Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Preparation of collagen-elastin hydrolysates from cattle tendons and studying properties of hydrolysates

Mokrejs P.,1,2* Halabalova V.,3 Simek L.,3 Svoboda P.1,2 and Cermak R.1,2

The contribution characterises properties of collagen-elastin hydrolysates (content of proteins, collagen, elastin, ash and molecular weights) prepared by a 3-stage procedure from cattle tendons. Depending on conditions in 1st and 3rd stage of the process, hydrolysates may be prepared possessing molecular weights of 900-8,000 Da. Lowest ash content 3.2 % (w/w) was found with hydrolysates prepared from tendons processed in alkaline environment. Dialysis or ion exchange treatment allows to further reduce ash content. The ratio of collagen and elastin contents in hydrolysates differs in accordance with mode of processing – from 1.34 times collagen excess, through a balanced share of both proteins up to 1.21 times excess of elastin. In dependence on procedure conditions (tendon pre-processing at pH levels 4-11, extraction at 60-100oC for duration 2-14 min), hydrolysates of collagen-elastin type may be prepared, displaying required properties and possessing a milky colour. Our hydrolysates are equal in quality to commercially produced collagen hydrolysates for cosmetic or food applications.

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Removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution onto lignite fired fly ash

Malarvizhi T. S.* and Santhi T.

The adsorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution by lignite fired fly ash before washing (BFA) and after washing (AFA) was investigated as a function of initial pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and dose of adsorbent. The removal of Ni(II) ions was found to be 91.46% for BFA at pH 5 and at pH 3, it was 92.92% for AFA at pH 3. The aim of this study was to find the adsorption capacity of BFA and AFA, the suitable equilibrium isotherm and kinetic model for the removal of Ni (II) ions. The equilibrium data were analysed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), Harkin-Jura and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equations. The equilibrium data fit well in the Langmuir isotherm for BFA and AFA. The experimental data were analysed using four sorption kinetic models, the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order equations, Elovich and the intraparticle diffusion model. Result shows that the pseudo-second-order equation provides the best correlation for the adsorption process for both adsorbents.

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Evaluation of the odour reduction potential of amorphous iron hydroxide at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill

Su L.H. and Zhao Y.C.*

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are potential sources of offensive odours, associated with complaint from the nearby community normally. In this work, three simulated landfills were established to evaluate the effectiveness of amorphous iron hydroxide (AIH) on odour reduction. The odour reduction rate was evaluated with respect to sensual odour using an electronic nose and odorous compounds (H2S and NH3). Within 27 days, 62.7 and 70.6% of the odour (or 89.1 and 97.0% of hydrogen sulphide) were eliminated respectively at the rates of 0.05 and 0.10% (wt) of AIH in simulated landfill. The sulphur fractionation analysis of landfill leachate demonstrated that the concentration of acid-volatile sulphide (AVS) was significantly decreased by 97.0 and 96.7% in the presence of 0.05 and 0.10% (wt) AIH respectively and no pyrite (FeS2) and elemental sulphur (S0) were identified implying that sulphate, thiosulfate or sulphite are the possible products of AIH-sulphide reaction in simulated landfill. In order to minimize the operating cost, reusing of AIH sludge for MSW landfill odour abatement was recommended.

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Heliotropium Curassavicum mediated Silver Nanoparticles for Environmental Application

Satyavani K., Gurudeeban S., Deepak V., Ramanathan T.*

Development of environmentally safe antifouling substances from nanoparticles is urgently needed new area of research in India. Therefore, the present study is directed on antibacterial agents to biofilm forming bacteria from Heliotropium curassavicum mediated silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized using leaf broth with 0.1mM AgNO3 solution at 1:4 ratio. We observed 95% of synthesis on 20% concentration of leaf broth at 420 nm absorbance within the period of 15 min incubation. The appearance of brown colour was due to excitation of surface plasmon vibrations of silver nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra indicate the carbonyl group from amino acid residues and carboxylate group in proteins can act as surfactant to attach on the surface of silver nanoparticles and it stabilizes the synthesized nanoparticles through electrostatic stabilization. SEM and AFM exhibit nearly spherical, ellipsoidal and irregular shape of silver nanoparticles in the range of 5-30 nm.

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A New Europium (III) Sensor based on Titanium [IV] Tungstophosphate as an Electroactive Material

Sharma H. K.* and Sharma N.

An inorganic ion exchanger Titanium [IV] tungstophosphate [TiWP] has been synthesized and then characterized as ion exchanger by finding its ion exchange capacity (0.70 meq/g). Epoxy resin, SBR and PVC were used as binders to form the membranes of various compositions and the effect of internal solution was studied. Titanium tungstophosphate: epoxy resin (40%: 60%) membrane has shown best response towards Eu(III) ions and its wide linear working range was 1.0x10-5 to 1.0x10-1M with a near-Nernstian response of 21.0 mV/ decade. The detection limit was 1.0x10-6M. The observed response time of the sensor was only 10 seconds. The electrode was found to show satisfactory behavior in partially non-aqueous media of methanol, ethanol and acetone. The potentiometric response is independent of the pH of the solution in the pH range 2.9-8.9. The sensor has been used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Eu (III) ions against EDTA and oxalic acid.

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Synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives by condensation reaction using H-alpha zeolite as catalyst

Khanday Waheed Ahmad, Sheikh Abdul Majid and Tomar Radha*

Herein we demonstrate a simple method for the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives via condensation of o-phenylenediamine (OPDA) and aldehydes in the presence of catalytic amount of H-alpha zeolite using acetonitrile as solvent at room temperature. In all the cases, the reactions are highly selective and are completed within 4-5 hrs. The method is applicable to both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes without significant differences. The reaction proceeds efficiently under ambient conditions with excellent yields.

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Solid-state Synthesis and Characterization of Benzo[g][1,8] naphthyridin-2,4-diones

Nadaraj V.1* and Thamarai Selvi S.2

3-Cyano-1-phenylbenzo[g][1,8]naphthyridin-2,4 dio- nes 2 have been prepared expeditiously by microwave cyclic condensation of 2-chloroquinolin-3-carboxylic acid 1 with cyano acetanilide in presence of solid acid catalysed PTSA. The products are obtained in good yields with high purity. The characterization of synthesized compound has been done by spectral data and analytical analysis.

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In vitro antibacterial activity of few medicinal plants against Escherichia coli

Kurhekar Jaya Vikas*1 and Bodhankar M. G.2

Antibiotics are commonly used to treat most microbial infections. But their irrational uses, resistance of bacteria towards them and side-effects have put their significance in jeopardy. Medicinal plants are known to cure microbial diseases and have been used since ancient times. Besides, they are easily available and exhibit minimum side effects. In the present study, a few medicinal plants, found commonly in and around Sangli district were checked for their anti-microbial activity against an opportunistic pathogen Escherichia coli isolate and standard culture of E. coli ATCC 25928. Aqueous extracts of ten selected medicinal plants and ten selected antibiotics were used during the course of study. The aim was to deliberate upon whether they can be useful as an alternative for allopathic therapy. Escherichia coli isolate was found susceptible to six out of ten aqueous plant extracts and all ten standard antibiotics were used for treating common infections. E. coli ATCC 25928 was found susceptible to seven aqueous plant extracts and five standard antibiotics. This suggests that the aqueous plant extracts under investigation have the potential to be considered for alternate medical purposes as anti-bacterial agents.

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Tris[2,4,6-(2–hydroxy-4–sulpho-1–naphthylazo)]–s–triazine, tri sodium salt as a spectrophotometric reagent for micro-determination of lead (II) in alloys, environmental and biological samples

Kadyan Pratap Singh1*, Singh Devender1, Garg Sapana1, Verma Sonia2 and Singh Ishwar1

Colorimetric reaction behavior of tris[2,4,6-(2–hydroxy-4–sulpho-1–naphthylazo)]–s–triazine, tri sodium salt (THT) has been established with lead(II) under various physico–chemical conditions. An aqueous solution of THT forms two colored complexes with lead(II) at different pH, a dark red colored complex having λmax at 545 nm in the pH range 6.2–7.3 and a blue colored complex absorbing maximum at 620 nm in alkaline medium. At pH 6.2-7.3, the dark red Pb(II)–THT complex has molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity 4.3 x 104 l. mol.-1 cm-1 and 0.0048 µg cm-2 respectively. The validity of Beer’s law was followed up to 4.3 ppm with an optimum concentration range for an accurate determination of 0.7- 3.6 ppm. In alkaline medium, the blue colored Pb(II)-THT complex had molar absorptivity of 4.45 x 104 l.mol.-1cm-1, showing Sandell’s sensitivity of 0.0046 µg cm-2. Beer’s law was followed up to 4.25 ppm with the optimum concentration range of 0.8 – 3.4 ppm. A number of foreign ions tested for their interferences and use of masking agents wherever necessary have been tabulated during the micro-determination of Pb(II). Analytical method established at high pH (in alkaline medium) showed good selectivity and its application was extended to determine Pb(II) in some synthetic solutions equivalent to that of some alloys, environmental and biological samples.

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Isolation of Malathion degrading Pseudomonas xanthomarina with plant growth promoting activity

Goyat Pankaj, Bhatia Divya and Malik Deepak Kumar *

Malathion is an organophosphorus insecticide used all over the world to control adult mosquitoes. A total of 10 morphologically different bacterial cultures DKM1, DKM2, DKM3, DKM4, DKM5, DKM6, DKM7, DKM8, DKM9 and DKM10 were isolated by using enrichment method. The growth study of isolated strains showed that the bacterial strain (DKM8) was able to grow in minimal medium containing 0.5 mM Malathion as a sole carbon source. The isolated bacterial strain DKM8 was found very close to Pseudomonas xanthomarina on the basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. The resting cell study showed that strain (DKM8) can degrade Malathion 70.5% within two days. The isolated bacterial strain DKM8 was also showing plant growth promoting activities (IAA production, phosphate solubilization, protease activity and antifungal activity). These data indicate that the isolated bacterial strain DKM8 can be used for degradation of Malathion along with plant growth promoting activity in agriculture.

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Review Paper: Volatile Organic Compounds and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air of Indian Cities - A Review

Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu,* Young-Kyo Seo and Sung-Ok Baek

This study reviews the volatile organic compounds (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Indian atmosphere reported during 2000-2012. Among the air pollutants, the above mentioned are given more priority due to their toxicity to human beings. In recent years all over the world the urban population is increasing in a rapid way. The urban air pollution causes so many deaths in all over the world. This is more serious in developing and highly populated countries like India.

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