Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Adsorption of Zn (II) ions from aqueous solution by Ulva fasciata activated carbons

Suresh Jeyakumar R. P.1 and Chandrasekaran V. 2*

The ability of activated carbons prepared from Ulvafasciata sp. and commercially activated carbon (CAC) was studied to remove Zn (II)) from aqueous solutions. The marine green algae Ulva fasciata sp. activated carbons (CCUC, SCUC and SSUC) were produced by using chemical and physical activation processes. Batch adsorption experiments were performed in order to examine the effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial Zn metal ion concentration on the removal process. The kinetic data were fitted by models including pseudo first order and pseudo second order. Adsorption isotherms were studied and compared with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms.

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Removal of phosphate from water by electrocoagulation with aluminum electrode

Li Shuang1,2, Sun Liping 1,2, Qiu Chunsheng1,2 and Lo Shang-Lien2,3*

Eutrophication mainly results from the sewage and wastewater with high content of nitrogen and phosphorus which was discharged into natural water. Although many techniques of phosphorus removal have been developed, the cost effective treatment methods are still being investigated. In this paper, electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was adopted for removal of phosphate in water. Effects of the current density, pH, electrode distance and reaction time were investigated and discussed. Meanwhile, the separation and removal efficiency have been improved by adding appropriate dose of surfactant. The kinetics of electrocoagulation was analyzed and discussed by using experimental data.

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Yield and nutrient build up as influenced by vermicompost application in wheat (Triticum aestivum)-rice (Oryza-sativa) sequence in an acid soil

Singh Kavitha G.*, Colaco Melwin and Misquith Sandra

The nutritional and biochemical properties of dry and sprouted fenugreek seeds have been studied. This includes the estimation of a few biomolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates etc., minerals like calcium, sodium, potassium and anti-nutritional factors like phytic acid and tannins. Proximate analysis was carried out and all parameters were analyzed during different stages of sprouting from day 1 to 5 along with dry seeds. There was an increase in protein (28%) and phospholipids (60%) in 3rd day sprouted samples compared to the dry seeds. A slight increase in calcium was observed while potassium and sodium were almost constant. A 3 fold increase in the concentration of vitamin A and riboflavin and 2 fold increase in thiamine was seen. There was also an increase in antioxidants like proline 85%, carotenoids 83% and total phenols 45% while the amount of carbohydrates and anti-nutritional factors like phytic acid and tannins decreased by half.

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Effect of Germination on the proximate, nutritive and anti-nutrient value of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum)

Sharma R. P.1, Datt Naveen1 and Verma Gayatri2

A field experiment was conducted on wheat-rice sequence at the experimental farm of Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, CSK HPKV, Palampur during 2005-2007. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of twelve treatment combinations comprising three levels of vermicompost (0, 5 and 10 t/ha) and four levels of NPK ( 0, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose) on nutrient uptake, protein content, crop yields and nutrient build up. The experimental soil was acidic in reaction (pH 5.6) and silty clay loam in texture. Application of vermicompost exerted significant positive influence on crop yield, nutrient uptake, protein content and available nutrient status. Grain yield of wheat and rice recorded at 75 % NPK + 10 t VC /ha was at par with the yield obtained at 100% NPK alone which demonstrated saving of chemical fertilizers to the extent of 25%. Application of 100 % NPK plus 10 t VC/ha registered 36, 72, 35, 26, 25, 29 and 19 per cent increase in N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu uptake by wheat respectively over 100 % NPK. In case of rice, the corresponding values were 37, 34, 42, 56, 25 and 27 for N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu uptake. Almost similar trend was observed during second year in both the crops. Similarly, protein content in both the crops was also increased significantly by integrated use of vermicompost@ 10 t/ha + 100 % NPK compared to sole use of 100% NPK, the increase being 10 and 16 per cent in wheat during 2005-06 and 2006-07 respectively and 11 and 14 percent in rice during 2006 and 2007 respectively. Application of vermicompost along with chemical fertilizers improved residual soil fertility significantly in terms of available organic carbon, available NPK and micronutrient cations. It may be concluded that application of vermicompost @ 10 t/ha along with recommended dose of chemical fertilizers is necessary to enhance crop yield, nutrient uptake and protein content and available nutrients in wheat-rice sequence.

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Synthesis and characterization of ruthenium(II) complexes with N-salicylideneglycine Schiff base

Bhaumik Samhita* and Saha Amitabha

Ruthenium(III) acetate trihydrate reacts with N-salicylidene glycine (slglH2) in methanolic solution in (1 : 1.5) molar ratio yielding the complex, [RuII(slglH)Cl(H2O)2] (1) and its reaction with other nitrogen donors pyridine bases results in the complexes of ruthenium(II) of the compositions [RuII(slglH)Cl(H2O)(A)] [A = py (2), 3-pic (3), 4-pic (4)]. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, cyclic voltammetry, electronic and infrared spectral studies. On the basis of spectral evidences, the ligand, N-salicylidene glycine has been shown to act as monobasic tridentate in these complexes

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Formation of silver nanoparticles by reduction of silver(I) with ribose in aqueous and micellar media: A kinetic study

Ewais H. A.*1,3 , Ismail I. M.1,2 and Al-Fahmi K. H.1

The formation and characterization of silver nanoparticles by reduction of silver(I) with ribose are out in aqueous and micellar media at different temperatures. The reaction was carried out under pseudo-first-order condition by taking the [ribose] (>10-fold) the [Ag+]. Rate of formation of silver nanoparticles increases with increasing [OH-]. Cetyltrimethylammoniuom bromide (CTAB) as capping agent is stabilized by the formed silver sol. A mechanism of the reaction between silver ion and ribose was proposed and the rate equation derived from the mechanism was consistent with experimental rate. Enthalpy and entropy of activation were calculated. The particle size of silver sols is characterized by the transmission electron microscopic (TEM), physiochemical and spectro scopic methods.

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Synthesis and Characterization of Platinum Complex of Thiazolidinone of Propylene-Bis-Anil

Upadhyay Vibha1* and Somya Amita2

Platinum complex of thaizolidinone of propylene-bis-anil has been synthesized from thaizolidinone of propylene-bis-anil. The solution of k4PtCl6 thaizolidinone in acetone / methanol was mixed together in 5:2 molar ratio and refluxed. From the concentrated reaction mixture solid was isolated on crystallization. Thaizolidinone has been synthesized from 1,3-propyl-dianil (which is the condensation product of 1,3 diamino propane and o-hydroxy phenyl glyoxal) in dry methanol and thioglycolic acid. The synthesized complex has been characterized by some physico-chemical studies namely I.R. electronic spectral, magnetic conductometric and elemental analysis.

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Effect of Heavy Metals from Tannery Effluent on the Soil and Groundwater using Multivariate Analysis in District Sheikhupura, Pakistan

Ateeq Muhammad1*, Khurshid Rakhshan2, Khan Ikhtiar1 and Shaheen Asma3

The water resources are depleting due to intrusion of industrial pollution. The leather tanning is the major contamination causing industry which uses a lot of water and discharges it with toxic effluents. The penetration of heavy metals from tannery effluent has toxic effect on soil and groundwater. There was strong positive significant correlation between all the heavy metals in three media, tannery effluent, soil and ground water (P < 0.001). The metal to metal association was supported by dendrograms using cluster analysis. The principal component analysis identified the metals source, 48.8% variations in factor 1 have significant loading for sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) of tannery effluent-based process. In soil and groundwater the metals have significant loading in factor 1 representing more than half of the total variation with 51.3 % and 53.6 % respectively which showed that pollutants in soil and water were driven by tannery effluent. The cumulative Eigen values for the three media were also found to be greater than 1 representing significant clustering of related metal. The results showed that heavy metals from tannery process are toting up toxic trace metals in the soil and ground water. The poisonous pollutants from heavy metals turned the fresh resources of ground water into unusable water. The availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use is being alarming and as a result bio-accumulation of heavy metals in edible plants and vegetables causes contamination of the food chain which is a severe threat to human health.

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Influence of Co-substrate and Nitrogen Source on Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate Production from Glycerol

Wattanaphon Hathairath T.1 and Pisutpaisal Nipon1,2,3,4*

Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB), an environmental friendly biodegradable biopolyester, has received much consideration as a substitute for conventional plastics. P3HB can be biologically synthesized from various renewable feedstock including glycerol derived from biodiesel production process. Improvement of P3HB production from glycerol was achieved with the addition of glucose as a co-carbon source and/or optimization of nitrogen source in cultivation media. Optimized condition in 1 L reactor with the 10% initial glycerol and 1.0% glucose and ammonium sulfate of 3.0 g nitrogen/L as nitrogen source yielded P3HB content of 89.0 % and productivity of 0.11 g/L/h after 72 h cultivation. Production of P3HB in 10 L reactor under the optimized condition in 1 L reactor displayed the highest P3HB productivity and content of 83.1% and 0.07 g PHB/L/h respectively. This work illustrated the significant impact of co-carbon source, type and content of nitrogen sources on the biosynthesis of P3HB biopolyester.

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Current trends in energy band gap manipulation of nanocrystalline TiO2 for photocatalytic purposes

Bousiakou Leda G.

This work summarises current techniques in TiO2 energy band gap manipulation for photocatalytic purposes. It presents in a concise manner the ideas of energy band gap formation from the quantum mechanical point of view as well as the principles of n-type semiconductor materials that make them suitable photocatalysts. It then goes on to present in a concise manner the principles and drawbacks of TiO2 photoactivity and how these can be enhanced in order to allow higher efficiencies in the visible spectrum of light as well as reducing effects of electron-hole recombination. Within this frame metal and non-metal doping, use of organic dyes as well as semiconductor layering and noble metal deposition is considered. Finally this work emphasizes future directions in the enhancement of this promising material for applications in environmental engineering.

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Elimination of Copper (II) in Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on a Pillared Clay with Polycations of Aluminum and Iron

Cherifi-Naci H.1,2, Louhab K.1* and Aksas H.1

The objective of our study is the development of clay of the western region of Algeria. The experimental study is the preparation and characterization of the modified clay techniques namely: (FTIR, DRX, FX) and physic-chemical analyzes (CEC, specific surface, swelling test., the acid index). Secondly, it is to achieve the elimination of copper ions trials (II). In our experiments, various parameters were studied: the amount of clay adsorbent, the stirring time, the initial concentration of the copper (II) ions and the pH of the solution. The kinetic study of the adsorption of copper on the modified clay showed that equilibrium is reached after 60 minutes. A high adsorption performance was recorded for the following optimum conditions at the temperature T = 25 ° C and the solid/liquid ratio = 2: initial concentration of ion Cu2+ = 40 mg / l, the amount of adsorbent clay = 800 mg, pH = 6.

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Hydrogeochemical setting of geothermal springs in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Durowoju Olatunde,1* Odiyo John1 and Ekosse Georges-Ivo2

South Africa is endowed with several geothermal springs with Limpopo province having 31% of geothermal springs in the country. The geothermal springs in Limpopo province are widely distributed in three regions - Evangelina, Mphephu, Minwamadi, Moreson, Sagole, Siloam and Tshipise (Soutpansberg region); Warmbath, Libertas, Rhemardo, Die Oog, Vischgat, Bufferlshoek and Loubad (Waterberg region) and Die Eiland, Soutini, Makusti and Rhoda (Drakensberg escarpment). Owing to the geological settings, the geothermal springs in Limpopo Province are ranging from slightly acidic to alkaline having pH values of 6.80 (Soutini) to 8.92 (Siloam) and temperature ranges from 31.6°C (Minwamadi) to 67.5°C (Siloam). The hydrochemical parameters of the geothermal springs were analysed and classified using piper diagram. The piper diagram reveals the water type of the geothermal springs in Limpopo province as NaCl, CaHCO3 and Ca-Na-HCO3; having 66.7% NaCl and 33.3% CaHCO3 and Ca-Na-HCO3. Nitrate, fluoride and heavy metals are of high significance in geothermal springs but this review focused on fluoride and its possible effects. Fluoride concentrations in the geothermal springs in the Limpopo province are high owing to the presence of fluoride bearing minerals. The fluoride concentrations range from 0.18 mg/L (Minwamadi) – 11 mg/L (Warmbath) which implies that they are rich in fluoride aside from Loubad, Minwamadi and Sagole springs for which they fall within the DWAF/WHO recommended value of 1.5 mg/L. The fluoride concentration in Waterberg region is more compared to the other two regions and ranges from 5.39 – 11 mg/L aside from Loubad that has 0.95 mg/L. This review shows that geothermal springs in the same region might not exhibit the same hydrochemical parameters as well as fluoride concentration because of localization of the geothermal processes.

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