Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Composition of Bacterial Communities associated with Waste Percolates as revealed by 454-Pyrosequencing

Wang Zhonghua, Yang Jianqiang, Zhang dijun, Zhou Jun, Zhang Chundan, Su Xiurong and Li Taiwu

Waste percolates typically entering marine environments often contain a large concentration of pollutants and a diversity of bacteria which may be disease-causing, both of which may have deleterious effects on marine ecosystems. In this study, 454- pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the composition of bacterial 16S rRNA gene assemblages associated with percolating wastewater over an annual cycle. The diversity of bacterial communities was high in all samples collected over the course of the study, indicating that the species diversity was also likely to be high. Sequences affiliated with Proteobacteria were dominant in wastewaters, with Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes comprising a smaller fraction of the total bacterial communities. In March, May and August the percentage of sequences affiliated Proteobacteria was nearly constant, ranging from 47%, to 50% of the total while in October, the percentage increased to 66% of the total sequences. While Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in the 5 samples collected over the seasonal cycle, variations in the classes of Proteobacteria were evident over the course of the study. In March, sequences affiliated with ε-proteobacteria were dominant (71.1% of total) while in other months the dominant class of Proteobacteria was γ-proteobacteria (54.0-72.3% of total). The similar composition of microbial communities at higher taxonomic ranks and slight variations observed in community composition at lower taxonomic ranks suggests that the overarching mechanism is the same. The recovery of sequences affiliated with potentially pathogenic bacterial strains suggests that the discharge of wastewaters may negatively impact marine ecosystems.

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Water Quality Analysis of Two Surface Water Resources in Thiruvananthapuram, India

Dhanalekshmy T. G., Rajani V. and Meera Bhaskar

Urbanization, increased industrial activities, intensive farming and over use of fertilizers in agricultural productions, discharge of untreated waste water and sewage outlets are responsible for polluting the water resources. Surface water suppliers include rivers, lakes, ponds and streams and this can be used as cheapest way of water supply to small urban community since rivers and lakes can supply a large, regular volume of water. All 44 rivers in Kerala are highly polluted due to inflow of untreated domestic, industrial wastes and agriculture runoff. The present work is aimed to study the physicochemical, microbial and biological parameters of the surface water samples collected from the two main water resources in Thiruvananthapuram city. Month-wise and site-wise sample analysis showed significant differences in the various physico-chemical and microbial parameters. Phytoplankton and Zooplankton diversity seen during the period of study also served as bioindicator for understanding the water quality. Physico-chemical, microbial profile and plankton diversity point out clearly the polluted nature of these water bodies. The hue and cry towards scarcity of water which we will be forced to face in the very near future will form an additional blow to us if these natural fresh water resources are not conserved. Hence an immediate need exists to develop effective plans to maintain, manage and restore these natural fresh water bodies which may otherwise lead to irreversible loss of water quality.

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Ecofriendly Decolorization and degradation of Sulfonated triphenylmethane dye-Aniline blue using Citrobacter freundii BR

Busi Siddhardha, Bibhuti Ranjan, Jobina Rajkumari and Sukumar Karuganti

A Sulfonated triphenylmethane dye-Aniline blue degrading bacteria, Citrobacter freundii BR was isolated from sewage treatment plant, Pondicherry University. The bacteria was identified using microscopic observation, biochemical tests and 16s rRNA gene sequencing. Further its ability to decolorize and degrade the aniline blue was studied. C. freundii is able to decolorize 500 mg/l of aniline blue, aerobically with a percentage of 87.77±3.08 in 24 h of incubation. Concentration and time dependent decolorization of the dye were reported where it was noticed that with increase in the concentration of dye, percentage of dye decolorization decreased. The decolorized/degraded product was analyzed by UV-Visible spectral scan and GC-MS. Hydrocinnamic acid and other metabolites were identified in the GC-MS analysis. The toxicity of the degraded extract (1000 ppm) was tested on zebra fish and found to be non toxic. The present study is useful in the future application of C. freundii in the degradation/ bioremediation of aniline blue contaminated environments aerobically.

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Shear stability and viscosity index improver properties of dodecyl acrylate and its copolymer with styrene and 1-decene

Ghosh P. and Talukdar S.

The degradation stability towards mechanical shearing (shear stability) and the viscosity index of homo polymer of dodecyl acrylate and its copolymer with styrene and 1-decene at different level of concentrations in lube oil have been investigated and compared. Copolymers showed better performance over the homo polymer.

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Characteristic of Thin Palladium Membrane on Al2O3 and YSZ Supports for Hydrogen Separation prepared by Electroless Plating Technique

Hemra K. and Atong D.

Thin palladium membrane layer was prepared on ceramics support in order to increase the mechanical strength, thermal stability and reduce membrane thickness in order to improve hydrogen flux and permeation. The tubular Al2O3 and YSZ were prepared by extrusion method and used as support for palladium membrane preparation. The sintering temperature of 1200 – 1500 C for Al2O3 and YSZ resulted in approximately 40 – 50 % of porosity and 0.05 – 0.3 m of mean pore size. The porous tubes were coated by palladium film via electroless plating technique. The thickness of palladium films on YSZ and Al2O3 tubes were estimated to be 7.5 and 8.0 m respectively. The morphology of contact area showed that the palladium film penetrated into the Al2O3 that caused good adhesion between film and support. The permeation was examined through single gas testing of hydrogen and nitrogen. The hydrogen flux was mainly increased with the increase of pressure difference. The hydrogen permeation of these membranes was increased from 1.6 to 3.4 x 10-6 mol.m-2.s-1.Pa-1 and the separation factor was 50 – 250 over the temperature ranging from 400 to 600 C.

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Effect of Substituent on Rate of Oxidation of Phenoxy Acetic Acid Hydrazides by Vanadium (V)

Pore Sanjay Vishnu

The reactions between vanadium (V) and phenoxy acetic acid hydrazide (PAAH), o-chloro phenoxy acetic acid hydrazide (o-Cl-PAAH) and p-chloro phenoxy acetic acid hydrazide (p-Cl-PAAH) were studied in sulphuric acid medium under pseudo first order condition. The formation of complex between the reactants decomposes in the subsequent step to give products. The reaction proceeds by one electron transfer with intervention of free radical. Increase in hydrazide concentration decreases the specific rate. Increase in acid concentration increases the reaction rate and decreases with decrease in dielectric constant. The effect of temperature was studied between 25 to 55 oC. The activation parameters were determined and the values support the proposed mechanism as evidenced by considerable decrease in entropy of activation.(-ΔS # = 155.98, 127.21 and 145.53 J K-1 mol-1 respective for PAAH, o-Cl-PAAH and p-Cl-PAAH respectively.)

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Characterization of amylase producing Bacillus megaterium from the gut microbiota of Silkworm Bombyx mori

Vimalanathan Arun Prasanna, Nagarajan Kayalvizhi, Neelamegam Rameshkumar, Thangaiyan Suganya and Muthukalingan Krishnan

The silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera Bombycidae) is an oligophagous insect that mainly feeds on mulberry leaves, the gut of the silkworm, B. mori contains an interesting diversity of microorganisms not usually found elsewhere. These microorganisms produce diversity of enzymes to digest the starch compounds, probably in cooperation with endogenous enzymes. In the present study microorganisms were isolated from the gut of silkworm Bombyx mori and were plated on starch agar plate for amylase activity. A total number of 36 strain were isolated and characterized for amylase activity. Upon screening, one isolate was selected on the basis of maximum hydrolysis for further studies. It was identified based on its phenotypes, biochemical test and 16S rRNA gene sequence as Bacillus megaterium and named strain A. The optimal activity temperature of isolated amylase was 40°C and the activity decreased dramatically at temperatures above 42°C. Amylase activity occurred at pH 6.0-9.5 with a maximum at pH 8.0. Starch degradation by amylase was analyzed through HPLC and FTIR analysis. The results from the study suggest that amylase from Bacillus megaterium may be suitable in liquefaction of starch in high temperature and alkaline condition in detergent, textile, food and other industrial applications.

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Carbon Dioxide Recycling for Fuel Production by UV-VIS Photochemistry

Tostón Susana, Camarillo Rafael, Martínez Fabiola, Jiménez Carlos and Rincón Jesusa

Different advanced TiO2-based catalysts have been synthesized by means of a thermohydrolysis process in supercritical CO2. Different combinations of two titania precursors, titanium tetraisopropoxide -TTIP- and diisopropoxititanium bis(acetylacetonate)-DIPBAT- and two hydrolytic agents, isopropyl alcohol and ethanol have been assayed. The influence of metal doping with copper has also been assessed. The catalysts characteristics have been investigated by different traditional techniques such as UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, XRD, particle size and particle size distribution and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. It has been found that synthetic catalysts show a broader UV-VIS adsorption spectrum than commercial TiO2 (Degussa P-25), particularly the DIPBAT-ethanol-copper (2% wt.) combination. This characteristic together with the high crystallinity and the abundance of the anatase phase in the materials generated allow predicting a good catalyst performance in photocatalytic reactions. To confirm this point, the synthesized particles were used as photocatalysts in the CO2 reduction with water vapour under UV-VIS irradiation. Production of different quantities of methane and carbon monoxide, together with traces of ethane, propylene and propane, was observed. The CH4 and CO production concentrations by TTIP-isopropyl alcohol exhibited a 50 % enhancement compared with commercial TiO2.

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Phenolic resins; Effective materials for solid phase separation of metal ions

Acharya S. and Samal S.

Mineral processing, metal finishing, beverage, pharmaceutical, paper and fertilizer industries produce large amount of waste effluents containing chromium, zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, cobalt, arsenic, uranium, vanadium and other harmful metal ions which are the main contaminants to the ground as well as the sea water. Metal ions are non-biodegradable in nature and their intake at certain level is toxic for many biological systems. Recently this is an important debate of particular interest for the state of Odisha given the large scale mining and mineral processing industries that have come up and are likely to be set up in the future. While much of the industrial growth is unavoidable, appropriate preventive and remedial measures must be taken to avoid the most harmful consequences of such industrial activities. The increasing stringent environmental regulations and enforcement of discharge limits require effective decontamination and purification methods. This paper presents one such technology that has much potential for remediation of polluted water using solid phase extraction technique.

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Application of Dimensional Parameters and Volumetric Properties in Modeling of DNA Binding Affinity

Thakur Mamta, Thakur Suprajnya, Malviya Neelu, Kasera Priyadarshini, Shabadra Ranu and Thakur Abhilash

Present study aims to understand the application of 3 dimensional parameters in modeling of drug receptor interaction in reference to phenyl acridine derivatives and also efforts have been made to understand the role of volumetric properties in modeling of DNA binding affinity for the set of 21 phenyl acridine derivatives. To perform the same, various structural, topological, physicochemical, quantum, electrostatic and dimensional parameters are tested. Amongst those parameters, it is observed that the parameters responsible for refractive and volumetric properties of the molecule are playing the dominating role over the other parameters in characterizing the DNA binding affinity. Further analysis with quantum, electrostatic and dimensional parameters explore the application of electrostatic and dimensional parameters in modeling of DNA binding affinity with significant regression value.

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Carbon released to the Atmosphere from Open Burning of Agricultural Biomass

Kanokkanjana K. and Garivait S.

Burning of biomass released gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. This study aims to estimate burnt biomass, amount of carbon returned and released through open burning and potential of global warming. The ground biomass and the carbon analysis were assessed by ground based experiments. Average burnt residues were 516±128, 479±44 and 1,007±233 g/m2 rice residues, corn residues and sugarcane leaves respectively. Burning of crop residues released carbon into the atmosphere for more than 95% of carbon in burnt biomass. Possibility of carbon that could be back to the ground was few percent by ash and around 86% by CO2. Net carbon loss to the atmosphere was 10%, 25.98±10.47 gC/m2at each crop cycle. In general, carbon content of agricultural residues is in the same range among crops so the net carbon loss can be applied with other crops.

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Advance approach on environmental assessment and monitoring

Giri Nandagopal M. S., Rahul Antony, Rangabhashiyam S. and Selvaraju N.

Globalisation and industrialisation have led to tremendous expulsion of wide range of pollutants. These pollutants result in causing high level of health issues like chronic, acute and sometimes lethal. Monitoring and assessment of these pollutants is pertinent for the proper sequestration. The present equipments for environmental monitoring have the problems associated with sample handling, complex morphology and system portability. This has lead to an advanced level of research like microfluidics, integrates various assay reaction procedures and monitoring techniques in a palm. Microfluidics offers numerous advantages like high mass transfer coefficient, better reaction rate, low reactant utility, less wastage of chemicals, portability etc. With these significant properties, microfluidic devices are best suited for environmental analyses.

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