Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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The Spread of 137Cs in Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Ignalina NPP and other Lithuanian Regions

Jefanova O.*, Marciulioniene E. D. and Luksiene B.

The aim of the study is to evaluate the spread of 137Cs in the terrestrial ecosystems of the investigated regions [Ignalina NPP (INPP) region and other Lithuanian regions (Varena, Plunge, Ignalina)]. Moss and soil were used as the indicators. The 137Cs spread in forest ecotopes was unequal in the INPP region and other regions of Lithuania due to radionuclide coming from different sources. 137Cs specific activity is continuously decreasing in moss and soil in those Lithuanian regions which were polluted during the Chernobyl accident although in the INPP region it is known to fluctuate in the similar range, especially before the unit one was decommissioned. However, the correlation of the 137Cs specific activity between soil and moss in different locations and years has not been observed. It was observed between the soil and moss which grew in the forest ecotopes in the INPP region in the same year. The moss from the forest ecotopes (Hylocomium splendens) most evidently shows the 137Cs spread in the terrestrial ecosystem and it is quite possible to assess the soil contamination level.

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The use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for interactions between food and/or the food additives and the packaging materials

Enache (Bontos) A. I.* and Vaireanu D. I.

This paper attempts to present a possible use of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to investigate the presence or absence of some interactions between food and/or the food additives with the packaging materials. Although the initial scope was to qualitatively indicate the presence of these interactions, one has gone further by proposing a relative interaction index RInt, taken as a relative value of the polarization resistance supplied from electrochemical impedance spectrograms with reference to the initial point in time and by doing so one has now also a quantitative index for quantifying the said interactions. The experiments conducted on two different samples and evaluated within six month time interval showed that this method yields good results.

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Exploration of wild yeast strains for thermotolerance and ethanol production

Ganesan Sasikala* and Nellaiappan Olaganathan Gopal

Ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosics necessitate high temperature for better saccharification and to increase the fermentation efficiency which is feasible by employing efficient thermotolerant yeast strain. In view of this, a total of 55 yeast strains were isolated from 26 samples collected from different locations of sugar distilleries and fruit processing industries. Among them, 22 strains TY1 to TY22 were found to exhibit thermotolerance at 40C. The strains TY11, TY16, TY18 and TY20 exhibit tolerance both at 45C and 50C. Among the 4 strains, TY11 and TY16 exhibited maximum growth at 45C and 50C. Fermentation was carried out for all the 22 thermotolerant yeast strains in medium containing 20% (w/v) glucose at 282 and 452C and ethanol production was measured after 72 h of incubation. The screened strains produced ethanol in the range of 0.293 to 0.508 gg-1 with fermentation efficiencies of 57.40% to 99.47% and productivity of 0.625 to 1.058 g l -1 h-1. TY11 and TY16 produced relatively high ethanol concentrations i.e. 0.464 and 0.473 gg-1 at 282 and 0.503 and 0.508 gg-1at 452C after 72 h respectively. The thermotolerant ability of yeast strains were confirmed by trehalose accumulation and the presence of heat shock proteins. The two best thermotolerant yeast strains TY11 and TY16 were identified by 18S rRNA partial gene sequencing and the sequences were phylogenetically analyzed and identified as Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus respectively. The 18s rRNA partial sequences were submitted to NCBI GenBank and deposited under the accession no. KC905770 and KC905771 respectively. The two yeast strains obtained in this study can be considered for high temperature industrial fermentation processes.

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Application of Ecological Compensation to study Environmental Impact of Transportation Infrastructure

Hsi-Chi Yang* and Hua-Hsun Yang

This research has applied ecological compensation to study the environmental impact of transportation infrastructure construction. Ecological compensation is based on the three mechanisms, "Avoidance", "Mitigation" and "Compensation", to reduce the impact of infrastructure construction on the ecological environment. This research first, through literature review, formulates an initial evaluation framework for transportation infrastructure construction. Then, the Fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) is used to establish the final evaluation framework which has four major issues with a total of 16 factors. Thereafter, the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchical process (FAHP) is used to determine the weighted value for each factor in order to establish an ecological compensation assessment table. The obtained scores presented in the table can demonstrate the seriousness of the ecological damage caused by the transportation construction. Finally, through expert interviews and using the Delphi method, the criteria to determine the proper ecological compensation mechanism are established. The table and criteria can help a planner assess the feasibility of a transportation infrastructure construction before doing the environmental impact assessment. In this paper, two transportation construction study cases are presented using the established table and criteria.

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Anticancer Evaluation of some of the novel Iminoflavones

Jayashree B. S.*, KawadeShishir and Venkatachalam H.

Flavonoids recovered from plant extracts have been well known to exhibit wide variety of biological activities and it is worth mentioning their antiproliferative effects on various cancer cell lines. To support this, several synthetic flavonoids are reported for their antioxidant activity and anticancer activity. Based on our earlier study, we attempted to modify the flavones and chalcones to their corresponding thio and imino compound by isosterically replacing the oxygen of the carbonyl functional group with sulphur atom. The newly synthesized test compounds were screened for in vitro antioxidant and anticancer activities.

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Preparation of Polyamine Wheat Straw Cellulose for Adsorption of Chromium (VI) and Adsorption Isotherm Study

Daiqi Li, Jianqiang Li* and Qingshan Pan*

Wheat Straw Cellulose (WSC) modified by diethylenetriamine was investigated as an adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution. The preparing parameters on preparation of Polyamine Wheat Straw Cellulose (PWSC) were optimized. The effects of pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial concentration on the Cr(VI) removal process were studied by using batch methods. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) onto PWSC was found to be 13.51mg/g and the removal percentage was more than 90%. The adsorption isotherms were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results showed that the adsorption process was well described by Langmuir isotherm model with correlation coefficients (R) of 0.9971 for Cr(VI) adsorption.

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Study on Properties of Heavy metal in Coal from Seam K1, K2 and K3 of Songzao Coal Mine in Chongqing

Xu Guojing , Li Dongwei, Guo Shengli, Peng Qiankun and Jiao Binquan*

The average consumption of coal in Chongqing is 60 million tons every year and it would increase in the next decade steadily. 1/3 of coal consumed in Chongqing is from Songzao coal mine. By taking the coal samples from seam K1, K2 and K3 of Songzao coal mine in Chongqing as the research objects, the total amount of heavy metal was studied. Among Cu, Zn, Cd, As and Pb, Cu is the element whose content is the highest and the content of Cd is the least, less then 3 mg/kg. Besides, there is an obvious trend that the content of these five kinds of heavy metal decreases in turn from seam K1 to seam K3. The content of Cu in coal from seam K1 reaches 152.25mg/kg and that of Cd in coal from seam K3 is as low as 1.32 mg/kg. By using the X-Ray diffraction instrument, the major mineral phases and different forms of heavy metal in coal from seam K1, K2 and K3 of Songzao coal mine were discussed through XRD patterns with the help of MDI Jade 5.0. The coal samples from seam K1, K2 and K3 all contain several kinds of major mineral phases including Quartz, Kaolinite, Pyrite, Anatase and so on. Heavy metal in coal samples from different seams exists in different forms. In coal samples from seam K1 and K3, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and As are all in the forms of compound. In coal from seam K2, Cu, Zn and Cd exist in the forms of simple substance partly.

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Fabrication of Lys-PVA-Fe3O4 modified electrode for the electrochemical determination of uric acid

Nanditha A., Manokaran J. and Balasubramanian N.*

This study discusses the fabrication of Lys-PVA-Fe3O4 coated electrode for the electrochemical detection of uric acid (UA). L-Lysine was adsorbed on the surface of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The presence of PVA and Lysine on the surface of Fe3O4 was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The modified electrode was found to have higher affinity towards uric acid. Effect of solution pH towards the oxidation of UA was studied. The effect of scan rate towards uric acid oxidation current was investigated and the active surface area of the Lys-PVA-Fe3O4 modified electrode was determined to be 1.0761 nmol/cm2. The modified electrode could perform well in the concentration ranging from 20×10-6 M - 0.2×10-3 M. The sensitivity and detection limit were calculated to be 7.13 µA/mM and 2.04 µM respectively using Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV). The sensitivity and detection limit were calculated to be 7.7 µA/mM and 2.19 µM respectively using Amperometry. Effect of common interferents such as Ascorbic acid (AA), Dopamine (DA) and Tyrosine (Tyr) were studied. Simultaneous detection of UA and Tyr at Lys-PVA-Fe3O4 modified electrode was also successfully studied.

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Study of impact of tannery effluent on river water quality using Vigna radiata L. bioassay

Singh Vinay Kumar*, Ali Zulfiqar and Raj Abhay

Rapid industrialization leads to high discharge of industrial effluent which may pollute river ecosystem. In present study, an investigation has been made to ascertain the effect of tannery effluents (treated) on quality of Ganga river water near Jajmau area at Kanpur city. The effluents were mixed in Ganga river water sample at concentration of 5%, 15%, 25%, 50%, 75% v/v and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and seed germination test in laboratory condition. The results of the study indicate that incorporation of tanneries effluents makes highly adverse effect on quality of Ganga river water. The effects of various concentrations (5, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100% v/v) of tannery effluent (TE) were tested on seed germination of green gram (Vigna radiata L.).The percentage of seed germination, seedling growth and fresh weight was measured. The above parameters gradually increased up to 5% only and then they decreased gradually with increase of the effluent concentration. The lower concentration, 5% of tannery effluent proved more beneficial than other concentration. At present Ganga water is fit for irrigation as far as the seed germination is concerned but if effluent concentration in river water increases above 5% from now the irrigated crop must be affected.

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Study on the sorption kinetics and thermodynamics of Eu(III) onto Ca-bentonite by linear and nonlinear method

Yu T.*, Geng Y. X. and Zhang S. W.

Ca-bentonite was prepared as an adsorbent and kinetic and thermodynamic study of Eu(III) sorption on Ca-bentonite was investigated under ambient conditions using batch technique. Linear and nonlinear regression methods were applied on the experimental data to select the optimum sorption isotherm. The results showed that sorption of Eu(III) on Ca-bentonite can be represented by a pseudo-second-order rate equation and the nonlinear pseudo-second-order kinetic expression could fit the kinetics better compared to the linear forms. The nonlinear method is a better way to describe the sorption isotherm than the linear method and thus it should be primarily adopted to obtain the sorption isotherm parameters. Freundlich isotherm model is the best-fit model to the experimental data for the sorption of Eu(III) on Ca-bentonite. Nonlinear method was found to be the more appropriate method to determine kinetic and thermodynamic parameters.

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Microwave assisted synthesis of some Heterocyclic Schiff’s base Metal Complexes of First Transition Series

Pal R., Kumar V.* and Gupta A. K.

A series of some Schiff base complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) with a tetradentate Schiff’s base N,N-bis(1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)ethylidene)malonohydrazide (3) has been synthesized under microwave conditions. The process is economical, easy, environment friendly and provides better yields of metal complexes in a shorter period of time. All the synthesized metal complexes and ligand were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, UV-visible, 1H and 13C NMR, IR and mass spectral data.

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Study on chelation of uranium with benzohydroxamic acid by spectrophotometry

Agrawal Sonalika, Khan Fahmida1* and Ganesh S.

A spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of uranium in aqueous medium with benzohydroxamic acid (BHA). In this method, uranium in hexavalent state forms a yellowish orange coloured chelate with BHA (C6H5CONHOH). U(VI)-BHA chelate shows maximum absorption at 381 nm at pH 6.2 and complex is stable for more than 24 hours. The stoichiometry of the coloured species is found to be 1:6. A calibration graph was made for the concentration range of uranium from 40-450 mg/L. The molar absorption coefficient at 381.5 nm, detection limit and Sendell’s sensitivity are 537 L., 40 mg/L and 0.41 µg/cm2 respectively. The relative standard deviation was less than 2% and correlation coefficient was 0.998. The results obtained by the developed procedure are in good agreement with those obtained by the standard procedure. In these studies, effect of reagent-metal ratio, pH and metal- chelate stabilities was investigated. The described method is simple, accurate and applicable for analytical control purpose.

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Extraction and Characterization of Cellulose from Pandan Leaves (Pandanusamaryllifolius Roxb.)

Yahya Noor Yahida, Ngadi Norzita and Muhamad Ida Idayu

Cellulose was extracted from Pandan leaves (Pandanusamaryllifolius Roxb.) by carrying out alkali treatment and bleaching. The determination of chemical composition covers the percentage of lignin, hemicellulose and α-cellulose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the morphology of the extracted cellulose. Structural analysis of extracted cellulose obtained was carried out by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The thermal stability of Pandan leaves and extracted cellulose was investigated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The results indicated that the lignin and hemicellulose were removed extensively after the treatment resulting in 86% extraction of cellulose with increased thermal stability.

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