Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Fire dynamics simulation of multiple ethanol pool fires

Bahman Abdolhamidzadeh1, Vahid Bab2, Davood Rashtchian2 and Genserik Reniers3*

In this study, a well-known Computational Fluid Dynamics software, so-called Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), has been used to simulate multiple ethanol pool fire scenarios. Influences and reciprocal impacts in terms of ynamics and growth of the pool fires have been investigated. Heat release rates temperature and flame shapes have been monitored as the main outputs of the simulations. Based on the simulation results, it can be concluded that the amounts of mass burning rate, the radiation energy and the pool fire flame height were significantly higher in multiple pool fires, when compared with the theoretical values obtained by the mere summation of single pool fires. Furthermore, the effects of different grid sizes on the accuracy of the pool fire simulations have also been investigated and are discussed.

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Solubilising Water involved in Amoxicillin Extract using Mixed AOT/TWEEN 85 Reverse Micelles

Siti Hamidah Mohd-Setapar*, Chuo Sing Chuong and Siti Norazimah Mohamad-Aziz

Solubilisation of water in mixed reverse micellar systems formed with anionic surfactant sodium bis-2- ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) and nonionic surfactants TWEEN 85 in iso-octane was investigated. The interfacial association of reverse micelle for amoxicillin solubilisation also was studied. It was found that a maximum solubilisation capacity of water occurred for a mixed AOT/TWEEN 85 reverse micelles in the presence of ethylene oxide (EO) chain length of the non-ionic surfactant. The solubilisation capacity of water was determined by two main factors including stability of the reverse micelle interfacial film and reverse micelle size. The amoxicillin molecules also were found to be interfacial active molecule at every tested pH and tested concentration of mixed AOT/TWEEN 85. The estimated values of reverse micellar size (Rm) using empirical and geometrical models show that the Rm is higher after the extraction when compared to Rm before extraction process.

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Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine by HPLC

Arun R.1 and Anton Smith A.2*

This paper describes the development and validation of a HPLC method (216nm) for the quantitation of Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine in pure form for pharmaceutical formulations. The method showed to be linear (r2 > 0.999), precise (R.S.D. < 0.80%), accurate (recovery of 100.95% for Zidovudine, 100.73 % for Lamivudine and 99.94% for Nevirapine), specific and robust. Three batches of Zidovudine, Lamivudine, Nevirapine tablets were assayed by the validated method. The Zidovudine contents in the tablets samples varied from 99.82 to 101.43%, The Lamivudine content in the tablets samples varied from 99.28 to 101.24% while Nevirapine content varied from 100.56 to 101.35%. The developed method showed to be a simple and suitable technique to quantify the antiretroviral and might be employed for quality control analysis, as well as in other matrices, such as plasma. The ZID, LAM, NEV tablets analyzed by the validated method showed adequate quality and drug contents in concordance with the labeled amount.

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Volumetric Properties,, Viscosities and Refractive Indices of Aqueous Solutions of 2-Amino-2-methyl-1- propanol (AMP)

Murshid Ghulam,* Shariff Azmi Mohd, Bustam Muhammad Azmi and Ahmad Faizan

The physical properties such as density (ρ), viscosity (η) and refractive index (nD) of aqueous solutions of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) were measured for the whole range of composition. The measurements were made over the temperature range of 303.15 K to 333.15 K. Excess molar volumes (VE), viscosity deviations (Δη) and refractive index deviations (ΔnD) were calculated from the experimental results of density, viscosity, refractive index and correlated by using Redlich Kister equation. Partial molar volumes at infinite dilution were determined using apparent molar volumes. Excess molar volumes, viscosity deviations and refractive index deviations results show good interaction between water and AMP molecules.

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Bioremoval of Trichloroethylene/Toluene Mixture by Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 from Water

Dong S.,1 Li J.1,2 and Shim H.1*

Environmental contamination by mixed organics has become the most important environmental issues. As mixed wastes, petroleum/gasoline compounds and such chlorinated compounds as trichloroethylene (TCE) are among the most frequently found subsurface contaminants. Especially, TCE is considered among the most frequently found groundwater contaminant around the world. This study is investigating the bioremoval of these compounds when present in mixture and better removing these mixtures from the contaminated water, using combined physical and biological methods. The effects of different concentrations of TCE (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg/L), toluene (50, 100 and 150 mg/L) as growth substrate, inoculum (Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4; optical density, 1 and 3), activated carbon (1 and 3%, w/v) and dissolved oxygen (with or without additional oxygen source, hydrogen peroxide) on the aerobic removal of TCE/toluene mixture were investigated and the conditions were further optimized. The overall optimal condition for the bioremoval of TCE/toluene mixture was found at toluene 150 mg/L, TCE 1.5 mg/L with 3% powdered activated carbon, without hydrogen peroxide with initial optical density 1 in mineral medium. Results obtained would provide a better understanding of interactions among contaminants even before the application of any remediation technology and would enhance the applicability of the combined remediation technology to the mixed waste contaminated environmental sites.

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The Effect of Magnetic Field on Total Dissolved Solid of Water

Golestani Alizadeh H.* and Nikmanesh E.

This paper presents the results of the effect of permanent magnetic field at various intensities and pH, on Total Dissolved Solid in samples of water containing different concentrations of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate. The magnets were fixed on vessels in a batch system to magnetize the water in Intensities of 5000 (G), 3500 (G), 2700 (G) and water samples stirred in various RPMs and durations. The results indicate for both of CaCO3 and MgCO3 an increase in magnetic field intensity in a constant concentration of CaCO3 and MgCO3 caused, in turn, by an increase in TDS and this effect is higher for MgCO3 than CaCO3. So it can be concluded that magnetized water has an anti-scale effect; because of increasing the solubility of CaCO3 and MgC

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Removal of Chromium (VI) Ions from Wastewaters by Low Cost Adsorbent

Rawal Nekram1* and Jarouliya Urmila 2

The presence of heavy metal ions such as chromium in industrial wastewaters and municipal wastewaters is a potential hazard to aquatic, animal and human life. Chromium compounds are widely used in a number of industries such as leather, textile, chemical printing, dye-ink manufacturing, electroplating industries etc. From all these processes, Hexavalent Chromium (CrVI) can escape into the environment through the effluents. Chromium (VI) is 100 to 1000 times more toxic than other chromium compounds. In this study, capability of low cost natural chitosan and its derivatives (cross-linked chitosan) to remove chromium (VI) metal ions is evaluated and also optimum adsorption capacity is determined. This study indicated that adsorption kinetics as well as removal capacity are highly favourable for using cross-linked chitosan than pure chitosan as an adsorbent. The concentration of contaminated water is lowered to the limits of acceptable level by adsorption process using pure chitosan and their derivatives as an adsorbent. The adsorption obeyed the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms.

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Synthesis of Some-2-thioxo-3-substituted-2,3-dihydro- 1H-quinazolin-4-one Derivatives as Potential Antibacterial and Antifungal agents

Al-ALshaikh Monirah *, Al-Shammary Danah and El-Baih Fatima

A series of 2-thioxoquinazolinone derivatives 2a-d have been synthesized via condensation of the anthranilic acid derivatives with aryl isothiocyanate in the presence of absolute ethanol using ultrasound irradiation method. The substituted-4-oxoquinazolin- 2-yl-thioethylacetate derivatives 3a-d were prepared by S-alkylation of quinazolin-2-thione derivatives 2ad with ethyl chloro acetate followed by hydrazine hydrate offered the hydrazide derivatives 4a-d. The structures of the synthesized compounds were mainly confirmed on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The synthesized compounds 2a-d, 3a-d, 4a and 4c,d were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities.

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Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using natural rice husk

Ong Siew-Teng1*, Foo Yee-Cheong2 and Hung Yung-Tse3

The potential of natural rice husk (NRH) to adsorb Pb(II) from aqueous solution was being investigated under various experimental conditions. The parameters studied were pH, initial concentration of metal solutions, contact time, sorption isotherm, agitation rate and sorbent dosage. Results from batch study showed that the sorption process was pH dependent and the efficient pH range for maximum uptake was 5.0 to 7.0. From the contact time study, the uptake of Pb(II) was very rapid and equilibrium was attained in less than 30 minutes. By fitting the experimental data into pseudo- first and pseudo-second kinetic model equations, the sorption process was better explained by the latter. An increase in percentage uptake of Pb(II) can be observed with increasing contact time, agitation rate and sorbent dosage. The sorption process conformed to the Langmuir isotherm with the maximum sorption capacities of 12.08 mg/g.

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Influence of Soil Components on Phosphorus availability in some soils of Egypt

Wahba M. M.

Structure of calcite mineral is very important to study the supplying power of phosphorus in the soil. In addition, calculating the bonding energy and the Phosphorus Recovery Index (PRI) may assess the phosphorous deficiency in the soil. These parameters can be used as indicators for the supplying power of phosphorus and its dynamics in the soil-plant system rather than the classical determination of available phosphorus. Soil components, namely, clay, calcium carbonate (calcite mineral) and iron oxides contents were investigated as they are among the main factors affecting phosphorus availability in the soil. Therefore a structure of calcite mineral is proposed in the current study to understand the mechanism of phosphorus adsorption and desorption process. Three soil types, namely alluvial (Typic Haplotorrerts), calcareous (Typic Haplocalcids) and sandy (Typic Torripsamments) represented by two soil profiles for each were used. These soils represent the main soil types most prevailing in Egypt. The isotherm equations of Freundlich and Langmuir were applied to determine the bonding energy and the adsorbed phosphorus quantities as well as PRI values were calculated for the soils under investigation. The results showed that the highest values of phosphorus adsorption and bonding energy were found in the calcareous soil which is followed by alluvial and sandy soils respectively. On the other hand, the desorption of phosphorus from soils decreases significantly in the following order; sandy> alluvial> calcareous soils. In contrast, the PRI value is highest in sandy soils followed by alluvial and calcareous soils, respectively. According to the calculated PRI values, it is found that calcareous soil has the extreme phosphorus deficiency.

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Feasibility of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol Production from the Fermentation of Oil Palm Trunk Juice

Norhazimah A.H.,* Asmadiyana M. and Faizal Che Ku M.

Oil palm trunk (OPT) juice has the potential to be used for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production. In this study, fermentation of OPT juice was carried out to produce ABE without the addition of nutrient. In general, C. acetobutylicum showed better ABE yield compared to C. beijerinckii even though both strains were capable to convert sugar in OPT juice to ABE. The result showed maximum acetone, butanol and ethanol concentration of 12.25, 4.56 and 4.28 g/l, respectively using C. acetobutylicum. These results showed that OPT juice has a great potential for ABE production.

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Potential of using bio-coagulants indigenous to Malaysia for surface water clarification

Khodapanah N., Ahamad I.S.* and Idris A.

Water treatment processes in developing countries typically include coagulation and flocculation and often use alum as the coagulant. Coagulation is a critical step in drinking water treatment because of removing the colloidal particles as well as pathogens that are often attached to the particles. However, the cost of the imported chemicals in hard currency has caused to consider the natural coagulants as a promising alternative. In the present study, turbidity removal of Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas, chitosan, dragon fruit foliage and alum were compared using surface turbid water. The efficacy of four bio-coagulants has been tested based on some critical parameters including dosages of coagulant, pH of turbid water and change in pH value of finished water. All studied coagulants obviously possessed positive coagulation abilities. The turbidity achieved using M. oleifera and chitosan at pH 6.4 of surface water was less than the required standard of 5 NTU, while M. oleifera recorded turbidity value (3.5 NTU) with removal efficiency of 98.5%. The best performance for J. curcas and D. F. foliage was obtained at pH 4 of turbid water with turbidity removals of 98.1% and 78% making the final turbidity dropped to 4.5 and 51.7 NTU respectively. Optimum dosage for chitosan is much less than studied coagulants. The overall optimum dose for tests between pH 4 and 9 varied between 0.2 and 4 mg/L. Final pH of finished water at its original pH of 6.4 was 6.7, 6.4, 6.5 and 6.5 for treated water by M. oleifera, J. curcas, chitosan and D. F. foliage, respectively while, the pH of water treated by alum decreased from 6.4 to 5.1. Therefore M. oleifera could be considered as a suitable alternative for the replacement of alum as coagulant in surface water treatment, since M. oleifera is a natural product with less side effects as compared to alum as a chemical agent.

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Influences of Interactive Effects in the Flotation of Magnesite with Sodium Oleate as Collector based on Solution Chemistry

Yin Wanzhong and Yao Jin*

The floatability of magnesite, serpentine and quartz with sodium oleate as collector and the influence of serpentine on the floatability of magnesite and quartz were researched in this study. Crystal chemistry and solution chemistry mechanisms are also discussed. The results showed that serpentines had individual effects on the floatability of magnesite in different fractions and serpentine could suppress the flotation of magnesite while it activates the flotation of quartz. The reasons of this phenomenon are mainly that the ions from the solution of serpentine with relatively high solubility are hydrophilic and easy to reunite with the Mg2+ and O2- ions on the surface of magnesite which led to the increment of hydrophilicity of magnesite and decrement of the chance that sodium oleate could adsorb on the surface of magnesite and therefore depress the floatability of magnesite while the complexation of Mg2+ ions on the surface of quartz could increase the chance of being collected by sodium oleate.

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A PVC- based Crown Ether Membrane Sensor for Cu2+

Dwivedi Mithalesh Kumar1*, Jain Suresh2, Jain Neeraj3 and Bhatnagar Poonam1

A plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based membrane of 1,4,7,10 tetraoxacyclododecane (12- crown-4) exhibits a good response for Cu2+ in a wide concentration range (1.7810-5-1.0010-1 M ) with a super-nernstian slope of 50.0 mv per decade of concentration of Cu2+.The response time of sensor is <30 s and the same can be used in a pH range 3.0 to 6.0. The electrode has been used for a period of 6 months and exhibits good selectivity for Cu2+ over alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions. It has also been possible to use this assembly as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations involving copper ions.

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Mercury-induced changes in growth and oxidative metabolism of Field bean (Dolichos lablab)

D’Souza Myrene R. 1* and Devaraj V. R.2

Effect of mercury on Field bean, Dolichos lablab was evaluated in 10-days old seedlings with 3, 4 and 5 μM HgCl2 over 72 h of exposure. The stress reduced dry and fresh weight, root and shoot length, total chlorophyll and RWC. Antioxidant enzymes such as peroxidase, glutathione reductase and metabolic enzymes like amylase and acid phosphatase were enhanced in leaves. On the other hand, all the enzymes showed a time and concentration-dependent decline in roots, except invertase, amylase, acid phosphatase and peroxidase which were elevated. Another antioxidant enzyme, catalase declined in both leaves and roots. Antioxidants, ascorbate and glutathione increased in leaves. While in roots, ascorbate was elevated and glutathione was decreased. The levels of malondialdehyde showed a close relation to that of H2O2 in both tissues. Levels of proline and total soluble sugars increased in both tissues. The results suggested that primary antioxidative response originates from leaves of Field bean even though roots are involved in the direct uptake of heavy metals. The root tends to accumulate Hg and thus excludes its uptake by leaves.

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Extraction, Characterization and Application as Natural Dyes of extracts from Terminalia catappa leaf and seed pericarp

Chitnis K. S.

Until the middle of last century most of the dyes were derived from plants or animal sources. Later synthetic dyes were developed. But some of the synthetic dyes were found to be carcinogenic and allergenic. Thus natural dyes appeared to be the ideal choice because of their nontoxicity and environmental safety. In the present study dyes were extracted from leaf and seed pericarp of Terminalia catappa and characterized based on parameters like λmax, pH, HPTLC fingerprinting and stability. They were checked for application as natural dyes on cotton. Effect of different mordants on dyeing capacity and color fastness to washing and light was studied. λmax of Terminalia leaf and seed pericarp extract was characteristic of flavonols like gossypetin. HPTLC fingerprinting showed 4 common bands at Rf 0.08(- 0.01), 0.32(0.01), 0.45 and 0.56(-0.01). These can be considered as marker peaks for Terminalia catappa. Leaf dye was color fast to sunlight and washing. Seed pericarp dye was not color fast to sunlight and washing, suggesting requirement of dry cleaning.Yield of dye was economically viable. Thus water soluble extracts from Terminalia leaf and seed pericarp sources can be used as natural dyes in presence of mordants. They are economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

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