Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Comparative in vitro regeneration study of mature and juvenile nodal explants and extraction, isolation, characterization of bio-active constituents from leaves of an endangered medicinal plant Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC.

Srivastava Preeti, Singh Brahma Deo and Tiwari Kavindra Nath

An efficient and reproducible micropropagation system for Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC, an endangered medicinal plant through in vitro culture of nodal explants from one year old branches of field grown mature plants and from 4 week old seedlings has been developed. Nodal explants cultured on growth regulator (GR) free MS medium did not show Auxiliary shoot development. BA (6-benzyl aminopurine) at 4.4 µM induced shoot development from the 100% and 88% of the explants from seedling and mature plant branches respectively; it also produced the highest number of shoots per explants (24.1 and 18.7 shoots from seedling and mature shoot -derived nodal explants respectively). Three subcultures of the nodal explants enable mass multiplication of shoots without the evidence of any decline. The shoots were elongated on 0.58 µM GA3. The highest rooting (96%) and the maximum number of roots (9) per shoot were obtained when elongated shoots were dipped in indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) solution (492.12 µM) for 30 minutes and then cultured on half-strength MS medium. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized and transferred to the field with survival rate of 96%. These plants grew normally in the field without any observable morphological variation.

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Adsorptive removal of arsenic from aqueous solution on PSLW carbon (Prosopis spicigera L. wood): Equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics and home water treatment studies

Jansi Rani M., Murugan M., Subramaniam P. and Subramanian E.

In this study, an activated carbon from a low cost and waste plant, Prosopis spicigera L. wood (PSLW) was used as adsorbent for the removal of As(III) ion in aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was well characterized by Boehm titrations, FTIR, SEM, pHzpc and BET methods. In batch mode the optimum conditions for adsorption were established as a function of pH, initial As(III) concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage and temperature. In a contact time of 120 min at 30 oC and with the adsorbent dose of 2g/L and As(III) initial concentration of 500, 750 and 1000mg/L, the maximum adsorption capacity of PSLW carbon was found to be 64.1, 64.26 and 65.41mg/g respectively. Temperature enhanced the adsorption which followed Langmuir isotherm model. Pore diffusion was a key step in adsorption which was facilitated at higher temperature. Pseudo second order kinetics explained the adsorption rate process that involves complex formation between As(III) species and functional groups in PSLW carbon. As an application, As(III) adsorption was tested with home water filter containing PSLW carbon in clay column. Encouraging results were obtained proving the validity and applicability of PSLW carbon.

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Synthesis and Applications of Heteropolyacid Salt: Zirconium (IV) antimonomolybdate

Sharma H. K., Sharma N. and Sharma S.

The synthesized ion-exchanger (ZrSbMo) is a white coloured compound having 0.61meq./g ion exchange capacity. Ion exchange methodology was used for the synthesis of ZrSbMo. Structural details were worked out using IR and X-ray spectra. The present work is based on the study of effect of temperature on the ion exchange capacity, exchange kinetics with alkaline earth metal ions, exchanging ion concentration and particle size of the exchanger. With the increase in temperature, the ion-exchange capacity decreases but % age weight loss increases. The pH of the exchanger proportionately increases with the addition of the base KOH/NaOH. The effect of the particle size on the rate of exchange of different cations showed that the rate of ion exchange increases with the decrease in the particle size of the exchanger. The exchange rate was also influenced by the change in the concentration of the metal ions. The (F) value i.e. fraction of ion-exchange increases with time(s). The contact time between the salt and the exchanger is one of the key factors in the exchange equilibrium. An optimum contact of three days was maintained to accomplish the ion-exchange process (batch process). Thus, ZrSbMo has been identified as an electro active material and can be used in electro-analytical analysis.

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Copper (II) Complexes of 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimiadazole: Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies

Saravanan P., Selvaraj S. Joseph and Saravanan D.

The chemistry of transition metal complexes with multidentate ligands has attracted particular attention because these metal ions can exhibit several oxidation states. The different oxidation states of these complexes showed a strong role in bioinorganic chemistry and redox enzyme system. This may provide the basis of models for active sites of biological systems or act as catalysts. Copper exhibits considerable biochemical action either as an essential trace metal or as a constituent of various exogenously administered compounds in humans. Current interest in Cu complexes is stemming from their potential use as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antitumor agents, enzyme inhibitors or chemical nucleases. The present work deals with the preparation of mixed ligand copper (II) complexes containing 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole (PBI) as a primary ligand and other secondary ligands like imidazole (Im), methylimidazole (MIm), bipyridine (BP), 1,10-phenthroline (Phen). The transition metal complexes [Cu(PBI)2]Cl2 (A), [Cu(PBI)(Im)]Cl2 (B) [Cu(PBI)(MIm)]Cl2 (C) [Cu(PBI)(BP)]Cl2 (D) and [Cu(PBI)(Phen)]Cl2 (E) were synthesized in good yield and structurally characterized by IR, UV, EPR and elemental analyses. The elemental analysis indicated the formation of mixed complexes in a mole ratio 1:1:1 (Cu: L1: L2) where L1 is (PBI) and L2 is imidazole (Im), methylimidazole (MIm), bipyridine (BP), 1,10- phenthroline (Phen). IR spectra showed that PBI acted as a neutral bidentate coordinated to the Cu (II) via the pyridyl and imidazoyl nitrogen atoms and revealed the presence of Cu-N bonds. The other ligands also acted as neutral bidentate coordinated to the Cu (II). Biological studies were carried out for all the complexes.

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Isolation of 4-Hydroxythiazoline: A Solid Phase Study in Hantzsch Thiazole Reaction

Gupta Girish Kumar , Kaur Kamalneet , Singh Shikha and Kumar Vinod

A simple, efficient and rapid practical procedure for the preparation of various thiazole derivatives 3 has been developed. The present protocol offers the solid phase reaction of various α-bromoketones with a wide variety of thioamides/thioureas in the presence of sodium carbonate at room temperature (within 3-5 minutes). More specifically, it also provides an excellent synthetic route to 2-(pyrazol-1-yl)thiazole derivatives that can not be prepared easily using solvent or acidic conditions mediated Hantzsch thiazole reaction due to the exclusive formation of thiocyanatoketones. Increase in amount of solid catalyst leads to the formation of 4-hydroxythiazole, a cyclic intermediate which is formed in Hantzsch thiazole reaction. In conclusion, reaction can be stopped either at intermediate state or is directed towards thiazole formation by changing the amount of base.

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Synthesis and applications of chromogenic calix[4] resorcinarene derivatives

Bishnoi Anjali and Chawla H. M.

A series of calix[4] resorcinarene substituted with arylazo groups have been synthesized by coupling of calix[4] resorcinarene having different pendants through diazotization and coupling reactions to give tetrasubstituted compounds as major products. Characterization of synthesized chromogenic calix[4] resorcinarenes has been done with the help of spectroscopic methods. UV-visible spectral behavior of the synthesized chromogenic resorcinarenes was determined with the change in solvent and pH. The synthesized compound was investigated for its recognition characteristics towards various amines and ammonium ions and it was found to interact with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB).

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Effect of Nitrate, Sulphate and Fluoride of Wastewater on Groundwater

Bhattacharya Joydeep and Mandal Sailendra Nath

Wastewater in India is caused by unsewered sanitation which is responsible for groundwater pollution. Siliguri, West Bengal, India, is chosen as study area where the sewerage system is absent with high population density and many community drains are partially earthen. The samples were collected from those groundwater sources which were used for drinking purpose. The physical condition of groundwater source and the type of latrine were considered. The groundwater samples were collected, in the year of 2008 and 2012, in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season and tested for 12(twelve) different parameters. Test result was compared with the limits of IS: 10500 - 2012. Analysis was carried out and it was found that in most locations iron content is above the permissible limit and the groundwater source nearer to soak pit or earthen drain or polluted zone of river has more nitrate content supported by high fluoride and sulfate content, than other sources of groundwater.

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Preparation and Characterization of Phosphoric Acid Activated Carbon from Canarium Odontophyllum (Dabai) Nutshell for Methylene Blue Adsorption

Vicinisvarri I., Shanker Kumar S., Nor Aimi A. W., Norain I. and Nurul Izza H.

A new biomass, Canarium Odontophyllum (Dabai) nutshell was discovered as prospective raw material for the preparation of activated carbon (AC). The activation process was performed with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) in different concentrations 20, 40, 60 and 80 wt. % followed by carbonization process at 700 °C for 2 hours in nitrogen gas flow.The effect of H3PO4 concentration on surface properties of AC was studied by using FTIR, BET and SEM. The adsorptive behavior of AC was examined by using methylene blue. Result shows that the AC with apparent BET surface area of 1024 m2/g, Langmuir surface area of 1343 m2/g and total pore volume of 0.48 cm3/g were obtained with 60 wt. % H3PO4 impregnation. Equilibrium data were best described by Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 333.33 mg/g. Dabai nutshell was shown to be a potential starting material for the preparation of AC.

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Role of exogenous proline in improving water and antioxidant status in Hyacinth bean subjected to salt stress

D’souza Myrene R. and Devaraj V. R.

Proline is an important component of salt stress response in plants. In this study the role of proline in facilitating seed germination and in alleviating salt stress in Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus) seedlings was examined. The results showed that 2 mM proline stimulated a better germination percentage in NaCl-treated seeds when compared to untreated seeds. Effect of salinity on Hyacinth bean was also evaluated in 10-day old seedlings with 100–500 mM NaCl over 72 h of exposure. Leaf RWC, endogenous proline, H2O2, reduced glutathione, MDA, ascorbate, total phenols, total soluble sugar contents as well as catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione reductase were determined after 72 h of salt treatment. The results showed that salt stress significantly decreased leaf RWC and CAT activity and increased MDA, glutathione and ascorbate contents and POX and GR activities particularly at 300 mM NaCl. The exogenous application of proline (5 mM) significantly alleviated the NaCl induced growth inhibition as noted by lower MDA and higher RWC, POX and GR activity. The CAT activity was less inhibited in the presence of exogenous proline. Thus, addition of exogenous proline to the hydroponics enhances salt tolerance of Lablab purpureus by improving water status and CAT activity in the plant.

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The influence of geopolymerization on the properties of geopolymers

Vukčević Mira, Krgović Milun, Bošković Ivana, Ivanović Mileta and Zejak Radomir

This paper presents the research concerning the influence of geopolymerization on the geopolymer characteristics. The raw material for the initiation of the geopolymerization process was the mixture of red mud as the by-product in alumina industry and white bauxite. The process of geopolymerization was performed on the temperature of 75°C under certain conditions of external activation between solid alumino-silicate-rich materials and alkaline sodium silicate solution. The ratio of the liquid phase components, concentration of alkaline solutions, solid/liquid ratio in the raw material as well as the percentage of metakaolin as the binder was taken as the constant while the duration and the mode of thermal treatment as well as raw mixture content (ratio red mud/white bauxite ratio) were taken as the parameters of influence. The geopolymerization reaction is performed by creating numerous alumino-silicate oligomer components. Variations in terms of drying regime and thermal treatment generate different pressure strength and porosity of geopolymers with different percentage of white bauxite.

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Simulation Analysis of the Diffusion Process of the Water-Soluble Pollutants in the Soils

Dejian Li, Toshiyuki Mitachi, Masafumi Okawara and Shuren Wang

Water-soluble pollutants of the waste may be caused by rainfall or groundwater flow diffusion in soils. Through the penetration diffusion test and finite element numerical simulations of the water-soluble pollutants in soils under the gravitational field and the centrifugal field conditions, the calculation methods of the parameters such as permeability coefficients were determined. The numerical computational model of the waste disposal site was built and the spread ranges of the pollutants at different times were obtained through the numerical analysis of the diffusion process of the water-soluble pollutants in soils. The control effects of waterproof tarpaulins and sheet piles retaining strata were analyzed and this method has proved effective by practice.

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Development of Distribution Coefficients for Extracted Metals from Environmental Samples in Aqueous Acidic Media

Williams J. R. and Pillay A. E.

The aim of this study was to develop distribution coefficients (Kd) for some metals extracted from certified soil and plant samples stored previously under steady state conditions. The nine metals investigated were Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. The relevant samples were subjected to standard documented digestion procedures in aqueous acidic media. The experimentally-obtained (Kd) values demonstrated mostly the semi-quantitative nature of the work. An exception was the quantitative extraction of Pb from the certified plant material. The Kd values could be applied in general to analytical data in order to estimate total metal concentrations in the samples of interest. It was found that the Kd values varied from 24 L/kg to 5.3 × 102 L/kg indicating that the metals were extracted at different levels depending on the metal of interest, the type of sample and the digestion method. The repeatability and accuracy of the methodology produced RSDs of less than 2% and relative errors of less than 3% respectively. Quantitation was achieved by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy.

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Environmentally Benign Process for Removal of Sulfur from Liquid Fuel using Imidazolium based Ionic Liquids

Dharaskar Swapnil, Wasewar Kailas, Varma Mahesh, Shende Diwakar and Chang Kyoo Yoo

A new class of green solvent, known as ionic liquids, has recently been the subject of intensive research on the extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels because of the limitation of the traditional hydrode- sulfurization method in catalytically removing thiophenic sulfur compounds. The aim of study is to investigate the possible application of ionic liquids as green solvent because of their unique physical and chemical properties. In this work, four imidazolium ionic liquids, such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM] Cl, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [BMIM] Br, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM] BF4 and 1-butyl-3-methy- limidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM]PF6 were commercially purchased and employed as energy efficient extractant for the desulfurization of liquid fuel. The extractive capabilities of these ILs in removing thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene and 3-methylthiophene from model liquid fuel were investigated. The results of this work can provide meaningful insights in the understanding of the use of imidazoled ILs as green solvent for deep desulfurization of liquid fuels as it can be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency.

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Distribution and fate of Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in water and sediment of Cameron Highlands Catchment, Malaysia

Saadati Naghmeh, Md Pauzi Abdullah and Zakaria Zuriati

Concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane were determined in Cameron Highlands Catchment, Malaysia. A total of 96 surface water and sediment samples at eight sites were collected along the rivers in dry and wet seasons of 2011. Concentrations of total HCHs in surface water and sediment ranged from “not detect” to 25.029 ng/L and from 0.002 to 59.124 ng/g dry weight respectively. However, those in the Bertam River were approximately higher than Telom River. The spatial distribution of HCHs revealed the obvious historical usage and new inputs of these pesticides. Among alpha, beta, gamma and delta isomers, gamma was the most dominant compound in the sediment and water as well. Furthermore, results reflect different contamination patterns among sampling seasons. Hardly, it can find a good correlation between the concentration of HCHs in sediment and water samples. The results provide important information on the current contamination status in the one of key aquaculture area in Malaysia and it emphasizes the importance of cease using persistent agrochemicals such as lindane.

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