Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Teratogenic and Developmental toxicity of Combination Pesticide to Danio rerio Embryo-Larval stages

Rajini A and Revathy K.

Fish embryo toxicity test is used as an alternative to evaluate the risk and hazard of pesticide. The objective of this work is to evaluate the teratogenicity and developmental toxicity of the pesticide on the embryo-larval stage of Danio rerio. Embryos were exposed to concentrations of 0.0000134, 0.000134, 0.00134, 0.0134, 0.134, 1.34 and 13.4 µg/L of Chlorpyrifos 50% + Cypermethrin 5% EC. Lethal and apical observations were performed on each tested embryo. Embryos after exposure were observed for coagulation, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail and lack of heartbeat. The 48 hour LC50 value was 0.017 μg/L and 96 hour LC50 was 0.007 µg/L. Significant difference of the number of dead eggs between the concentrations was observed. The result reveals that the sub lethal and lethal effects of the zebra fish embryos increased with respect to an increase in the concentration of the combination pesticide. From this study it is concluded that the zebra fish could serve as an ideal model for studying teratogenicity and developmental toxicity of environmental pollutants. Chlorpyrifos and Cypermethrin concentration were analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical method. The limit of detection was 0.001µg/L and limit of quantification was 0.01 µg/L.

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Ammonia Removal from Water with Natural Zeolite Clinoptilolite using the Coagulation/Flocculation vs. Filtration Techniques

Chmielewská Eva

Coagulation/flocculation and ion exchange onto natural zeolite clinoptilolite are reviewed and discussed in this paper based on their pilot or industrial application in former Czechoslovakia. Surface water purification by means of chemical coagulation and flocculation, supported by the powdered natural zeolite, was carried out already in 1984 to save the drinking water reservoir (upper part of Ondava river), settled at that time by about ten thousand inhabitants. Examination of several surface water samples from the Eastern Slovakian reservoirs which were treated with alum coagulation and intensified by a powdered clinoptilolite-rich tuff addition and subsequent flocculation step, was performed in the laboratory. Ammonia removal from tannery wastewater using the clinoptilolite-rich tuff with chemical regeneration and regenerant recovery by air stripping, carried out in pilot measurements for several months in 1987 at the mixed Wastewater Reclamation Facility in Otrokovice - WRFO (Moravia region of former Czechoslovakia) is also discussed and evaluated.

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Bioprospecting of five different bacterial species isolated from fly ash for Exo-Enzyme Production

Rekha V., Santhosh Christopher J., Karthik R. and Umashankar M.

Microbes are interminable throughout the atmosphere. Numerous bacteria had been identified so far but they account only for 2% of the total bacteria present in the atmosphere. Microorganisms survive in contaminated habitat because they are metabolically capable of utilizing its resources and can occupy a suitable niche and contaminants are often potential energy sources for microorganisms. The microbes are the important elements of the soil environment as they participate in the degradation of the organic matter and make the nutrients available to other soil organisms. This favors the formation of soil aggregates and immobilizes the heavy metals and stimulates the activity of soil enzymes. In this present study, fly ash samples were collected from NLC (Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited), Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India and physico-chemical parameters of fly ash were measured by standard protocols. Morphologically five different colonies were isolated and taken for biochemical identification. Based on the results of phenotypic and biochemical tests, the strains were identified as Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida and Staphylococcus aureus. While screening for exo-enzyme production, all the isolates were found to be effective in production of exo-enzymes.

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Metabolism modification and cell death induction in cancer cell lines after the chloroform extract of Kocuria sp. SRS88 treatment

Sureshan Shiyamala Devi and Sahadevan Renganathan

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative effects of Kocuria sp. SRS88 extract on HT 29 and HeLa cancer cell lines. In the present investigation, previously extracted chloroform extract of Kocuria sp. SRS88 isolated from Manora beach, Thanjavur, India was tested for its effect in cancer cell metabolism making cells susceptible to apoptosis. The chloroform extract of Kocuria sp. SRS88 significantly inhibited two cancer cell lines viability by promoting cell apoptosis. Cell apoptosis of cancer cells was made known through activation of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. In particular, Kocuria sp. SRS88 crude extract treated cells showed lower HIF-1α levels as compared to untreated cells. The extract was able to reduce the LDH activity and the amount of lactate released into the extracellular environment. The antiproliferative effect of the crude chloroform extract on two cancer cell lines was evidenced by inducing cell death through an apoptotic mechanism and by altering cancer cell metabolism through HIF-1α regulation. The anticancer property of the extract may be due to the presence of several active anticancer principle compounds in the extract. The chloroform extract of Kocuria sp. SRS88 might be a good candidate for cancer prevention.

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Structural and Antibacterial Properties of ZrO2@ZnO Core-Shell by Sonosynthesis Methods

Aghabeygi Shokufeh

The ZrO2@ZnO core-shell NPs was synthesized by sol gel process from directly mixing nano- ZrO2 into Zinc gel. The precursor sol of zirconium was prepared from an aqueous solution of ZrCl4. The reaction mixture was placed under ultrasonic irradiation probe for 2 hours and then the reaction mixture was stirred for 2 days. The filtrated gel was washed several times and the white powder was calcinated at 300 °C for 3h in furnace. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Photo-luminance spectroscopy (PL) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) have been provided for characterizing NPs. The mean crystallite and particle size of the USZrO2@ZnO andZrO2@ZnO core-shell NPs are determined. The FESEM images indicated the formation of homogeneously distributed spherical USZrO2@ZnO core-shell NPs. The antimicrobial properties of NPs are also investigated by the treated cotton by agar diffusion method against E. coli and S. aureus bacterial pathogens.

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Anti Bacterial Assessment on Bamboo and Tencel Fabrics with Herbal Oil by Micro-Encapsulation Technique

Geethadevi R. and Maheshwari V.

In the present work the three herbal oils - Thyme oil, Cypress oil and Grapefruit oil were screened one by one for their functional properties. These herbal oils were mixed with different combinations to attain the best antimicrobial efficacy by applying on 100% Bamboo, 100% Tencel, 50:50% Bamboo/Tencel fabrics. The best combination and the best fabric were then microencapsulated with three shell materials like Sodium alginate, Acacia Arabica and Moringa oleifera gum to achieve the excellent antimicrobial effect and wash durability. The treated and washed fabrics were evaluated using standard test methods (AATCC 100, AATCC 147 and SEM). From initial screening Bamboo:Tencel blend fabric showed good antibacterial activity when tested using AATCC 100 method. The fabric treated with herbal oil microcapsules synthesized using Moringa oleifera showed good antibacterial durability even after 30 wash cycles. Both qualitative and quantitative antibacterial activity were found to be more significant for the Moringa oleifera shell material finished capsules when compared to other two shell materials. From the present study it was found Moringa oleifera shall be used as shell material to replace sodium alginate and gum arabic for synthesizing herbal oil microcapsules.

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Biochemical changes in tissue cultured banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish during storage in response to different packaging

Mankar Abhay, Singh S.P., Karuna K. and Siddiqui Md Wasim

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of various packages and chemicals on shelf- life and quality of tissue cultured banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish. For this selected fruits were dipped in bavistin (500 ppm) and Ca(NO3)2 1 per cent for five minutes while KMnO4 (1000 ppm) was soaked in paper shaving and fruits were stored under respective treatments. The treatments comprised of ventilated polyethylene bag ( 6 % vent), Ca(NO3)2 1 % + ventilated polyethylene bag (6 % vent), bavistin (500 ppm) + ventilated polyethylene bag (6 % vent), KMnO4 (1000 ppm) + sealed polyethylene bag, newspaper shaving + corrugated fibre box, newspaper shaving + card board box, newspaper shaving (covering) + bamboo basket, banana dried leaves (covering) +bamboo basket, gunny bag (covering) + bamboo basket and control (open bamboo basket). The results indicated that on 18th day of storage maximum PLW (8.44) and maximum TSS (22.32), total sugar (19.99) as well as ascorbic (2.91 mg/ 100g pulp) were obtained in fruits packaged under KMnO4 (1000 ppm) + sealed polythene bag. The lowest spoilage (35.09 %) was recorded with bavistin (500 ppm) + ventilated polyethylene bag followed by KMnO4 (1000) + sealed polythene bag and remaining treatments did not produce any marketable fruits during 18th day of storage whereas fruits stored under Ca(NO3)2 1% + ventilated polyethylene bag and KMnO4 (1000 ppm) + sealed polyethylene bag were found to retain slightly higher level of titratable acidity but failed to touch the level of significance.

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One pot biogenic synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Proteus mirabilis KR13 and its antimicrobial activity

Busi Siddhardha, Rajkumari Jobina and Hnamte Sairengpuii

Extracellular biogenic synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was achieved by culture supernatant of Proteus mirabilis KR13 by bioreduction of 2mM zinc nitrate solution. The synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, High-resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis (HRTEM) and Zetasizer analysis. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by color change and it was further characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (360 nm). Elemental composition of ZnO NPs was analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analyzer. The crystalline nature of the synthesized particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. HRTEM analysis showed the polydispersed, spherical shape zinc oxide nanoparticles in the size range 30-70 nm. The dynamic light scattering experiment with Zetasizer instrument showed an average size of 43.82 nm. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was evaluated by well diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concent- ration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) and potent activity was observed.

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