Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Nitrate Reductase based phylogenetic analysis in chickpea

Katoch Omika, Chauhan U.S., Yadav Renu, Yadav S.S., Kumar Ashwani, Yadav Ashwani, Yadav Neelam, Upadhyaya Hari D. and Kumar Rajendra

This study aimed to assess the genetic diversity and relationship among 12 chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes using morpho-biochemical and STMS markers. The minimum and maximum seed weight per plant was recorded in ANNIGIRI (2.615g) and F5-198 (13.327g), respectively with a mean of 7.931g. The highest nitrate reductase (0.419) was obtained in JG-11 with lowest (0.173) in PUSA-372. A total of 32 SSR primers were used for PCR amplifications, out of these 23 were polymorphic whereas 9 were found to be monomorphic. A total of 73 alleles were obtained from 32 STMS primers and 64 of them turned out to be polymorphic with allele numbers varying between 1 and 5. Polymorphic information contents (PIC) varied between 0 and 0.76 with an average of 0.393. Out of 32, only 19 markers showed higher PIC value than average PIC value. The genotypic and phenotypic similarity measures confirmed the close ancestral relation between JG-11 and F5-198 indicating possibility for exploration for some desirable traits.

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Genetic evaluation for agronomical traits in sorghum under arid condition

Khandelwal Vikas and Keerthika A.

An investigation was carried out to estimate genetic variability and interrelationship of characters in 225 sorghum germplasm under arid condition. Highly significant variations were recorded among 225 sorghum germplasm for all the traits studied. The phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) estimates were higher than the genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV) estimates for all the traits under investigation. The combined results for heritability showed that high estimates of heritability with high genetic advance and GCV were reported for panicle length, panicle width, fresh weight per plant and dry weight per plant indicating that these traits were under control of additive genetic effects. The fresh and dry weight per plant was strongly and positively associated with all the traits, except panicle width. The path coefficient analysis indicated positive and significant correlation as well as high, moderate or low direct effects of dry weight per plant, panicle length, stem diameter, days to flowering, leaf area, 1000 seed weight and grain yield per plant on fresh weight per plant. This indicates that effectiveness of selection for dual purpose sorghum as fodder cum grain crop could be enhanced by inclusion of leaf area, stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, panicle length and 1000 seed weight.

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Removal of Chromium (VI) from Aqueous Solution in Continuous Flow Column using Jackfruit Leaf as Bio-Adsorbent

Nag Soma, Mondal Abhijit, Mishra Umesh and Das Sudip Kumar

The aim of this work was to valorization of agricultural waste, locally available jackfruit leaf powder as a bio-adsorbent for removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous through continuous column study. Physicochemical and superficial characteristics of jackfruit leaf powder along with Cr(VI) were investigated. FTIR studies revealed that the presence of different functional groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amine groups is responsible for binding of Cr(VI) ions on the adsorbent surface. The performance study of the column was evaluated with respect to variation of important factors like bed depth, initial feed concentration and flow rate. It was found that the flow rate, initial Cr(VI) concentration and the bed depth affect the breakthrough curves. The results showed that the breakthrough time increased with increase in bed height and decrease in flow rates. Different mathematical models viz. Thomas model, Yoon- Nelson model, Bohart-Adams model and Wolborska model were applied to validate the experimental data which fitted reasonably with Thomas, Bohat-Adams, Wolborska and Yoon-Nelson models. The adsorbent was regenerated and found suitable for the reuse. The above findings indicated that jackfruit leaf powder might be used as a good bio-adsorbent for removal of Cr (VI) in continuous column mode.

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Studies on Phyllanthus Emblica Seed Fat as an Alternative Source of Chocolate Making

Rastogi A. and Banerjee A.K.

Cocoa butter is predominantly used in chocolate making. The fat from the seed (contained in beans) consists of triglycerides containing palmitic, stearic and oleic acids. Phyllanthus emblica seed fat has been tried as an alternative in place of cocoa butter in chocolate making. Though the fatty acid composition of phyllanthus emblica seed fat is not exactly similar to cocoa- it has a favourable saturated /unsaturated fatty acid composition along with presence of two more essential fatty acids. Its non toxicity and nutritional compatibility may favour its edible attributes. In present investigation or testing the fat, different instrumental methods SEM (scanning electron microscope) and DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) are used.

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A Study on Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Heterofused Pyrazolopyrimidine Derivatives

Mishra Priyanka

The pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives have remarkable chemical and pharmacological importance because of a wide range of biological activities exhibit by these class of compounds, By the fusion of pyrimidine and pyrazole ring, formation of heterofused pyrazolopyrimidine can be done and this fusion shows a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities including antimicrobial, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory , anti-tumor, antidiabetic, antidepressants, antianalgesics and anti-viral activity. Because of its great importance it is significant to take up the present investigation to upgrade a new class of pyrazolopyrimidine compound. Here Synthesis of Heterofused Pyrazolo[1,5-a]Pyrimidines was done by ketene dithioacetals used as a intermediate, for the synthesis of pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives and synthesis can be done by conventional method and characterization of the above compounds by thin layer chromatography(TLC), NMR & IR Spectra.

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Batch and Fed-Batch production of Acetohydroxamic acid using amidase of hyperinduced cells of Rhodococcus pyridinivorans NIT-36

Kumari Ansu, Singh Poonam, Seth Attri Chandrika and Seth Amit

An amidase-producing isolate identified as Rhodococcus pyridinivorans NIT-36 has been optimized extensively using Central Composite Design of response surface methodology for the production of acetohydroxamic acid. This biotransformation was carried out by amidase enzyme present in this bacterium. Maximum activity was observed in medium supplemented with acetamide as inducer at 37°C for 24 h. Further, the individual and interactive effects of four independent variables i.e. meat peptone (7.0g/l), beef extract (3.0g/l), yeast extract (1g/l) and glucose (10g/l) were also studied using Central Composite Design for their enhanced activity. The process parameters were also optimized statistically which further enhanced the enzyme activity to 3.47 U/mg dcw. Thus a considerable increase of 173.5 fold was obtained due to optimization of culture and reaction parameters. Further batch and fed batch reactions were carried out for enhanced production of acetohydroxamic acid. Fed Batch reaction containing 0.2 M acetamide, 0.5 M hydroxylamine in 0.1 M KH2PO4/K2HPO4 buffer (pH 6, 37ºC) and 1.5 mg/ml of whole cells of R. pyridinivorans resulted in yield of 6.2 g of acetohydroxamic acid in 100 ml reaction after 1 hour reaction time at 40ºC. For batch reaction the yield was 4.2 g.

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