Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Integrating ATR-FTIR and data-driven models to predict total soil carbon and nitrogen towards sustainable watershed management

Aslan-Sungur G.,1* Evrendilek F.,1 Karakaya N.,1 Gungor K.1 and Kilic S.2

The use of Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) is an alternative method in determining carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and other elemental contents of organic and inorganic soils for which diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy has been mostly utilized. In this study, the combined use of ATR-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and partial least square regression (PLSR) or artificial neural network (ANN) models in estimating total soil C and N have been explored which provide direct, rapid, economical and multiple in situ measurements. Total soil C and N data obtained from 153 soil samples across agricultural lands and analyzed using CNH elemental analyzer were used to build PLSR and ANN models as a function of ATR- FTIR spectrum ranges based on a training dataset with leave-one-out cross validation (LCV) and independent validation (IV) dataset that randomly constitute 67% and 33% of the entire dataset respectively. Wavenumber ranges of 650-2365 cm-1 and 773-1726 cm-1 in ATR- FTIR data were selected as predictors for PLSR and ANN models of soil C respectively. PLSR model of soil C led to r2 = 0.86 for training and r2 = 0.68 for validation, with PLSR model of soil N as a result of wavenumber range of 1300-1400 cm-1 leading to r2 = 0.81 for training and r2 < 0.1 for validation. Multilayer perceptron model appeared to be the best-performing ANN for the emulations of both total soil C and N and outperformed PLSR model of total soil N.

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Antifungal Potential of Transition Metal Hexacyanoferrates for Management of Dry Bubble of Agaricus bisporus

Chugh C. A.

Ferrocyanides of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) were synthesized and characterized by IR spectra, magnetic susceptibility, thermal gravimetric analysis and elemental analysis studies. Antimicrobial potential of these complexes have been evaluated. Antifungal screening of these complexes has been carried out against Verticillium fungicola causing dry bubble diseases of Agaricus bisporus. Cadmium ferrocyanides have exhibited significant potential of 85% against Verticillium fungicola.

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Production of Naringinase by a new soil isolate of Serratia Sp.: Effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources

Pavithra M.,* Prasanna D. Belur and Saidutta M.B.

Four strains of Naringin degrading bacteria were isolated and tested for naringinase activity. All the four isolates showed extracellular naringinase activity. The one which showed consistently good activity in three different media was selected (2 U/L) and was identified by phenotypic characterization as Serratia Sp. In shake-flask trials, effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources was studied. Among all the carbon sources, glucose enhanced the naringinase production. Peptone supplemented with ammonium nitrate was found to be favourable. Maximum of 9.2 U/L naringinase activity was achieved in the medium comprising naringin, glucose, peptone, ammonium nitrate and salts.

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Isolation and Characterization of a New Allelochemical from Flower of Doronicum hookeri

Clarke C.B., Yadava R.N.* and Patil Gautam

A new Allelochemical I m.p. 211-212oC; m.f. C33H40O19, [M]+ 740 (FABMS), alongwith two known compounds 5-hydroxy-3, 7, 4'-trimethoxy flavone II and 7, 3'-dihydroxy-5, 4', 5'-trimethoxy isoflavone III have been isolated from methanolic extract of the flowers of Doronicum hookeri. The structure of new compound I was characterized as 5, 7,4'–trihydroxy-6-methoxy-flavone-5-O-α-L-rhamno-pyranosyl-1→4)-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by various chemical degradations, spectral analysis and color reactions.b

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Heavy metal distribution and chemical fractionation in water, suspended solids and bed sediments of industrial discharge channel: an implication to ecological risk

Nayek S.,1 Gupta S.2* and Saha R. N.3

The present study focuses on metal distribution in industrial effluents, suspended solids and sediments of industrial effluents discharge channel. Fe and Pb content (8.62 and 0.43 mg L-1) in industrial wastewater exceeds Indian Standards for effluents discharge. Partitioning coefficient (Kd) of dissolved metals with metal adsorbed to suspended solids follow the sequence of Cr > Pb > Mn > Zn ~ Cd > Cu > Fe. Metal Fractionation study of channel sediments by sequential extraction method exhibits that metals mostly exist in residual form (Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu) and reducible form (Fe, Mn). Cd, Zn, Cr Pb and Cu show higher recalcitrant factor (RF) indicating poor possibility of remobilization into aqueous system. Eco-toxicological assessment of industrial effluents and channel sediments indicates high degree of metal contamination index (Cd = 5.2), heavy metal evaluation Index (HEI = 1637.18) and risk index (RI = 270) and therefore pose a serious threat to ecosystem health.

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Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of Murraya microphylla and Murraya alata

Ya-Si Huang, Ke Yuan and Yan Bai*

Essential oils (EOs) of two Rutaceae species, including Murraya microphylla and Murraya alata, harvested in Hainan province, extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Both oils were rich in sesquiterpenoids. The main components of EOs of M. microphylla were caryophyllene (26.17%), germacrene D (11.08%), 1-ethenyl-1-methyl-2 -(1-methylethenyl)-4- (1-methyl ethylidene)-Cyclohexane (8.62%), 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a -octahydro -1,8a-dimethyl-7- (1-methylethenyl)-Naphthalene (7.85%) and cis, cis, cis- 1,1,4,8-tetramethyl-4,7,10- cycloundecatriene, (6.24%), whereas those of M. alata were1,2,3,4,4,5,6,7-octahydro-1,1,4,7-tetramethyl-1H-cycloprop(e)azul¬en¬¬e (40.32%),5,6-diethenyl-1-methyl- Cyclohexene (7.60%),and 1-ethenyl-1-methyl-2-(1-methyl ethenyl)-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexane (6.07%). The ant¬iba¬cterial effects of the two EOs were assessed on four species of bacteria and four species of fungi using Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. Most of the bacteria tested were susceptible to the two EOs while the most fungi tested were not. Meanwhile, both of the EOs were evaluated for antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazly(DPPH) assay, the antiox¬ida¬nt capacity of essential oil obtained from M. microphylla was greater than that from M. alata.

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Pilot study on backwash method of a biological activated carbon filter

Xin Sun*, Mengdan Zhang and Tinglin Huang

Pilot experiments were carried out to compare the effectiveness of different backwash methods and backwash conditions and optimize the backwash process. Forming backwash effluent with turbidity of 3-5NTU was suggested as an end condition for backwash of a BAC filter. Compared with single water backwash, two-stage, gas-water, combined backwash was more effective in detaching excess particles from the BAC surface and in saving backwash water. The air-water backwash method was suggested for the backwash of the BAC filter. The proper parameters recommended were as follows: air backwash intensities of 11-14L/(m2.s) with a time of 3-5mins; water backwash intensity of 8L/(m2.s) with a time of 5-7 mins. The height between the surface of the BAC layer and the backwash effluent ditch influences the effectiveness of backwashing the BAC filter and the proper height can be set as 1.5-2.0 m for practical applications.

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Studies on the syntheses of monobromamine NH2Br and dibromamine NHBr2 in various solvents

Heasley V.L.,* Lingner D.W., Boerneke J.L., Boerneke M.A., Hsu H., Minnema R.A., Moulton C.A. and Sweeney A.R.

Straightforward, simple syntheses are reported for monobromamine (NH2Br) in water, ether and ether/methanol and for dibromamine (NHBr2) in ether and ether/methanol. The stabilities of both NH2Br and NHBr2 in the above solvent are discussed in detail. The concentrations of both bromine species in all solvents are as high, or higher, than previously reported. These relatively uncomplicated syntheses represent a significant step forward since the path¬ways leading to bromine contaminants in drinking water can now be explored. Literature syntheses of NH2Br and NHBr2 are difficult and inconsistent and the data on the stabilities are often non-existent.

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Influence of Abiotic Factors on the Degradation of Imidacloprid in Soil

Samnani Prakash1 and Vishwakarma Kamlesh2*

This study was conducted to determine the hydrolysis rate and half-life of imidacloprid technical in buffer solution of pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 at 50 ± 0.5 ºC. In the preliminary test, the initial concentration of Imidacloprid (0 hour) in buffer solutions at pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 was 3.93, 3.89 and 3.99 µg/mL respectively. The imidacloprid concentration after 2 hours of incubation at 50 ± 0.5 ºC in buffer solutions of pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0, was 3.94, 3.86 and 3.95 µg/mL respectively. The per cent hydrolysis data revealed that degradation of imidacloprid at pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 was less than 10% in the preliminary test (5 days). Hence, it is concluded that the theoretical half-life of imidacloprid TC is >1 year at 25 ºC and imidacloprid is hydrolytically stable and unlikely to hydrolyse under the environmental conditions.

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Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of some chelates in O,N-donor coordination pattern involving Schiff bases derived from 4-acetyl/benzoyl-1-(4’-nitrophenyl)-3-methyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one and sulfamoxole

Thakar A.S.,1* Friedrich H. B.1 and Joshi K.T.2

The condensation reactions of 4-acetyl/benzoyl-1-(4’-nitrophenyl)-3-methyl-2-pyrazolin-5-ones condensed with sulfamoxole to form bidendate NO donor Schiff bases were studied. The prepared Schiff base ligands were further utilized for the formation of metal chelates having the general formula [ML2.2H2O] where M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and L = Ligand L1 and Ligand L2. These new compounds were characterized by conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, elemental analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis, electronic and infrared spectroscopy. Both Schiff base ligands were found to have a mono-anionic bidentate nature and octahedral geometry was assigned to all metal complexes. All the complexes contained coordinated water which was lost at 141–160 °C. These compounds were also screened for their in-vitro antibacterial activity against three bacterial species, namely; Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilli and Staphylococcus aureus. The metal complexes were found to have greater antibacterial activity than the uncomplexed Schiff base ligands.

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Synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial studies of transition metal complexes of 2- hydroxy-5 methoxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone

Prasanna M.K.* and Pradeep Kumar K.

Synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial studies of a heterocyclic hydrazide-hydrazone derived from isoniazid namely 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (MSINH) and its Zinc (II), Nickel (II), Manganese (II) and Copper (II) complexes are reported in this work. Complexes were characterized through elemental analysis, conduc¬tivity, magnetic susceptibility, IR, UV-Visible, NMR and ESR spectra. From the results of various analyses, we propose a tetrahedral geometry to the Zinc, square planar to the Nickel and Copper and octahedral geometries to the Manganese complexes. Ligand and complexes were subjected to antibacterial and antifungal studies and it was found that Copper(II),Nickel(II) and Manganese (II) complexes have moderate activity against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative E.Coli ,where as the ligand and other complexes have no notable activity against the tested bacterial species. Among the compounds reported in this work Zinc complex showed the highest antifungal activity against the fungal species Aspergillus flavus. Antitumour studies revealed that the ligand (MSINH) and its copper complex have promising antitumour activities.

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Kinetic Study on Electron Transfer Reaction in Pentaamminecobalt (III) complexes of Amino Acids by Permonosulphuric acid in micellar medium

Rajkumar P.* and Subramani K.

Permonosulphuric acid oxidation of pentaammineco- balt (III) complexes of α - Amino acids in micellar medium yielding nearly 100% of carbonyl compounds and 100% Co (II) are ultimate products. In this reaction the rate of oxidation shows first order kinetics each in [Cobalt (III)] and [PMS].The unbound α- Amino acids yield about 100% of carbonyl compound in presence of micelles. The decrease in UV- Visible absorbance at λ= 502nm for Co(III) complex corresponds to nearly 100% of the initial absorbance. In spite of the fact that the stoichiometry of PMS to unbound ligand is 2:1, the ratio of PMS to Co(III) complex is 1:1 accounting for about 100% reduction at the cobalt(III) centre. The kinetics and stoichiometric results have been accounted. The rates of oxidation of Co (III) complexes of unbound and bound moieties are enhanced more in the presence of Cetyltrimethyla¬mmoniumbromide (CTAB) when compared to the Sodiumlaurylsulphate (NaLS). A suitable mechanism consistent with the experimental findings has been proposed by involving a radical cation intermediate.

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Kinetic studies in the surfactant catalyzed oxidative deamination and decarboxylation of glycine by acidic permanganate

Bende N.* and Chourey V. R.

A kinetic investigation of oxidation of glycine by acidic permanganate in presence of surfactant as catalyst has been carried out spectrophotometrically. The reaction is double process in which first stage is followed by second fast stage process. The rate shows a first order dependence on each oxidant, substrate and surfactant. The reaction is studied at different temperatures to evaluate usual kinetic and activation parameters such as rate constant, temperature coefficient, energy of activation, entropy of activation, enthalpy, Gibb’s free energy and probability factor. The possible effect of the increasing ionic strength on the rate was also analyzed.

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Review Paper: The Significance of Fungal Laccase in Textile Dye Degradation – A Review

Rangabhashiyam S., Anu N. and Selvaraju N.*

The effluent generated from the textile industry is the major threatening factor to the environment since it affects the biotic as well as the abiotic systems. The physical, chemical and biological methods are available for the textile dye effluent treatment .But the present study focuses on the importance of laccase, an effective enzyme for dye degradation through the various fungal source, the different classifications of the textile dye and the textile dye degradation.

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