Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Vermicomposting as an environment friendly Bio-fertilizer

Sinha Jayanta

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Design, synthesis and interaction with Cu2+ ions of ice templated composite hydrogels

Dragan Ecaterina Stela and Dinu Maria Valentina

Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPN) composite hydrogels based on polyacrylamide (PAAm) and chitosan (CS) were prepared either at room temperature (22 oC) or at -18 oC. The swelling kinetics and gels morphology were strongly influenced by the synthesis temperature. Full-IPN hydrogels were prepared by the cross-linking of CS entrapped in PAAm matrix with epichlorohydrin in alkaline medium. The sorption capacity for Cu2+ ions was strongly influenced by the generation of the second network at high pH because a partial hydrolysis of the PAAm matrix simultaneously occurred. The synthesis temperature of semi-IPN hydrogel had also an influence, the conventional hydrogels synthesized at 22 oC having a lower sorption capacity than those synthesized at -18 oC.

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Syngas production by carbon dioxide reforming methane over carbonaceous catalyst and reaction kinetics of carbonaceous materials

Zhang Guojie1*, Du Yannian1, Xu Ying1 and Shi Xiaoling2

In this work, synthesis gas production by carbon dioxide reforming methane over carbonaceous catalyst and reaction kinetics of carbonaceous materials with carbon dioxide were investigated using a fixed bed reactor system operating at atmospheric pressure. Mass balance of reforming reaction studies was conducted by measuring C element. The gas was detected by FPD and PID equipped gas chromatography. The results showed that the carbonaceous materials have a profound catalytic effect on the CH4 cracking and CH4-CO2 reforming, the initial reaction temperature decreased about 50oC. Beyond the simple material balance, it can be found that the mass of carbon content in phase gas increases during the carbon dioxide reforming methane. It indicated that the gasification of carbonaceous materials by CO2 takes place during the synthesis production process by carbon dioxide reforming methane over carbonaceous catalyst. An overall unreacted shrinking core model is formulated to describe the rates of the reaction kinetics of carbonaceous materials with carbon dioxide processes. The apparent activation energy of the reaction of carbonaceous materials with CO2 was more than 230kJ/mol during CH4-CO2 reforming.

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Noise Impact Assessment due to Aircraft Operations in the surrounding Areas of an Upcoming Airport in India

Mishra Arun kumar 1 * and Srivastava Prabhat 2

The main purpose of this study is to assess the impact and effect of noise emitted by aircrafts in the surrounding areas of an upcoming international airport at Navi-Mumbai ,India. This study presents on site noise level measurement at 10 locations situated at a distance of 20 km. radius from the Airport reference Point (ARP). Noise monitoring was carried out at all locations for 24 Hours (Leq) in residential, commercial, Industrial and silence zone location around the surrounding areas of Navi Mumbai (India) airport during November-February, 2009. The results show that noise pollution around the airport is wide spread on most of its areas. Noise in the surrounding areas of airport is composite in nature. Noise Propagation Model has been used to a assess the noise level at different receptor locations. The local standards implemented by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) have been used to assess the actual field data and the predicted noise level has also been compared with standards prescribed by CPCB.

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The Influence of a Newly Synthesized Zn (II) and Cu (II) Complexes based on Pyrazole Derivatives on the Inhibition of Phomopsis Viticola Sacc. (Sacc.) under Laboratory Conditions

Jaćimović Željko1*, Latinović Nedeljko2, Bošković Ivana1 and Tomić Zoran4

Chemical inhibition of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot disease of grapevine (Phomopsis viticola) has an important practical significance, and it is mainly focused on winter season treatment and beginning of vegatation period of grapevine. Its purpose is to reduce infectious effects of the fungus and to prevent primary infections at the beginning of the vegetation process. This research analysed fungicide activity of the newly synthesized Zn(II) complex with 4-acetyl- 3(5)-amino-5(3)-methylpyrazole(Pz1) as ligand and Cu(II) complex with 3,5-dimethyl-1-thiocarbox -amidepyrazole(Pz-CS) as ligand on already mentioned pathogenic fungus that causes Phomopsis cane and leaf spot disease. Observed results are compared with fungicide product Cabrio Top (active substance piraclostrobin belongs to pyrazole derivatives).

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Immobilization of Hazardous Cr(VI) in blended cement: XRD and Leaching Studies

Jain Neeraj

Marble dust from gang saw industries is generated as wastes in million tonnes and is an environmental hazard due to disposal problems. The marble dust is a filler material having similar properties like limestone and takes part in early hydration reactions due to the presence of high amount of calcium carbonate. In the present study, 40 % of marble dust (CM) blended with Portland cement (C0) has been utilized to immobilize (solidify) hazardous Cr (VI) (1000-3000 mg/l) and the effect on parameters like setting time, compressive strength and leachability of Cr (VI) has been investigated as a function of curing time. It is observed that the initial and final setting times of these cements increase with increase in Cr (VI) concentration. The effects of Cr (VI) addition on the physical, chemical and engineering properties of solidified samples (C0 and CM with Cr (VI)) were studied and the results revealed that the compressive strength reduced with addition of Cr (VI). The samples of C0 and CM containing Cr (VI) were also tested for leachability of Cr (VI) in acidic solution (pH=~3) using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests. The leached Cr (VI) concentration was under the allowable limit (5 mg/l) of U.S. EPA at lower initial concentration. The hydration chemistry of the solidified samples has been studied by XRD which shows the formation of various phases like ettringite, Cr-ettringite, tobermorite, monocarboaluminate etc. The morphology of the hydration products was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) which also supports the formation of various hydrations phases as observed during XRD in the solidified cementitious binders.

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Influence of Pt on Structural and Morphologycal Properties of La2O3 / SnO2Thick Film

Ehsani Maryam1*, Hamidon Mohd Nizar2 and Pah Lim Kean3

In this study, the effect of La2O3/SnO2 surface modification by Pt synthesized in the structural properties of SnO2 was presented. Samples (2wt.% La2O3, SnO2, 2 wt.% La2O3, SnO2, 1 wt.% Pt)were prepared using the ball milling method with m-xylene medium and they were calcined under700 °C. The thick film resistive paste based on SnO2 was fabricated on alumina substrate using screen printing technique. In order to prepare the printable thick film paste, the calcined resistive powders were mixed with organic vehicle and glass frit on alumina substrate with good rheology. Afterward, thermal treatment (drying and firing) was applied to dry the solvant from the printed paste and bonding the resistive paste on alumina substrate. The particle size and crystallinity of samples were characterized using X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD)spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). TEM results illustrate that the obtained material are nanoparticles in spherical shape and the size of particles decreases with addition of Pt. The XRD pattern results show that the prepared samples are the nanopowders with almost spherical crystalline structure. The thick film surface morphology was investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron microscopy (FE-SEM) before and after Pt doping and Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used to determine the elemental composition.The results proved the nanometric size of all particles and it illustrated that the particle size of materials decreased with the addition of Pt on La2O3/SnO2.

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Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solution of 2-Amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1, 3-propanediol at Elevated Pressures

Murshid Ghulam*, Shariff Azmi Mohd. and Bustam Mohammad Azmi

The removal of acid gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) from various industrial streams is a significant step in gas processing industry. The removal of CO2 by alkanolamines absorption process is the most frequently used process around the globe. The conventional amines such as DEA and MDEA suffer with low CO2 loading capacity and high heat of regeneration. Recently, sterically hindered amines are proposed as potential solvents for acid gas removal due to their unique cyclic structure, high CO2 loadings and low heat of regeneration. The investigated solvent in this paper, 2-Amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propoanediol (AHPD) is a sterically hindered amine. The kinetic studies show that AHPD is a good potential solvent for CO2 removal from various industrial streams. The knowledge of equilibrium solubility data of such solvents is important to design acid gas removal system. The objective is to provide the CO2 solubility data in aqueous solutions of AHPD at high pressures which can be helpful in designing of high pressure absorption systems. Therefore the solubility of CO2 in aqueous solutions of AHPD is experimentally measured from 5 to 60 bar at three industrially important temperatures i.e. 303.15, 313.15 and 333.15 K. The effect of pressure is found to be positive on solubility as CO2 loadings are higher at elevated pressures. The solubility data is also represented using Kent-Eisenberg model and a good agreement is found between model predicted values and experimental results.

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Extraction of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Seed Oil using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Soxhlet Extraction

Nian-Yian Lee1, SitiHamidahMohd-Setapar1*, NurSyahirahMohd Sharif 1, Akil Ahmad1, Asma Khatoon1, CheYunus Mohd Azizi1 and Muhamad Ida-Idayu2

This study involved the extraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed oil using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and Soxhlet techniques. The main aim of this study is to compare the extraction method between SC-CO2 and Soxhlet extraction. The arrays of operating parameters for supercritical carbon dioxide are temperature and pressure conducted at 40°C, 60°C and 80°C and 20MPa, 25MPa and 30MPa respectively. The extraction was also processed under dynamic condition of 180min and carbon dioxide at constant flow rate of 4mL/min. The parameters studied for Soxhlet extraction are due to different solvents and extraction time. Observation was done on the physical characteristics of oil obtained by these two methods where the oil obtained by SC-CO2 was clean with pleasant smell while the oil produced by Soxhlet method was near to brownish color with white when extracted with polar solvents. The experiment results showed that the extraction of rubber seed oil by SC-CO2 and Soxhlet extraction gave 33.652% g and 7-12% g respectively. In addition, the extraction time of SC-CO2 is also shorter than Soxhlet extraction that needs the further process to evaporate solvent. This finding proves that the rubber seed oil produced by SC-CO2 has superior characteristics and better quality compared to Soxhlet extraction.

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Synthesis and characterization of Dental Nanocomposite based on Hydroxyl Apatite/ZnO-MgO by Ultrasonic Method

Khani Arezoo Mohamad1*, Farhadyar Nazanin1,2 and Soltanian Mohamad Jafar1

Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HA), is close to that of bone and this teeth mineral is commonly used as a dental nanocomposite due to its biological properties. In this work, Hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystals were prepared via an in situ biomimetic process in the presence of polyviny l pyrrolidone. The hydroxya- patite, HAP nanoparticles were prepared using CaCl2 and KH2PO4 in the presence of polyviny l pyrrolidone (PVP). In an aqueous solution. ZnO -MgO were obtained with particle sizes of 30–50 by the reaction of Zn(CHCOO3)2 and Mg(CHCOO3)2 in the presence of HA-PVP. Characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The characterisation results indicate that PVP has been appended to the nano HAP forming regular crystals of nano sized HAP.

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Synthesis, crystal structure and spectroscopic characterization of an oxalato bridged silver-deficient chromium(III) salt with water-filled nanochannels

Gouet Bebga1, Signé M.2, Nenwa J.2* and Fokwa B.P.T.3

The reaction of K3[Cr(C2O4)3].3H2O with AgNO3 in water afforded the non-stoichiometric nanostructured silver salt, {Ag0.26K0.24[Ag2.5Cr(C2O4)3].3H2O}n (1) which was characterized by elemental analysis, EDX, IR and UV-VIS spectroscopies and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound (1) crystallizes in a monoclinic space group C2/c, with unit cell parameters a = 18.2556(5), b = 14.6784(3), c = 12.2823(3) Å, β = 113.527(3)°, V = 3017.78(13) Å3, Z = 8. The Cr(III) centers in the crystal structure are hexacoordinated by the oxalato-O atoms in a distorted octahedral geometry. Compound (1) is a new member of the broad family of silver-deficient oxalatometalate(III) salts with water-filled nanochannels generally formulated as [(MxAg0.50-x)(H2O)3]@[Ag2.50Cr(C2O4)3], with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.50; M = K, Cs, Ag. The structure is best described as a non-molecular coordination polymer where the host lattice is constructed by the three-dimensional interconnectivity of the metallic centers through the O atoms of the oxalates and waters.

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Characterization of Oil Palm Shell Activated Carbon and ZSM-5 Supported Cobalt Catalysts

Izirwan I.*, Mohd A. and Saidina Amin N.A.

In this paper we are reporting the preparation and characterization of supported cobalt catalysts using a wetness impregnation method. Different cobalt catalysts loading of 0 and 10 wt% were prepared by dissolving cobalt nitrate hexahydrate in distilled water and dried in an oven at 100 °C overnight. Two selected supports of oil palm shell (OPS) activated carbon and ZSM-5 zeolite were employed and compared. Catalysts characterizations of both supports were performed by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Scanning electron microscope analysis (SEM). Using Scherrer equation, the cobalt metallic size was calculated. OPS activated carbon supports were further analyzed for CHNOS elemental analysis. Both supports of OPS activated carbon and ZSM-5 zeolite exhibited the successful loading of cobalt catalysts and have potential to be utilized in catalytic reactions.

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A kinetic insight into the oxidation of perfumery alcohols by inorganic oxidizing agents

Prabhu D.V.*, Tandel M. A., Parbat H. A. and Uchil Meera H.

Literature survey shows that inorganic salts have rarely been used for the controlled oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds. The kinetics of oxidation of perfumery alcohols has been studied using KBrO3 and KIO3 in acidic medium. The primary acyclic alcohols, geraniol, nerol and citronellol and the secondary cyclic alcohols borneol, isoborneol and menthol are extensively used in the manufacture of perfumes and fragrances. Menthol is also used in medicine as local anesthetic and counter irritant. The oxidation was carried out under pseudo first order kinetic conditions with respect to the inorganic oxidant. The progress of the reaction was monitored by iodometric estimation of the unreacted oxidant at regular time intervals and the pseudo first order rate constants were determined from the straight line plots of log (a-x) versus time. The oxidation rates increase with the alcohol concentration but decrease with increasing KBrO3/KIO3 concentration. The oxidation rate was found to be independent of ionic strength as borne out by the reaction mechanism suggested .The oxidation reaction was studied in the temperature range 303-318K and the thermodynamic activation parameters were evaluated and correlated with the dynamics of the oxidation process. For both the oxidants, the oxidation rates of the alcohols under study follow the sequences: 1) Primary acyclic alcohols: nerol > citronellol > geraniol. 2) Secondary cyclic alcohols: borneol > isoborneol > menthol.

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The role of threshold inhibitors on water scale precipitation from tap water

Danijela Dobersek* and Darko Goricanec

This paper presents research results on how threshold inhibitors influence on water-scale precipitation and morphology. The inhibitory effect was evaluated from observing two experiments in regard to water-scale precipitation. The first experiment was conducted on heaters from a boiler for hot water and outflow pipes. The second experiment was carried-out on washing machine heaters. In both cases, tap water was used that contained Mg2+ and Zn2+ ions. In all the samples the hard, compact water scale was in the shape of aragonite.

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Modelling of Dilution of Thermal Discharges in Enclosed Coastal Waters

Balas Lale1, İnan Asu2* and Numanoğlu Genç Aslı3

In enclosed coastal areas, such as estuaries and bays, where water exchange is limited, the discharges of industrial and power plant facilities result in change in the temperature of water. This change threats significantly living organisms in the water. For this reason, the effects of heated discharges must be investigated prior to discharging, considering its near field and far field dilutions. The near field and far field dilutions of thermal discharges are simulated by HYDROTAM-3D which is an unsteady three-dimensional baroclinic hydrodynamic and transport model that has been developed to simulate the transport processes in coastal water bodies. It has hydrodynamic, transport, turbulence and wave model components. The model computes the full spatial distribution of velocities of unsteady flow induced by wind, tide or water density differences solving full Navier-Stokes equations with only Boussinesq approximation. The transport model component consists of the pollutant transport model, the water temperature and salinity transport models and the suspended matter transport. The numerical model includes thermohaline forcing due to changes in the sea water density. To consider the large scale turbulence caused by the horizontal shear, horizontal eddy viscosity is simulated by the Smagorinsky algebraic subgrid scale turbulence model. The pollutant transport model can simulate the near and far field dilutions of sea outfalls with a dynamic coupling. Pollutant may be bacteria or heated water. HYDROTAM-3D is integrated with GIS. In the model, wind and wave climate analyses of Turkish coast line exist. Turkish coastline and most of the Turkish Bay bathymetries are provided on GIS mapping. Effect of a thermal discharge rate of 56000 m3/hour is investigated with its coupled near field and far field dilution modelling.

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Bioethanol production from oil palm trunk juice by different strains of yeast and bacteria

Norhazimah* A. H. and Faizal C. K. M.

Oil palm trunk (OPT) juice is one of the abundant agricultural wastes available as feedstock for bioethanol production. OPT juice is advantageous due to high levels of soluble sugars available. This paper presents a comparative study on the effect of using different strains of yeast and bacteria on OPT juice for bioethanol production. The study was performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Scheffersomyces stipitis, Zymomonas mobilis and Zymobacter palmae. It was found that co-culture of S. cerevisiae Kyokai no. 7 and S. stipitis excellently produced the highest bioethanol up to 30.25 g/l and productivity of 0.252 g/l.h. The results obtained from the experiment also demonstrated that S. cerevisiae Kyokai no. 7 and S. cerevisiae JCM 2220 were good strains for producing bioethanol from OPT juice.

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Assessing the inhibitory potential of natural silicon oil on brass degradation in 1M H2SO4

Fayomi O. S. I.* and Popoola A. P. I.

Assessment of silicon oil as natural inhibitor on brass in 1 M H2SO4 acid solution has been studied using linear potentiodynamic polarization and gravimetric method in the inhibited concentration variation between 2% to 10% range. Tafel extrapolation techniques were used to obtain corrosion potential (Ecorr) and corrosion current density (Icorr). From all indication, the inhibitor is of mixed type. The adsorption behavior occurs on the surface of brass due to the presence of the absorbed complex atom from the oil. The calculated portion of the surface covered from the corrosion process follows Langmuir adsorption Isotherm.

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The effect of Copper Concentration on Morphology of Copper - PVP Nanostructured Composites

Sadjadi Mirabdollah Seyed* and Mashayekhi Parivash

Our aim in this work was low temperature preparation of copper nanoparticles embedded in PVP by wet chemical method. Copper (II) sulfate was taken as metal precursor, ascorbic acid at the presence of an appropriate amount of NaOH as reducing agent and polyvinylpyrrolidone k-30 (PVP K-30) as a protecting agent. The reaction was performed in high-speed stirring rate at room temperature. Characterization of the samples was carried out by using powder X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed the crucial role of copper (II) sulfate/surfactant molar ratio on the morphologies of the copper-PVP nanocomposites and homogeneous flower like nanostructured copper –PVP composite film mainly composed of face-centered cubic (fcc) copper with a crystalline size of 9.7 nm was obtained for CuSO4.5H2O /surfactant molar ratio of 70/1.

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Isolation and structure elucidation of hederagenin a triterpenoid compound from Gypsophila simonii

Arslan Idris

Hederagenin[(3β)-3,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid], a triterpenoid compound was isolated from a hydro methanolic extract of the underground parts of Gypsophila simonii (Caryophyllaceae). Hederagenin was isolated by HPLC method and molecular mass was determined by the ESI-TOF-MS. The ESI-TOFMS (negative mode) analysis of hederagenin exhibited a pseudo molecular ion peak [M-H]− at m/z 471.30 which is compatible with the molecular formula C30H48O4.

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