Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Optimization of media for maximal lipid deposition from filamentous fungi using response surface methodology

Madonna Shalma S., Ranjitha J. and Vijayalakshmi S.

In this study, the effect of various physical and chemical parameters on the lipid production from filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger (GenBank: KP001169) was studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). From one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) experiments results, the most significant variables that influenced the high lipid and biomass production were identified and then studied by Plackett- Burman method. Among the 8 variables, it was observed from the pareto chart that glucose, lysine and pH were the most important variables that affect lipid accumulation and biomass production in Aspergillus niger and their significant interactions involved were further investigated by RSM. The optimum concentrations required for high lipid accumulation and biomass production were glucose 125 g/l and lysine 0.5% at pH 6. Higher coefficient of determination of 0.9910 and 0.9535 for lipid accumulation and biomass production respectively by RSM indicate higher modelling ability of this methodology in medium optimization.

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Genome Template Stability Variation in Soybean Seedlings irrigated with groundwater through ISSR Marker

Hala M. Abdelmigid and Sanaa M.F. Gad El Rab

Several PCR based markers were developed and applied to assess the genetic variation among populations and genetic resources. In this study, an attempt has been made to identify the effect of groundwater through the application of ISSR as molecular marker to detect genome template stability variation in soybean plants irrigated with groundwater samples. DNA polymorphism/damage became evident as the presence and/or absence of DNA fragments in the test samples. The ISSR patterns showed remarkable variations between groundwater irrigated seedlings and control with apparent changes in the number and size of amplified DNA fragments. Changes in the ISSR patterns are expressed as decreases in genome template stability (GTS), a qualitative measure reflecting the change in the number of ISSR profiles generated by groundwater treatment, in relation to profiles obtained from the non-treated seedlings. The results indicated the general tendency of decrease in GTS values with exposure to groundwater. Consequently, ISSR profile analysis in conjunction with the evaluation of GTS % would prove a powerful eco-toxicological tool. Thus, DNA polymorphisms detected using ISSR analysis could be used as an investigation tool for environmental toxicology and as a useful biomarker assay that can be used as an early warning system. As a source for domestic and irrigation water, a special attention should be paid to the potential of groundwater contamination. Continuous assessment of well water quality on routine basis is imperative to reduce the deterioration of well water quality and eliminate health problems.

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Effect of silicate application on the release pattern of nitrogen from Typic Ustochrepts soils in India by using Alkaline KMnO4 Extraction

Malav Jugal K. and Ramani V.P.

An incubation experiment was conducted to study the release pattern of nitrogen and silicon from native soil and applied sources viz. ammonium sulphate and calcium silicate. The treatments consist of four levels of nitrogen viz. 0, 75, 100 and 125 kg ha-1 and four levels of silicon viz. 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 of soil. Seven sets of plastic cup con`sist of 32 numbers in each set to accommodate 16 treatments with 2 replications under factorial completely randomized design for 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days duration of incubation. With the advancement in time, the N availability was decreased in case of 75, 100 and 125 kg ha-1 rate of application. Either in presence or absence of Si the decreased trend in availability was noticed with the time. However, a little higher N was noticed at 21 days incubation, thereafter a slight decline in available N content was observed up to 42 days. In general, the N availability was higher due to Si application. The maximum available Si content in soil was observed due to 600 kg Si ha-1 at 14 days after incubation.

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Antioxidant effect of isolated bioactive flavonoids on Ipomoea carnea

Shakila K.

Fresh flowers of Ipomoea carnea have been examined for their bioactive flavonoids. This plant is specifically known for its bounteous potential as an Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Antioxidant Activity, Antidiabetic Activity, Antimicrobial Activity, Wound Healing Activity, Immunomodulatory Activity, Cardiovascular Activity, Embryotoxic effect, Antifungal Activity, Hepatoprotective Activity, Inhibition Activity and Anxiolytic Properties. The present study deals with Lipid peroxidation (LP) induced two drugs, ceftizoxime sodium (CZX), and a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. The major phytochemicals such as flavonol Kaempferol, flavonol glycoside astragalin associated with the bioactivity of I. carnea have been characterized. which have been discussed in this study too.

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Response of Ocimum sanctum L to varying Mercuric chloride stress

Bajpai Shukla Monika, Gupta Neha, Kaushik Suresh, Sinha Vimlendu Bhushan and Majumdar Rita Singh

We have analysed the biochemical response of Ocimum sanctum L. with varying mercuric chloride concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 20 µM) for phytoremediation of Hg contaminated soils. Superoxide radical generation, the rate of hydrogen peroxide production, lipid peroxidation, levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR), non-protein thiol (NPT), proline, ascorbic acid fluctuations and glutathione were studied and the impacts of varying mercuric chloride concentration on ROS were accessed. The results indicate significant increase in superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde production with highest values observed in 20 µM treatments. SOD, APX and CAT gradually increased with increasing mercuric chloride concentration and in general highest value was observed for 20 µM treatment compared to that of control. GR activity was not enhanced in the tested concentration but revealed a sharp decreasing trend. Proline, NPT, ascorbate and glutathione were not greatly enhanced but were in accordance with the previous reports. In order to support the data obtained for the enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic assays, accumulation of mercury in leaves was observed using ICPMS which validated maximum accumulation in 20 μM concentration. All these results strongly put forward the overlooked potential of Ocimum sanctum L. as mercury tolerant species.

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Termitomyces species documented from Western Ghats of Karnataka (India): Molecular characterization and Nutritional diversity

Earanna N. and Prabhu K.N.

Western ghats of India comprise of evergreen, grass land, moist deciduous and dry deciduous forests. High rain fall and humid weather during monsoon season provide favorable climatic conditions for setting up of mushrooms and complete their life cycle. Termitomyces make their appearance after heavy rain and grow in contact with termite nests in forest and grass land soils. In this study, six mushrooms were collected from different regions of Western Ghats forests of Karnataka during rainy season and identified as Termitomyces sp.-1, Termitomyces sp.-2, Termitomyces sp-3, Termitomyces sp-4, T. clypiatus and T. microcorpus by using 18S rRNA /ITS gene sequence. Further, these mushrooms were analyzed for their protein and mineral contents. Termitomyces species, in general had higher percentage of protein (26.17% to 31.91%) when compared to cultivated Agaraicus bisporus (24.83%) and Pleurotus florida (24.85%). The protein content of the fruiting bodies of Termitomyces sp-2, T. clypiatus, T. microcorpus, Termitomyces sp.-1, 3 and 4 was 31.91%, 31.06%, 30.60% , 27.54%, 26.17% and 26.72 % respectively. Similarly, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn content varied with the species. Maximum Ca and Mg contents were observed in Termitomyces sp.-1, and Zn content in T. microcorpus.

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Kinetics and Surface studies on Biosorption of Cr (VI) by using dead Fungal Biomass from Chromium Mine Waste, Sukinda, India

Barwa Arti Manorama, Panda Swati Sucharita, Basu Aradhana and Dhal Nabin Kumar

Biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution was carried out in batch experiments using dead biomass of fungal strain isolated from chromites mine waste. A total of 45 strains were screened for the Cr (VI) tolerance and fourteen strains showed maximum tolerance up to 500 ppm. All the potent strains were studied for their sorption capacity and the strain CMW 7 showed maximum efficiency at 98.8 %. Indigenous isolates showed a considerable enhancement in Cr (VI) biosorption efficiency through adaptation and consortia development. The removal rate of Cr (VI) increased with a decrease in pH or with increase in biomass concentrations. Adsorption of Cr was further substantiated by Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated an accumulation of chromium in the fungal mycelium. The Langmuir model fitted well with the experimental data obtained at pH 2 supporting the mechanism of redox reaction. From the 28S rDNA sequencing, it was identified that the fungal strain CMW 7 belongs to Aspergillus niger strain SF-6095 (GenBank Accession Number: KM458638.1). The study suggested that the abundant and inexpensive dead fungal biomass can be used as a potential agent for the remediation of toxic Cr (VI).

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