Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Molecular structure of divalent copper ion–humic acid complexes

Abualreish M.J.A., Almsiedeen A.M. and El-eswed B.

A semi-empirical model of Temple-Northeastern-Birmingham (TNB) humic acid based on experimental evidence has been used as a basis for determining the structural characteristics and computed enthalpies and entropies of both anhydrous and hydrated copper ion (Cu2+)-humic acid complexes. Anhydrous and hydrated versions of metal ion-TNB humic acid complexes are used to model the TNB humic acid binding sites. The hydrated metal ion- TNB humic acid complexes with the lowest enthalpies of formation are those with carboxylate groups for Cu2+. Theobtained thermodynamic data of complexation of anhydrous HA with Cu2+ ion indicate that this type of binding is not favored. The values of ∆rH° are highly positive which are not consistent with the experimental values. The entropies of complexes formation for both the anhydrous and hydrated copper ion-humic acid complexes are similar within each type of binding copper ion-humic acid complexes. Calculated standard enthalpies of formation are indicator of the relative strength of metal ion binding for metal ion-humic acid complexes.

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Biochemical Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Artocarpus Heterophyllus lamn. Rags Extract studied in High Fat Diet-Low Dose Streptozotocin induced Experimental type 2 Diabetes in Rats

Suchithra E.R. and Subramanian S.

Diabetes mellitus has become an increasing health problem that constitutes a global epidemic representing one of the most important chronic disease conditions in the world with critically important public health implications. Experimental and clinical reports evidenced that the chronic hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress played an important role in the initiation and progression of type 2 diabetes and its secondary complications. Most of the currently available drugs for the treatment of T2DM possess antioxidant property next to their hypoglycemic efficacy. However, there are several limitations which merit the consideration of new drugs with the potential for greater efficacy or fewer side effects. Hence, search for novel drugs with significant hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties, preferably from plant origin continues. Most of the plants on the earth are known to possess significant therapeutic properties and have been used since ancient times to treat various human ailments effectively. However, less than 30% of the medicinal plants alone have been subjected to scientific validation. One such medicinal plant which lacks scientific scrutiny for its folklore use is Artocarpus heterophyllus lamn. commonly known as jack fruit tree. Jack fruit is the largest tree born fruit in the world consists of large bulbs or arils and each encloses a light brown seed. There may be 100 to 500 arils in each jack fruit. The fruit arils with their seeds are embedded in filament like structures called as “rags” which are actually unfertilized flowers that did not develop into seeds. Rags constitute more than 20% of the total weight of each jack fruit. Jack fruit rags have been traditionally used for the treatment of various human ailments especially diabetes. Toxicity and dosage fixation studies have revealed that the rags extract is non-toxic and oral administration of rags extract at a concentration of 300 mg/kg.b.w./rat/day for 30 days significantly improved the glucose homeostasis in T2DM induced experimental rats. In continuation of the previous study, the present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of A. heterophyllus rags extract in high fat diet and low dose STZ induced experimental type 2 diabetes in rats.

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Influence of CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles in enhancing the overall heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity of water and ethylene glycol based nanofluids

Kumar Nishant and Sonawane Shriram S.

In this paper, the effect of CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles on the thermal conductivity and overall heat transfer coefficient of base fluids like mono ethylene glycol and water was studied. Both the basefluids showed enhancement in effective thermal conductivity and overall heat transfer coefficient. This enhancement was investigated with regard to various factors: concentration of nanoparticles, types of basefluids, sonication time and temperature of fluids. In shell and tube heat exchanger, water based CuO and TiO2 nanofluids with 0.01% to 0.06 % volume fraction has been used as working fluids for different flow rate of nanofluids. The thermal conductivity measurements have been made for different concentration and sonication time. As the concentration of nanoparticles increased, there was a significant enhancement in thermal conductivity and overall heat transfer due to more interaction between particles. It was also observed that there is an improvement in thermal conductivity of base fluid as sonication time increases.

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In vitro and In silico Study of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Rauvolfia Canescens

Helan Chandra J. and Vignesh T.

Plants endowed with wide variety of secondary metabolites to defend themselves from the pathogenic organisms made them the potent antimicrobial agent naturally. The study aims at deriving the essential metabolites from the leaves of Rauvolfia canescens by effective Soxhlet extraction using ethanol as the desired organic solvent. Leaf ethanolic extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis to determine the metabolites qualitatively and antibacterial activity was performed by well diffusion and disc diffusion method for microorganisms namely Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhii and Escherichia coli. In both disc diffusion and well diffusion method, the extract showed effective antibacterial activity exhibiting zone of inhibition. The resulting bactericidal nature determines that there are certain bioactive compounds present. Antioxidant potential of the leaf ethanolic extract was determined using DPPH assay. Using GC-MS study the bioactive compounds were identified from the chromatographic peak. These compounds were subjected for in silico docking analysis with bacterial life cycle receptors using Autodock 4.2 and Cygwin. Obtained results exhibited a negative binding energy which denotes their inhibitory effect over the bacterial life cycle receptors.

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Bio-chemical characterization of chickpea genotypes with special reference to protein

Misra J.P., Yadav Ashwani, Kumar Ashwani, Yadav Renu, Vaishali and Kumar Rajendra

Chickpea is considered as the major source of dietary proteins among the plant species. Protein content was evaluated in cultivated genotypes of Cicer species with a view to investigate possibilities of genetic improvement in seed nutritional quality. Twelve important genotypes of chickpea viz. BG-1058, BG-1053, BG-2024, BG-1092, BGD-112, H-82, ILC-3279, JG-74, ICC-11378, Pusa-212, Pusa-256 and SBD-377 were used as experimental material for protein profiling. Maximum protein content was recorded in BG-1092 followed by ICC-11378 and JG-74 whereas minimum protein content was noticed in Pusa-256. Protein content was also recorded on the basis of seed colour of the chickpea genotypes tentatively assigned to five functional classes viz. Brown, Light Brown, Dark Brown, White and Green. Maximum as well as minimum protein content was recorded in Light Brown group genotype BG-1092 (28.75 %) and Brown Group Pusa-256 (18.89 %) respectively. Protein content in important genotypes of chickpea on the basis of test weight was distinguished in four groups viz. 10.0-20.0, 20.01-30.0, 30.01-40.0 and above 40.01 per cent. Maximum protein content was recorded in the genotype BG-1092 (28.75 %) with 35.34g test weight in 30.01- 40.0 class interval group whereas minimum protein content was noticed in Pusa-256(18.89 %) with 32.79g test weight in 30.01- 40.0 class interval group.

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A Comparative Study of the Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics of the Adsorption of Pb(II) ions onto activated carbon and fly ash from aqueous solution

Olushola Sunday Ayanda, Cecilia O. Akintayo, Ntombizandile L. Mthembu, Farida C.A. Emmanuel and Bhekumusa J. Ximba

The presence of lead (Pb) in the environment represents immense problem to the fauna and flora, hence, activated carbon and fly ash were used as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(II) ions in the present study. The experiment was carried as a function of pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, initial Pb(II) concentration, contact time and stirring speed. The kinetic study showed that both adsorbents fitted well the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Moreover, both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fitted the adsorption of Pb (II)ions onto activated carbon and fly ash. The adsorption of Pb (II)ions onto these adsorbents was endothermic and spontaneous with = 4.92 J/K/mol and =0.26 KJ/mol for activated carbon and =65.49 J/K/mol and = 10.90KJ/mol for fly ash. Moreover, the maximum percentage removal of Pb (II)ions achieved with activated carbon was 96.36% at pH=6 and was around 98.94% at pH=7 for the removal of Pb (II) ions with fly ash.

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