Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Mangrove ecosystem C-stocks of Lamongan, Indonesia and its correlation with forest age

Asadi Muhammad Arif*, Guntur Guntur, Adam Brian Ricky, Putri Novianti and Isdianto Andik

Mangrove forests are extremely productive ecosystems that provide a wide range of ecosystem services including a globally significant carbon (C) storage. However, the forests and their habitats have degraded as result of expanding agriculture, aquaculture industry and coastal development. The threats diminish their C sequestration capacities; consequently, C stored in the habitats would also be released, increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The purpose of this study was to estimate the ecosystem C-stocks of the mangrove forests of Lamongan, Indonesia and to assess the correlation between ecosystem C stocks and forest age. Sampling was carried out at 12 quadrat plots in four distinct areas to determine the biomass of above- and below-ground trees, downed deadwood, saplings and seedlings, and soil C stocks.

On average, the mangrove ecosystems of Lamongan stored 261.81 ± 43.82 Mg C ha-1. The youngest (± 15year-old) and the oldest (± 100year-old) forest stored 167 ± 22.9, and 349.95 ± 106.5 Mg C ha-1 respectively, which significantly correlated with the forest ages. The %C of soil increased with depth and 46% of ecosystem C stocks was stored in the soil. As the soil was only sampled from the depth of 0-30 cm, the soil and ecosystem C stocks value could be much higher than the estimation. These findings suggest that the mangrove forests of Lamongan store a substantial amount of C; therefore, it is necessary to protect and sustainably manage them to minimize the anthropogenic threat.

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Studies on the physicochemical properties of Cauvery River basin at Pallipalyam region of Erode district, Tamil Nadu, South India with an emphasis on Water Quality Index

Vijayalakshmi V.* and Senthilkumar P.

Assessment of physicochemical properties of Cauvery River basin at Pallipalayam region was carried out during the period from January 2016 to December 2016. The upstream and downstream reaches were assessed with 25 assorted parameters viz. temperature (27.60 – 30. 60˚C), OH concentration (7.93-8.26), electrical conductivity (218.80 – 329.70 µS/cm), turbidity (1.24 - 2.24NTU), dissolved oxygen (5.60 -6.60mg/l and 4.80-5.30 mg/l), total dissolved solids (153.16-230.79mg/L and 199.00 – 264.00 mg/l), total suspended solids (1.0 – 2.0 mg/L and 3.0 -8.0 mg/l), total hardness (69 - 169mg/L and 78-84 mg/L,), total alkalinity (73.20-88.60 mg/L,82.80 -96.00 mg/L), phenolphthalein alkalinity (5.62 mg/L), ammoniacal nitrogen (0.76- 1.96 mg/l and 1.12 -2.56 mg/l), total Kjeldhal nitrogen (2.28 – 2.80 mg/L and 1.28 -4.56 mg/l), nitrite (0.00 - 0.36 mg/L and 0.00 - 0.50 mg/L), nitrate (0.59-0.87 mg/L and 1.49 mg/l -2.69mg/l), phosphate (0.66 -1.34 mg/L and 1.08 - 2.00 mg/l), chemical oxygen demand (28 - 35 mg/L and 34 -59 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (5.60 -6.60mg/l and 4.80-5.30 mg/l), chloride (35.40 – 55.10 mg/L, 42.66-62.70mg/l), sulphate (8.44 –19.22 mg/L and 14.70 -21.60 mg/l), magnesium (0.83 –1.22 mg/L and 1.02-2.0 mg/l), potassium (0.90-2.30 mg/L and 1.30-3.10 mg/l), total coliform (900-2000MPN and 970-2400MPN) and Faecal Coli form (90-110MPN and 150-240MPN) bacteria.

Most of the physicochemical variables were exceeding the standard levels prescribed by CPCB, India and World Health Organization (WHO). Pearson correlation matrix and Tukey HSD ANOVA statistical studies were used to know the variations of the physicochemical properties of river basin. Water quality index (WQI) reveals that the quality of river Cauvery was polluted severely in the downstream area when compared with upstream area. The quality of water was unfit for direct human consumption and other activities.

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Ground water quality assessment by multivariate factor analysis

Jena V.K. and Sinha Deepak*

In this study, the factor analysis techniques are applied to ground water quality data sets obtained from the North Bastar, Chhattisgarh India during 2016-17. The data obtained were standardized and subjected to factor extraction in simplifying its interpretation and to define the parameters responsible for the main variability in water quality. The objective is to evaluate the mutual correlations among the various water quality parameters to reveal the primary factors that affect reservoir water quality and the differences among the various water quality parameters.

The factor analysis resulted in three factors explaining more than 60% of the total variation in ground water quality data set. The first factor indicates that the variation in water quality is due to anthropogenic sources and second factor shows variation in water quality due to organic sources that are taking place in the system. Finally, the results of factor analysis reflect a good look on the water quality monitoring and interpretation of the ground water. The major fault zone in the area is responsible for the contaminant migration. Multivariate statistical techniques are potential tools and provide greater precision for identifying contaminant parameters linkages with groundwater chemistry in the area.

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Utilising FTIR and Gas chromatograph for optimizing lipid extraction for biodiesel production from domestic sewage sludge and Food waste

Priyadarshi Deepayan and Paul Kakoli Karar*

With urbanization, there is a rapid growth and demand for wastewater treatment and hence, production of domestic sewage sludge (DSS) increases. Because of its high-water content, metallic species and micro-organisms, disposal of domestic sewage sludge has been a serious environmental threat. Kitchen food waste (KFW) contains considerable amount of lipids that has attracted public and scientific community for the extraction of lipid. This study outlines the efficiency of domestic sewage sludge and kitchen food waste (15.1% total solids) for their sustainable reuse. Detailed physico-chemical characterization of sludge and food waste has been performed. Sewage sludge (9.7% total solids), freeze dried sludge and oven dried sludge were analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to study their influence on lipid extraction. Productivity of freeze drying method was explained through FTIR spectra.

The FTIR analysis clarified the efficiency of kitchen food to produce lipid for biodiesel. Bands observed for blend sludge (DSS + KFW) derived lipid in the region 1000-1800 cm-1 have notable impact on biodiesel production. Manual optimisation of lipid extraction technique including sample drying, lipid extraction temperature, particle size and number of extraction cycle has also been performed. Kitchen food waste as a raw material significantly increases the lipid yield.

About 26.05 % (based on dry sludge) lipids have been extracted from freeze dried sludge (particle size< 90µm) whereas freeze dried sludge and KFW blend in ratio 1:1 (dry weight) with pH below 1.10 has resulted maximum lipid (31.20 %) in Soxhlet extraction. Concentrations of fatty acids such as palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and lenoleic acid have been varied adopting different KFW to DSS mass ratio. Polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations were highly influenced by the KFW whereas the palmitic acid percentage is depending on DSS mass in the blend. Presence of various metal constituents in sludge and in lipid extracted sludge suggests their possible reuse in pharmaceutical and fertilizer industries.

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Synthesis, characterization, DNA photocleavage and antibacterial study of a novel heterocyclic based hydrazone Schiff’s base of transition metal complexes

Saini S., Pal R., Gupta A.K.* and Beniwal V.

In search of new chemical nucleases, the synthesis of dehydroacetic acid based hydrazone Schiff’s base and its colored complexes with transition metal salts of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) has been achieved. All synthesized compounds were screened for their DNA photocleavage potential using the plasmid DNA via gel electrophoresis method. Synthesized compounds were also screened for antibacterial activity against gram (+) and gram (-) bacteria using Oxacillin as a reference standard. It has been found that activity increases significantly upon coordination. The hydrazone Schiff’s base utilized in present study has been synthesized by a condensation reaction between 2-methylmalonohydrzide and dehydroacetic acid. Further, this novel ligand was allowed to react with different transition metal salts in 1:1 ratios to synthesize transition metal complexes. All the compounds were characterized on the basis of various spectroscopic techniques like UV-Visible, 1H, 13C-NMR, elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.

1H NMR data of complexes showed the coordination of -OH atom of the Schiff’s base ligand (MDHALH2) with subsequent loss of proton and FTIR spectral data revealed that the enolic oxygen atom of ligand is coordinated with metal ion. UV-Visible data suggests square planner geometry of the synthesized metal complexes.

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Influence of Nitrogen and Silicon Fertilization on yield and Nitrogen and Silicon uptake by Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) under Lowland Conditions

Malav J.K.*, Ramani V.P., Sajid M. and Kadam G.L.

Nitrogen and silicon are the yield-limiting nutrients in rice production regions of Gujarat. Use of efficient N and Si dose is an important complementary strategy in improving rice yield and quality and reducing the cost of production. To evaluate the effects of nitrogen and silicon fertilization on yield components and yield of rice cultivar GAR 13, an experiment was carried out in Gujarat (India) during kharif 2014 and 2015.The experiment encompassed four levels of nitrogen viz.0, 75, 100 and 125 kg N ha-1 from ammonium sulphate and four levels of silicon viz. 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg Si ha-1 from calcium silicate have been applied using randomized block design (Factorial) with three replications.

Results revealed that application of nitrogen at 125 kg ha-1 produced the highest grain and straw yields of rice. In case of silicon, the highest grain and straw yields of rice are from 600 kg Si ha-1. The effect of N and Si and their interaction was found to be significant for nitrogen and silicon uptake by rice gain and straw except Si uptake by straw.

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Geochemistry and Health Effects of Kaoline Clays in Kerala, India

Gopesh G.K.* and Vineetha Pillai R.

Kaoline clay is naturally available resource formed by the events occurring in complex sequence through the chemical weathering of aluminum silicate minerals like felspar. This clay predominantly contains kaolinite [Al2 Si2O5 (OH)4] along with other minerals like dickite, halloysite, nacrite and anauxite. Due to increase in clay mining activity worldwide, it impacts on drying of wells and rehabilitation problems. The degradation in the level of clay causes severe impact on water, hence this study intends to evaluate the impact of clay mining on the physical and chemical characteristics of geological parameters in and around the mining zone of Payangadi - North of Kannur, Kerala.

To evaluate the geochemistry impact of mining on Kaoline clay, water samples were collected from the year 2014 – 2015. The geochemistry parameters evaluated for analysis are pH, acidity, salinity, hardness, silica, Mg, Cl-, SO42-, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Analyses of parameters for the collected water samples are carried out by t-value with reference to APHA standard. The findings of the study revealed that the potassium content of the water is significantly reduced which leads to hypokalaemia.

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