Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Selectively Determination of Mo(VI) at Trace Level based on Kinetic Catalytic Effect on Oxidation of 2,3,4-Trihydroxy acetophenone phenylhydrazone

Janardhan Reddy K. and Kap Duk Lee*

Kinetic catalyzed effect of molybdenum on oxidation of complexing agent, 2,3,4-trihydroxy acetophenone phenylhydrozone (THAPPH) in view to develop a simple sensitive and selective kinetic spectropho-metric method for the determination of Mo(VI) was studied. The method sensitivity was calculated in terms of molar absorptive coefficient (16.91x104 L mo1-1 cm-1) and Sandell’s sensitivity (0.642 μg cm-2), which explains that the method is more sensitive. The correlation coefficient of the color reaction is found to be 0.997, which indicates a better linearity between two variables. The developed method is more precise and accuracy, which is found by relative standard deviation (n=5), 0.32% and confidence limit, ± 0.002 with 0.0096 and 0.032μg cm-2 lower detection limit and lower quantity limit respectively. The color reaction forms 1:1(M:L)complex and its stability constant is calculated by Asumu’s and Edmonds and Birnbaum's method. This developed method has also been applied for the determination of Mo(VI) from water samples and the validity of the method was checked by comparing the obtained results with AAS method and statically evaluation of obtained results in terms of student T-test and F-test. The present catalytic kinetic method is highly sensitive, selective and reproducible with an inexpensive for Mo(VI).

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On-site monitoring of trace levels of nickel by Ni-DMG strip indicator paper in water samples

Agrawal Sonalika1, Khan Fahmida1*, Ganesh S.2 and Ahmed M.K.2

A simple, rapid, reproducible and selective method based upon nickel-dimethylglyoxime (Ni-DMG) colored chelate formation has been used for determination of nickel. The influence of pH and interference of metal ion is also studied. In proposed method colorimetric determination of nickel at trace level is carried out. A strip indicator paper of dimethylglyoxime is prepared. A series of nickel-dimethylaglyoxime strip indicator papers is prepared using standard solutions of nickel. Using the above series, concentration of nickel in an unknown sample is determined. The method is fairly simple and inexpensive and free from the interference of all metal ions and has a wide linear range. The detection limit is 0.05μg/mL. The procedure is successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of nickel in environmental samples and alloys. Various standard nickel samples have been tested for the determination of nickel for the purpose of validation of the proposed method. The results thus obtained were validated by comparison with standard spectrophotometric method for nickel-dimethylglyoxime chelate study.

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Synthesis of Intense Blue Ultramarine from Coal Fly Ash as an Aluminosilicate Source under Environment- Friendly Conditions

Borhade Ashok V.*, Dholi Arun G., Wackchaure Sanjay G. and Tope Dipak R.

Coal fly ash creates a serious threat to thermal power industries specifically, wherein the percent utilization of coal fly ash is very poor. In view of this problem, we have developed a working procedure with green chemistry approach for determining the degree of reaction of coal fly ash to alkali activation at high temperature, during the synthesis of intense blue ultramarine. Intense blue ultramarine product having the sodalite structure (cubic, P 3n) has been obtained without reducing agent by the calcination of coal fly ash and sodium carbonate impregnated with mixture of sodium polysulphides and elemental sulfur. The colour and structure of the products mainly depends very much on alkalinity of the mixture. The encapsulation of the chromophores occurs during the formation of the sodalite structure and also after its formation by diffusion into the aluminosilicate soda-lite the S3- radicals generated during high temperature calcination. Present study also deals with detailed characterization of intense blue ultramarine. Infrared, Raman, X-ray diffraction, 23Na and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy and UV visible spectroscopy results confirmed the formation of the blue ultramarine. 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy confirms 1:1 Si/Al ratio in blue ultramarine. The entrapment of sulphur chromophore in sodalite is checked by thermogravimetry. Surface morphology is studied by TEM and SEM technique. Elemental analysis is carried out with the help of ICP and EDAX. Results of ESR have been undertaken and interpreted here. 4

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Effect of Cation Size on Octahedral Tetrahedral Equilibrium Co2+ Aqueous Species

Padmaja Naishadham*, Pavan U., Venkateswara Rao G. and Natu G. N.

The effect of size of cation on the equilibrium was measured by a spectrophotometer using a spectral resolution program for the assignment of these transitions. The λmax values were measured for the species of [Co(H2O)6]2+. The overall stability constant was also calculated. The stoichiometric equilibrium data were used for the calculation of heats of formation and entropy change of species.

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Monitoring of organic and contaminants in Soil by MAE and EIGC-MS

El-Saeid M. H., Al-Wabel M. I., Al-Farraj A. S., El-Naggar A. H. and Zaheer Ahmed*

The aim of the present study was to quantify and monitor the effect of seasonal variation on the acaricide and herbicide residues in date palm soils in the Al-Kharj region of central Saudi Arabia. The acaricides studied belonged to the abamectin, formamidine, organothiophosphate and oxime carbamate groups and the herbicides to the aryloxyphenoxypropionic, chlorotriazine, dinitroani-line and nitrile chemical groups. Soil samples were collected from surface layers (0–30cm depth) and sub-surface layers (30–60cm depth) from ten selected farms during both summer and winter to study the effect of seasonal variation on residue levels. A simple optimized microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique and Gas Chromatography with Electron Impact Mass Spectrometer (EI-GCMS) was modified and used as the extraction and analytical techniques respectively. Nine pesticide residues were quantified in the soil samples and concentration ranges were as follows; bromoxynil 0.174-0.007 mg kg-1, atrazine 0.366–0.102 mg kg-1, bromophos methyl 0.182-0.022 mg kg-1, abamectin 0.99-0.54 mg kg-1, amitraz 0.381-0.057 mg kg-1, cloroneb 0.255-0.012 mg kg-1 and oxamyl 0.444-0.008 mg kg-1 with pendiomethalin and diclofop methyl only being present at very low levels in the surface layer in summer. Residue levels were also found in subsurface layers in summer. The data were replicated in winter giving four datasets for the entire study.

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The Influence of Raw Mixture and Activators Characteristics on Red-Mud based Geopolymers

Bošković Ivana 1, Vukčević Mira1*, Krgović Milun 1, Ivanović Mileta1 and Zejak Radomir2

A wide spectrum of by-products enriched with the alumosilicates (ashes, slags, construction remainings, red mud) can be used for the synthesis of geopolymers. Red mud, as the by-product in aluminum industry can be activated by a highly concentrated alkaline solution (sodium hydroxide and sodium-silicate) in the presence of silicon binder. This study presents the influence of relevant parameters as the content of initial mixture and characteristics of alkaline activator and portland cement as a binder, on performances of geopolymers with the aim to obtain satisfactory mechanical characteristics. The level of characteristics of these materials shows all the advantages of these constructive materials in respect to portland cement. The most convenient combination of the parameters can be defined with the aim to enable the use of red mud as the precursor in geopolymers production.

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Removal of Arsenic from Waters using Montmorillonite KSF as Adsorbent

Xu Jing1, Wu Feng1 and Peng Hong2*

Montmorillonite can be used to remove arsenic for its rich resources, economy and easy availability. Thermal treated montmorillonite can increase the activity and the activation method is simple. In this work, the adsorption of As(V) on natural and thermal treated KSF was investigated. The influence of some parameters on the adsorption of As(V) such as thermal treatment temperature, initial pH value and KSF dosage was studied. The adsorption of As(V) on thermal treatment KSF did not significantly enhance. In the initial stage of adsorption, the rate was very quick and the adsorption capacities were increased rapidly, then the adsorption rate reduced gradually. The adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Langmuir model fits the isotherm and the capacity was 26.7 mg/g. As(V) removal efficiency was significantly influenced by solution pH. The As(V) adsorption was more efficienct in the pH range 4.0-8.0 and As(V) was mainly adsorbed in the form of H2AsO4- and HAsO42-. The existence of SO42- and PO43- has a noticeable effect on the adsorption of arsenate. The formation of inner-sphere complexation is suggested.

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Adsorption of dyes Basic blue 9 and Congo red onto thermal power plant waste: Kinetic, equilibrium and Thermodynamics parameters

Sumanjit,* Rani Seema and Mahajan Rakesh Kumar

The adsorption of congo red (CR) and basic blue 9 (BB9), onto thermal power plant waste at temperatures 308, 313 and 318K has been studied. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the different parameters such as effect of contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dose. The monolayer saturation capacity was found to be 2.11 and 4.88 mg/g for BB9 and CR . Adsorption kinetic of dyes followed pseudo second order kinetics. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, D-R and Generalized isotherms were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherm and the values of various constants so obtained increase with increase in the temperature insinuated that adsorption process is countenanced at high temperature. Values of the change in entropy (ΔS) and heat of adsorption (ΔH) for BB9 and CR adsorption on fly ash(FA) were positive suggesting the adsorption process to be endothermic. The high negative value of change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG) indicates the feasible and spontaneous adsorption of these dyes.

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Study on the bioavailability of heavy metals for decontaminating the soil using plants to clean up the environment

Garg Neeta1*, Shrivastava Shobha1 and Alim Ishrat 2

In the present study, an approach was made for making a preliminary survey of plants of industrial places and their assessment of ability to reduce pollution using phytoremediation technology. Target plants which have been studied for heavy metal bioaccumulation in the study period are found to be effective for implementation of phytoremediation technology and also to ascertain their pollution reducing capacity. Hence, these plants can be recommended for plantation in and around industrial complexes and urban localities.

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Antileukemic Activity of Extracts and Constituents of Aegle marmelos

Mustahil N. A.1, Riyanto S.2, Sukari M. A.1*, Rahmani M.1, Mohd nor S. M.1and Ali A. M.3

Phytochemicals study of various parts of Aegle marmelos (leaves, stem bark and roots) have afforded eleven compounds; hopane and lupane triterpenes including zeorin (1), dustanin (2) also epilupeol (3) and lupenone (4); alkaloids aegeline (5) and skimmianine (6); coumarin derivatives; auraptene (7), epoxyauraptene (8) and marmin (9) together with β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. All crude extracts and isolated compounds were examined for their antileukemic activity against CEM-SS (human T-lymphoblastic leukemia) cancer cells using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Roots extracts exhibited significant cytotoxicity while leaves and stem bark extracts were inactive. Hopane triterpenes; zeorin (1) and dustanin (2) as well as alkaloid aegeline (5) isolated from leaves exhibited moderate to strong cytotoxicity with dustanin (2) as the most active constituent (IC50 : 5.3±0.24 μg/mL). Lupane triterpenes; epilupeol (3) and lupenone (4), in addition of coumarin derivative; marmin (9) isolated from stem bark also demonstrated moderate to strong cytotoxicity with epilupeol (3) showed significant activity (IC50 : 6.1±0.20 μg/mL). The chemical constituents isolated from roots were inactive except for epilupeol (3) and marmin (9) which have also been isolated from stem bark.

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Interaction of some persistent organic pollutants with oligopeptide chains formed onto silica microparticles

Bucatariu Florin1, Dragan Ecaterina Stela1*, Fundueanu Gheorghe,1 Covaci Adrian2 and Dirtu Alin Constantin2,3

Organic/inorganic hybrid materials with short peptide chains (oligo(S-benzyl-L-cysteine)) attached onto surface were used in gas chromatography as substrate for potential separation of some persistent organic pollutants. Poly [N-(β-aminoethylene) acrylamide] (PAEA) adsorbed onto silica particles surface was cross-linked by the reaction between the accessible primary amino groups of the PAEA and 3,3’,4,4’-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTCDA). After the formation of cross-linked polyelectrolyte network, fifteen repeated coupling reactions of boc-S-benzyl-L-cysteine were performed onto solid surface. The hybrid silica microparticles with or without oligopeptides chains onto surface were used in separation of a mixture formed by organophosphate flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. The silica/PAEA-BTCDA was able to separate alkyl phosphates from aryl phosphates while the hybrids with oligopeptide (S-benzyl-L-cysteine)n were able to separate some polar organic compounds from non-polar or less polar compounds. The results of the present study showed that the tested materials may be successfully applied to separate the selected organic environmental contaminants when addressing their analysis from various abiotic and biotic liquid samples.

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Removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from contaminated air and water

Songolzadeh Mohammad 1, Soleimani Mansooreh 1* and Behnood Reza 2

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), as a gasoline additive, has become a prevalent and persistent groundwater and surface water pollutant. In this study, various technologies for MTBE removal from contaminated air and water were reviewed. The results of this study can help to provide specific guidance into process selection to treat MTBE in waste air and contaminated waters. Common technologies for MTBE removal from contaminated air include: advance oxidation, adsorption, thermal treatment, membrane and biofilter. Advance oxidation, thermal and catalytic treatment are used when vapor phase is highly contaminated. For low contaminated air, adsorption and biofilter are useful technologies .Based on the membrane type, different membrane reactors can be used for the removal of various concentrations of MTBE. The main methods for MTBE removal from waste water (physical, chemical, and biological methods) are briefly compared. The physical methods are air stripping and adsorption onto different adsorbents. In the chemical methods, MTBE is decomposed to less harmful materials as a result of a chemical reaction. Advanced oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, ozone, chloride ion, potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid are used. In the biological methods, MTBE is biologically decomposed with applied microorganism. Among different methods, adsorption treatment with different porous materials such as activated carbons, zeolites and synthetic resins are highly efficient for dilute solution of MTBE, whereas air stripping and advanced oxidation technologies are suitable for MTBE removal from concentrated solutions. Biological methods are efficient for permanent water treatment

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Removal of Organic Pollutant from Water by Heterogenous Photocatalysis: A Review

Wankhade Atul V.1, Gaikwad G. S.3, Dhonde M.G.2*, Khaty N. T.2 and Thakare S.R.4

Photocatalysis has been proved to be an effective and inexpensive tool for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from water. Photocatalysis is a process in which rate of photoreaction is accelerated in presence of catalyst. Heterogeneous photocatalysis was first studied by Fujishima and Honda.25 In recent years, researchers have been more interested in this environment, as it give complete photocatalytic mineralization of a variety of organic compounds into harmless products. This technique is now reaching the pre-industrial level with several pilot plants and prototypes being operational in various countries. This paper describes the basics of heterogeneous photocatalysis, mainly on TiO2 and the application of photocatalytic processes to water purification, mainly to remove organic contaminants as well as with special reference to the mechanism of the process involved, nature of the reactive intermediates and final products.

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