Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Mathematical model of the mitotic index during chronic lead bioaccumulation in small mammals protected and non-protected by natural clinoptilolite

Teodorova Svetla E., Topashka-Ancheva Margarita, Gerasimova Tsvetelina, Beltcheva Michaela, Metcheva Roumiana and Popov Nikolay

The effect of zeolite used as a food additive in conditions of metal intoxication has been studied. In ecotoxicological experiment with laboratory mice, covering 90 days, lead (Pb) was chosen as toxicant because it is one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants of the environment and deleterious factors affecting health. Clinoptilolite (from the Zeolite group) was used as an agent, restricting Pb action, due to its excellent adsorption ability. The changes in chromosome aberrations frequency (CAF) and mitotic index (MI) were studied. The Pb concentration in the bones of the clinoptilolite supplemented mice compared to the unsupplemented ones was reduced by 77%. On day 90, 3.8-fold higher CAF and 2.8-fold lower MI, toward the Control group, were observed in the poisoned mice. Essential improvement was established in the animals taken Pb and supplemented with clinoptilolite sorbent: CAF was only 1.9-fold higher and MI only 1.16-fold lower compared to the Control group. For the first time a mathematical model for the change of MI is proposed to outline the main trends of MI behavior in conditions of a chronic intoxication. The model clearly shows that recovery processes in the animals run in parallel with the Pb bioaccumulation and that the susceptibility of the mouse’s organism to Pb load decrease and the recovery rate of the genetic apparatus increases during the experiment. The model could predict the state of cell proliferation in each time point and allows a quantitative evaluation of the positive effect of the treatment. Such models could benefit the toxicological investigations.

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Development of a low cost potato gel system for nitrate removal from water

Singhal A., Gupta R., Singh A.N., Shukla P. and Sharma A.

This paper proposes to utilize commonly available natural resource in form of tuber i.e. potato to treat the water for nitrate. The gel derived from potato (Solanum tuberosum) is employed for the removal of contaminant present in the water. The chosen system has shown overall 92 % reduction in nitrate concentration. Batch study was carried out to optimize the parameters (time of reaction, adsorbent weight and adsorbate concentration) followed by 144 h run of column to determine capability of adsorbent with artificial samples. Our studies showed that the batch study followed the Langmuir isotherm more closely than the Freundlich isotherm. Column data fit the Thomas model and kinetic constant is determined using Thomas equation. The maximum sorption capacity determined for adsorbent is 0.2484 mg/g. FTIR analysis of adsorbent (potato gel) at two different conditions shows changes in transmittance indicating the presence of active sites in adsorbent responsible for nitrate reduction.

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Hydrolysis and Acidogenesis of Different Proportions of Kitchen Waste and Bulking Material in Leaching Bed Reactor

Moharir Prachi and Tembhurkar A.

Hydrolysis and acidogenesis is a rate limiting process in anaerobic digestion of Kitchen Waste (KW) due to accumulation of acids during acidogenesis. Addition of Bulking Material (BM) helps to control the acidogenesis and reduces the problem of clogging of Leaching Bed Reactor (LBR). The present study envisages investigating the effect of combination of BM (sawdust and crushed coconut shell) and KW (food waste (FW) and vegetable waste (VW)). Four leaching bed reactors with different combinations of BM and KW were studied at an ambient room temperature (27±20C). The results of the study indicated that with increase in percentage of BM in the substrate, the quantity of leachate increases. Based on the present study, for LBR3 (10% BM + 40% FW + 50% VW combination), the hydrolysis yield (52.84%) and acidification efficiency (5.12%) were found to be the highest and the degree of solubilisation was found to be 41.51%.

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Chloro and Iodo - Stemmed products of Chitosan

Yeul Poonam and Shrivastava Seema

Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained by deacetylation of chitin. Although various derivatives of chitosan have been proposed in specified literature, this study presents a method for the synthesis of Chloro and Iodo derivatives of chitosan. The Chloro and Iodo derivatives synthesized were characterized by 13C‐ and 1H‐NMR, Infrared spectroscopy, XRD and CHNS. The main scope of this result was to generate derivatives through reaction on the functional groups present in the chitosan keeping its backbone intact.

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Ultrasound assisted Heterocycles Synthesis

Monirah A. Al-ALshaikh

This current review focuses on ultrasound irradiation literature published between 2008– 2015 and is a continuation of the previous published work2 which also reviewed the literature published from 1980–2007. This review revives the effect of ultrasound on the development of chemical reaction and to highlight some applications of sonochemistry in various organic synthesis such as alkylation, condensation and cycloaddition.

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