Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Eco-friendly Spectrophotometric Method as Alternative for Carbon Disulfide-free Determination of Ethylenethiourea in Surface Water

Domínguez-Rodríguez Verónica I. , Guerrero-Peña Armando , Adams Randy H., Miranda-Cruz Edith , Obrador-Olán J. Jesús, Zavala-Cruz Joel and Vaquera-Huerta Humberto

The development of rapid, efficient, low-cost and waste-free techniques for the determination of carbamate pesticides and their carcinogenic degradation products is an important research goal especially in developing regions. In this study, a novel procedure for an environmentally friendly analytical method is introduced which does not require the use of carbon disulfide solvent or expensive chromatographic equipment. Using only deionized water as a solvent, the determination of the analyte was accomplished from absorption maximum with a UV spectrophotometer. The method was validated for linearity in the range of 0.01-18 mg/l (R2=0.999) with a detection limit of 0.06 mg/l, a quantification limit of 0.1 mg/l and a recovery of 106.4%. There was excellent correlation between expected and observed concentrations (R2=0.999) and no significant difference was found using different equipment brands or analysts (p<0.05). This method achieves the objective of quantification in recommended permissible limits (1 mg/l) showing excellent validation in important variables such as linearity, precision and recovery. In addition, it is economical, fast, non-destructive, does not require costly equipment and avoids the use (and disposal) of very toxic and explosive solvent.

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Anti-tumor study and theoretical calculations of 2-Aminopyridine trifluorotitanium (IV) complex

Shabani Fahmideh, Jamehbozorgi Saeed and Sheykhpoor Mozhgan

A new titanium compound 2-Aminopyridine trifluorotitanium (IV) complex was synthesized and identified. This complex was prepared through the reaction of 2-Amino pyridine and titanium tetrafluoride salt of Ti (IV) in acetonitrle. Identification and characterization of complex was done by elemental analysis and spectroscopy. Theoretical calculations used in studying the structure and spectrum of this combination are made by B3LYP/6-311G method. This new combination was used in biological studies and its anticancer properties against the two types of cancer cells such as k562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia) and Jurkat (human T lymphocyte carcinoma) were revealed.

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Effective and Ecofriendly Nano-Biosorbent for Treatment of Textile wastewater

Radhakrishnan Kannan, Natarajan Aparna and Wilson Richard Thilagaraj

In this study, Artocarpus heterophyllus beads (AHB) were conjugated with iron oxide nanoparticles (INP) and used as new nano adsorbents A. heterophyllus nano beads (AHNB) for the removal of Acid Red dye (ARD) in synthetic and simulated dye house effluent. The supported INP provides more stability, porosity and reusability of the beads. The INP and the AHNB were characterized by TEM, SEM-EDAX and BET-surface area. Using synthetic ARD, effect of controlling parameters such as initial dye concentrations (10–100 mg/L), pH (2–12) and temperature (313–333K) were ascertained under batch technique. The maximum biosorption capacity (qmax) was calculated of about 20.05 (AHNB) and 12.98 mg/g (ANB) respectively according to the Langmuir model. The result of the thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (ΔGº) and the enthalpy (ΔHº) confirms that the reaction is endothermic in nature. The equilibrium kinetics data favour both Pseudo- first- order and intraparticle diffusion. The regeneration studies were performed and found to be effective for a minimum of five cycles. Further, simulated dye house effluents were used to estimate the applications of the adsorbents for effluents treatment and the removal efficiency was found to be 97% and 73% (AHNB/AHB) respectively.

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Synthesis and performance evaluation of maleic anhydride based polymeric additives for Lubricating Oil

Hoque Mainul and Ghosh Pranab

Copolymer of maleic anhydride with 1-decene was synthesized and the prepared copolymer was esterified with different alcohols. The performance of the polymers in different base oils was evaluated as viscosity modifier(VM) also called viscosity index improver and pour point depressant(PPD) by standard ASTM methods. The molecular weight of the polymers was determined by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). It was found that the efficiency of the polymers as a VM increases with increasing the concentration of polymers in base oil and with decreasing polydispersity index (which determines the distribution of molecular mass in a given polymer sample) of the polymer. The efficiency as a pour point depressant increases with decreasing concentration of the prepared polymer in base oil and with the increasing polydispersity index of the polymers.

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Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Extraction of Oil from De-oiled cake of Madhuca indica by newly isolated Microbacterium Sp. KPP-1 Strain

Prajapati Kinjal P., Shilpkar Prateek and Shah Mayur C.

Commercial recovery of oil from Madhuca indica fruits by expeller has its limitations. The left-over cake contains a large amount of oil. Our aim was to recover this left-over oil from de-oiled cake using microorganisms. A total of 16 oil recovering bacteria were isolated from oil-contaminated soil using 1% oil as substrate in mineral salt medium (Composition- g100 mL-1-NH4NO3:1.5, K2HPO4:1.5, KH2PO4:0.5, MgSO4.7H2O:0.2, NaCl: 0.5, Agar: 3, Madhuca indica oil: 1 mL) following serial dilution petri plate method. For screening of highest oil recovering bacterium the same medium was used in which the substrate oil was replaced with Madhuca indica cake (having 15.25% oil). Oil recovery was measured by Soxhlet method. Bacterial isolate showing highest (8.39%) oil recovery was selected and identified as Microbacterium sp. KPP-1 by 16SrRNA technique. Growth and oil recovery by this bacterium from 2% Madhuca indica cake in laboratory conditions using mineral salt medium was optimized for pH, incubation temperature, incubation time, inoculums size and shaking conditions. Microbacterium sp. KPP-1 strain recovers 8.96% oil under optimized fermentation conditions of pH-5.0; incubation temperature-370C; incubation time-48hrs; inoculums size-3% and shaking at100rpm. This rise of 8.96% in oil recovery will certainly increase the economic value of Madhuca indica fruits.

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A study on reaction between chloroformaldehyde and benzoyl peroxide

Mallick Abhijit

The earlier study of the author shows that chloroform reacts with nitric acid to form chloroformaldehyde. The objective of the present study is to investigate the nature of chemical reaction between chloroformaldehyde and benzoyl peroxide. The latter is completely soluble in chloroformaldehyde. Benzoyl peroxide is dissociated into free radicals at high temperature. An experimental study was conducted at high temperature under reflux to investigate the nature of chemical reaction between chloroformaldehyde and benzoyl peroxide. Detailed investigation clearly indicates that chlorine or chloride ion is formed during the chemical reaction between chloroformaldehyde and benzoyl peroxide. After the reaction, the liquid product is allowed to evaporate, leaving behind a light yellowish-red coloured powder like material. NMR study of the powder clearly indicates the presence of -C_6 H_5 group, -CH=O group and -CH-O- group in the material. Further the material responds Tollen’s reagent indicating the presence of aldehyde group (-CHO) in the material. On the basis of experimental studies, a probable mechanism is proposed to explain the reaction between chloroformaldehyde and benzoyl peroxide. The mechanism shows that chlorobenzylformate is formed during the reaction between chloroformaldehyde and benzoyl peroxide.

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Persistence of azoxystrobin in sandy and clay loam soils

Dagar Priyanka, Chauhan Reena, Boora Anil and Kumari Beena

Persistence of azoxystrobin was studied in soils under laboratory conditions in pesticide residue laboratory in CCS HAU, Hisar using gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector. Soil samples were collected on 0 (1 h), 1, 3, 7, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days after treatment with fungicide at recommended and double the recommended dose (150 and 300 g a. i. ha-1) and extracted with acetone. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of azoxystrobin were 0.003 and 0.010 mg kg−1 with percent recovery in the range of 84.40–86.10 and 80.20–82.40% for sandy loam and clay loam soils respectively. The average initial deposits of azoxystrobin in sandy loam soil were 0.248 and 0.336 mg kg-1 at single and double dose respectively, whereas in clay loam soil the average initial deposits were 0.292 and 0.535 mg kg-1. Residues reached below detectable level (BDL) of 0.01mg kg-1 after 45 to 60 days in sandy loam and 60 to 90 days in clay loam soil at single and double dose. The t1/2 of azoxystrobin was 6.08 - 9.34 days in sandy loam soil and 10.00 - 14.49 days in clay loam soil at single and double dose.

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Pyranopyrazoles as a new class of FTO inhibitors: A Docking Study

Gupta Girish Kumar and Kumar Vinod

Obesity is one of the greatest health threats of this century which involves the great risk of co-morbid diseases such as hypertension, type-2 diabetes and dyslipidaemia. In the present study, in-silico docking using pyranopyrazoles (1a-f) as an inhibitor against fat mass and obesity associated protein (FTO) via Molegro Virtual Docker software has been conducted to explore their anti-obesity potential. Drugs such as Orlistat, Sibutramine and Rimonabant were subjected to docking analysis for comparative studies. The results obtained from the study revealed that pyran linked pyrazoles are able to fit into the active site of FTO and thus may represent as potential class of anti-obesity agents to be explored in the near future.

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A Novel Predictor to describe the State of Charge of Lead Acid Batteries used in Conjunction with Photovoltaic Devices

Nenciu Florin and Vaireanu Danut-Ionel

The paper describes a novel predictor which has proved to be very effective in assessing lead-acid batteries state of charge analysis, particularly for those employed as energy storage devices in photovoltaic systems. This approach acquires many advantages especially in powering various autonomous devices with usages in communications, operation and/or emergency systems and pollution monitoring in inaccessible areas. A mono-crystalline silicon photovoltaic panel and a dedicated gel lead-acid battery were used to acquire the necessary experimental data and to test the predictor. It was found that the capacity is highly correlated to this State of Charge Predictor (SCP) and may be successfully used to estimate the remaining battery capacity at any given moment in time.

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UDetermination of antioxidant activities, total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, β carotene and lycopene contents, essential and toxic elements in commercial cornelian cherry marmalades

Karasakal A.

Cornelian cherry fruit have taken great attention for their health benefits in the last years. The purpose of this study is to analyse the antioxidant activities, total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin β-carotene and lycopene contents, essential and toxic elements contents of cornelian cherry marmalades sold in the Turkish markets. Cornelian cherry marmalades were investigated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Ferrous ion-chelating activity, β-carotene and lycopene contents were analyzed. Total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents were measured spectrophotometrically. In addition, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the determination of minor and major elements present in Cornelian cherry marmalades. Prior to ICP-MS measurement, the samples were digested in a wet digestion system. The ICP-MS method was validated and optimized for the determination of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn, Mg, K, B, Ca, Na and P in Cornelian cherry marmalades. Extraction experiments were carried out with methanol and were mixed by magnetic stirrer during 1h.

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