineries, chemical, plastic and food-processing plants produce wastewaters characterized by perceptible content of organics (e.g. phenolic compounds) with strong color. Electro catalytic treatment was carried out to treat phenolic effluent in a batch electrochemical reactor using commercially available RuO2 coated titanium and SS as anode and cathode respectively. The effect of current density, supporting electrolyte concentration, pH and effluent concentration on the removal efficiency was critically analyzed. The results verified by FTIR analysis indicate that electro catalytic treatment is significant in effective removal of phenol.

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Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of 1-Naphthyl Ethers and Esters

Pawar Nilesh S.,* Garud Sunil L. and Mahulikar Pramod P.

Various ether and ester derivatives of 1-naphthol were synthesized using polymer-supported reactions and evaluated for their antimicrobial activities, namely, antibacterial potency. In general, the derivatization of 1-naphthol was found to be more advantageous against the bacteria than parent molecule 1-naphthol.

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Survey of 222Rn Kerman Drinking Water Distribution Network

Dowlatshahi Sh1., Ahmadian M. 2* and Montazerabadi A.R.3

222Rn concentration is measured in 90 samples colle-cted from different parts of the city of Kerman-Iran. 222Rn gas level was measured by using a portable degassing system (Aqua KIT) associated with an Alpha GUARD measuring system. The variations of 222Rn concentration in tap water range from 0.5-4.95Bq l-1, with an average value of 1.84Bq/l. Based on the results of the present study, 222Rn concentration was below the safe limit of 11.1Bq/l established by US-EPA.

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N-methyl benzyl amine Thallium cyclometallic compound as a catalyst for ring opening polymerization

Haque R.,* Saxena M., Shit S.C.1 and Pappu A.

Production of polylactide via ring opening polymerization of lactide is the best method and increasingly researched everywhere for pharmacological, biomedical and environmental purpose. In the present study, l-lactide was successfully polymerized with synthesized N -methyl benzyl amine Thallium cyclometallic compound in bulk and in solution (THF). The effect of monomer to catalyst ratio on the molecular weight of polymers was studied. Catalytic compound is an organometallic five member cyclic compound, synthesized by cyclometallation process. It was observed that cyclometallic tin compound can effectively polymerize l-lactide to high molecular weight polylactide (PLA) with reasonable physical and chemical properties.

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Vibrational spectroscopic investigation on propylthiouracil

Gnanasambandan T.1, 4 *, Gunasekaran S. 2 and Seshadri S. 3

The FTIR and FT Raman spectrum of propylthiouracil have been recorded in the regions 4000 – 400 cm-1 and 3500-100 cm-1 respectively. The optimized geometry, wave number and intensity of the vibrational bands of propylthiouracil were obtained by ab initio and DFT levels of theory with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-31G (d,p) basis set. A complete vibrational assignment aided by the theoretical harmonic frequency analysis has been proposed. The harmonic vibrational frequencies calculated have been compared with experimental FTIR and FT Raman spectra. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The experimental spectra also coincide satisfactorily with those of theoretically constructed bar type spectrograms.

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Investigations on extraction equilibrium of picolinic acid into various solvents: mechanism and influencing factors

Waghmare Mangesh1*, Wasewar Kailas2 and Sonawane Shriram2

The synthesis method of producing picolinic acid is unsustainable and expensive because it requires huge chemicals, consumes more energy and discharges harmful chemicals. Compared to chemical methods, enzymatic oxidation of 3-Hydroxyanthranillic acid is an advantageous alternative for the production of picolinic acid. The separation of the product is complicated, owing to its high dilution rate in fermentation broth and high cost. Liquid-liquid extraction by a suitable solvent has been found to be a promising alternative to the other conventional separation techniques. Picolinic acid is widely used in pharmaceutical industries. In present paper, process based on extraction of picolinic acid into various solvents (1-decanol, 1-butanol, hexane, toluene, benzene, kerosene, sunflower oil and castor oil) is examined. The results are presented in the form of partition coefficient, dimerization constant, distribution coefficient and degree of extraction. Also, attempts were made to relate the distribution coefficient with the various physicochemical properties of the diluents.

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Synthesis and characterization of novel Bimetallic Cu (II)-Zn (II) complexes: Antimicrobial and Superoxide dismutase activity

Kalyankar V.K.1, Dagade P.M., Bhadbhade B.J.2, Sabarwal S3. and Waghmode S.A.1*

A new class of N-O donor imine based monomeric Cu(II) (Cu-1,Cu-3)and bimetallic Cu(II)- Zn-(II),(Cu-2 ,Cu-4 )complexes have been synthesized using L-1 [(E)-4-(2-aminoethylimino)penta-2-one] and L-2 [2-((E)-(2-aminoethylimino)methyl)phenol] as ligand. These are characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetic analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Anhydrous nature of monomeric complexes Cu-1 and Cu-2 confirmed using thermogravimetic and infrared data. Confirmation of structural features was determined from quantization of activation energies (Ea) of different pyrolytic steps in TG using the rising temperature expression of Coats and Redfern.20 Cu-1, Cu-3 and Cu-4 show two step decomposition and only Cu-2 shows three step decomposition from TG studies. Bimetallic Cu-2 and Cu-4 show SOD activity is confirmed by NBT assay. Cu-2 shows very good antimicrobial activity as it has aliphatic ligation system. The five coordinate geometry of Cu-(II) ion in Cu-2 and Cu-4 complexes acts as a good model for active site of superoxide dismutase enzyme.

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Studies of 4-(n-methyl-2, 2-chloroacetamido)-phenyl- 2-furoate metal chelates and their influence on organic matter decomposition

Kulkarni Dilip R.1 and Deshpande Madhavrao N. 2

Metal chelates of ligand 4-(N-methyl-2, 2-dichloroacetamido) phenyl-2-furoate have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic moments, IR, 1H NMR, UV-visible, EPR, TG/DTA and powder XRD. Copper and cobalt complexes have 1:1 stoichiometries while chromium complex has 1:2 stoichiometry. Metal chelates have considerable influence on organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content and percent weight loss. After decomposition, C: N ratio of the organic matter was appreciably improved compared to non-decomposed organic matter.

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Research Progress on Heavy Metal Pollution Control and Remediation

Li Dongwei 1, 2, 3*, Yang Ke1 and Fan Meng1

Heavy metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems in the world today. Due to the persistence and recalcitrance in the environment, the treatment of heavy metals is of special concern. In recent years, various methods for the removal of heavy metal from soil, waste water have been extensively studied. This paper has reviewed the current methods that have been used to control and removal heavy metals from the polluted soil, wastewater and some other substances. These technologies include chemical remediation, physics remediation and bioremediation. The chemical remediation methods include drip washing method, consolidation and stabilization method and ameliorant method. The ameliorant method is considered as the best method in the chemical remediation. The physics remediation methods include the revising soil method, microwave heat remediation method and the electrokinetic remediation method. Electrokinetic remediation method is one of the newest methods in the world. The bioremediation methods include the plant remediation, the animal remediation and the microorganism remediation. The plant remediation methods contain the plant extract, the plant volatilization and the plant stabilization. It is considered that the plant remediation is widely adopted for removal of the heavy metals from the soil and the microorganism remediation method is the hotspot in all the control and remediation technology.

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