Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Effect of Octadecyl Amine modified MMT on Thermal Stability, Visco-elastic Properties and Crystallization Behaviour of Polyamide 6 Nanocomposites

Barman Ghanshyam, Sonawane Shriram S. and Wasewar Kailas L.

PA6 is a widely used engineering polymer but it has limited application due to low mechanical strength and thermal properties for industrial use. The aim of this research is to improve these properties of PA6. Octadecylamine modified MMT clay has improved d-spacing value as 11.19 at 2θ=7.891. The XRD analysis showed crysrtallinity enhanced by 48.30 % for 7 wt % addition of clay as compared to virgin PA6 i.e. (53%) in PA6. Moreover, the crystalline property of the PA6/OMMT nanocomposites was also investigated using DSC, and it was found that the degree of crystallinity of the PA6/OMMT was much higher than virgin PA6. TGA analysis confirms improvement in thermal properties by 22% by the addition of 3% OMMT than virgin PA6. DMA analysis showing improvement in viscoelastic properties as compared to virgin PA6 were found to be 13, 17, 23 and 26% for 1, 3, 5 and 7 wt % respectively.

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Effect of Physical Parameters on Production of Bioethanol by Bacillus cereus Strain McR 3

Tiwari Shubhra, Jadhav S. K. and Tiwari K. L.

The objective of the experiment is to study the production of bioethanol from rice bran from Bacillus cereus strain McR 3. This study was designed to evaluate the role of some fermentation parameters such as nutrients and metal ions supplementation which affects the production process. Bioethanol has emerged as the most suitable renewable alternative to fossil fuel as their quality constituents match diesel and petrol respectively. In addition, they are less polluting than their fossil fuel counterparts. To study the effect of different nutrients and metal ions, it was supplied at different concentration and quantity. The maximum production was observed with the supplementation of peptone and zinc chloride.

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Morphological responses of Cotton fibres under Water stress condition studied by SEM

Bonde Shilpa, Chandrasekhar C. N. and Pusadkar Pratik

Water stress is one of the most severe constraints to crop productivity. Plants display a variety of physiological and morphological responses both at the cellular and whole organism level upon sensing water stress. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that images the sample surface by scanning it with a high-energy beam of electrons in a raster scan pattern. The effects on the morphology of fibres were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy at 0 DPA and 3 DPA. At 100X to 200X magnification the drought stressed ovule showed reduced size and remarkable malformation. At 800X to 1000X the epidermal cells clearly viewed to develop the fibre initials in control condition but in severe stress undefined structure of epidermal cells was found. At 1600X to 2000X the cells were clearly visible. Bunny Bt showed the highest fibre diameter in control as well as water stress compared to Pratima and Anjali.

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An improved Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol for Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) - An Economical important crop

Khandelwal V., Solanki V.H. and Kansara R.V.

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a fiber producing economical and industrial important crop with other different usage. An improved and efficient protocol was established for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of G. hirsutum using seeds. Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harboring the binary vector pBIN1F containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and cry1F (Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai) genes, controlled by promoter CaMV 35S were used for transformation. Numbers of parameters (Age of seedlings, O.D.600nm of bacterium culture, infection duration, co-cultivation period, pH of the co-cultivation medium and acetosyringone concentration) were optimized that influence transformation efficiency. The highest transformation efficiency was achieved by two days old seeds which were infected with Agrobacterium culture with OD600 = 0.6 for 20 minutes followed by co-cultivation for 3 days in a co-cultivation medium containing 100μM acetosyringone at pH 5.8. Co-cultivated and infected seeds were initially cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for germination by selecting on same medium supplemented with 50 mg L-1 kanamycin. Selected putative transgenic plants were transferred to plastic cup containing mixture of soil: sand: vermicompost (1:1:1). Further, molecular analysis was performed by PCR and insect leaf bioassay for confirmation of transgenes presence in selected putative transgenic plants.

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Characterizing the ultra-trace mercury analysis in hazardous wastes from coastal beaches

Thomas B.V.

Plastic materials in the coastal waters and in back off shoreline beaches have been observed on the rise over the recent years. Plastic wastes in the shoreline beaches categorized by light and heavy density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE) materials were found to physically obstruct marine lives as well chemically suspected to contain mercury (Hg) that may sustain as a long-term pollutant in the ecosystem. Various methods determining Hg in plastic wastes at low detectable levels showed matrices instability and Hg loss or accumulation. Precise, repeatable and reproducible results were obtained with (a) micro-analytical modifications, (b) digestion of solid samples to liquid state and (c) analysis of samples in the direct mercury analyzer (DMA-80) with absorption spectrophotometry (0.0015ng detection limits) over other instruments. Quantification and dispersed wastes collected annually in beaches not only labeled plastics as hazardous wastes that destroyed the serenity of beaches but also characterized the additive source of Hg contamination in plastics that is deleterious to marine lives and humans.

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