Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

Fluoride removal from natural water by modified cationic resin

Ben Amor T.*, Bejaoui I., Gritli M. and Ben Amor M.

The purpose of this study was to focus on natural water defluoridation by adsorption using modified cationic resin type DOWEX HCR-S/S. The commercial resin has sulphonic acid functional group (Na+ form) possessing a weak defluoridation capacity. Therefore, chemical modification by loading metal ions (Fe3+, Al3+) has been performed to enhance fluoride removal efficiency. The optimization of parameters was conducted first time on water models using static and dynamic conditions. The studied parameters were, contact time, flow rate, resin mass, initial fluoride concentration, pH and temperature.

The optimum parameters were then applied for the defluoridation of natural south Tunisian water presenting high fluoride concentration exceeding the WHO standards for potable water. The adsorption capacity was found as 77% (0.5 mg. g-1 / 26 mmol. g-1). The experimental data of fluoride adsorption isotherm fit well the Freundlich model.

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Preliminary chromatographic and pharmacological investigation of Pluchea lanceolata plant for antidiabetic and wound healing activity

Sachan Anupam K.*, Rao Ch.V. and Sachan Nikhil K.

Indian healing utilized several medicinal plants for treatment of various ailments. Though only a few of those are tapped for biological and biochemical profiling to rationalize scientifically their medicinal usage. The modern health care increasingly recognized the relevance of different forms of medicine and healing practices that are steeped in culture and history. The Pluchea lanceolata, family Compositae (syn. Asteraceae) has been reported traditionally for its medicinal importance. The present investigation envisages phytochemical, antidiabetic and wound healing activity of hydro-ethanolic extract of powdered shade dried whole plant in the study. Phytochemical profiling of the plant depicted presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates and glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, fixed oils and fats, protein and amino acids, steroids and terpenoids.

TLC analysis showed higher Rf Value in hydro-ethanolic extract in a different set of eluents and this fraction in induced diabetic wistar albino rats showed significant reduction in blood glucose level compared to diabetic control. The wound healing activity of hydro-ethanolic extract of Pluchea lanceolata was evaluated through excision wound model and the progressive change in wound area was monitored planimetrically by tracing the wound margin on graph paper on 4th, 7th, 15th and 21st day. The degree of wound healing was calculated as percentage closure in wound area from original wound area.

Acute toxicity study was conducted and showed no mortality in rats. The study pointed to the potential antidiabetic and wound healing activity of the hydro-ethanolic extract of the Pluchea lanceolata on standard pharmacological models.

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Tin(IV) oxide-supported cobalt oxides catalysts for methylene blue photodegradation

Prodjosantoso A.K.*, Rahmawati T. and Kusumawardani C.

Tin(IV) oxide-supported cobalt oxides (CoO¬x@SnO2) with CoOx content of 0.25 and 0.50% were used as photocatalysts on methylene blue aqueous solution degradation. The catalysts were prepared by impregnating SnO2 powder in cobalt nitrate solutions. The dried solid material was characterized using powder XRD, SEM/EDX, TEM and UV-VIS spectroscopy methods to deeply understand the physics properties of the samples.

The electronic structure of the samples indicates good response in both the visible and ultra violet regions with the band gap energy (Eg) of around 1.813 to 3.944 eV, which is highly potent as visible and ultra violet light photocatalysts on methylene blue degradation. The adsorption data indicate the applicability of Freundlich adsorption isotherm for the system.

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Synthesis, Characterization and Analytical Applications of Novel Electroactive Material based on Zirconium (IV) boratophosphovanadate

Dogra Pernita, Sharma Harish K. and Parmar Anju*

The novel exchanger Zirconium (IV) boratophosphovanadate has been prepared by sol-gel method. The characterization of the sensor has been done with FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), SEM, EDS and X-Ray diffraction studies. Polymeric membranes containing different composition of electroactive material and epoxy resin as binder were prepared. The membrane with 40% electroactive material and 60% epoxy binder gives the best response.

Potentiometric results show that the sensor can be used in the concentration range of 10-7 M to 10-1 M Pb (II) ions with a Nernstian slope of 19 mV/decade. The electrode shows a fast response time of 13 sec. The working pH range of this sensor is 2.87 to 9.30. The sensor works well in partially non-aqueous medium up to 30% ethanol, methanol and acetone. Analytical applicability of membrane sensor was evaluated by using it for analysis of Pb2+ ions in the waste water released from paint factories. It was also used in potentiometric titration of Pb2+ ions against EDTA and Oxalic acid as an indicator electrode. FIM has been used for determining the selectivity coefficient with respect to different metal ions like Pb2+, Cr3+, La3+, Cd2+, Co2+, Hg2+, As3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Sm3+ etc.

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Evaluation of antibacterial activity of chemically synthesised ZnO nanoparticle and cytotoxicity study on Vero cell line

Renugadevi K.* and Valli Nachiyar C.

A simple and easy precipitation method was followed for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticle using ZnSO4 and NaOH solution. The obtained white precipitate was characterized by SEM and EDAX. The size of the nanoparticle was found to be 40-70nm range and the average was found to be 57nm. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of Zn and oxygen elements. The antibacterial activity of the ZnO nanoparticle was assessed by disc diffusion method and it was found that the nanoparticle has shown better activity against the tested microbes than the ZnSO4 solution. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that the ZnO has shown less toxic effect on Vero cell line than ZnSO4 comparatively.

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Inductive / Mesomeric effect on molecular interactions in binary mixtures of the 2-methoxyaniline and mono substituted benzene derivatives at various temperatures

Muvva Raghavendra, Kalavathi E., Venkatesulu A.* and Chandra Sekhara Reddy K.

The densities (ρ), speeds of sound (u) and viscosities (η) were reported for binary mixtures of 2-methoxyaniline with substituted benzene derivatives viz. chlorobenzene, bromobenzene and nitrobenzene over the entire composition range at T = (303.15 - 318.15) K and at atmospheric pressure 0.1 MPa. The excess properties such as excess molar volume, excess isentropic compressibility and deviation in viscosity were calculated from the densities, speeds of sound and viscosities. The excess properties were correlated by the Redlich – Kister equation. The partial molar volumes, partial molar isentropic compressibilities, excess partial molar volumes and excess partial molar isentropic compressibilities were calculated for all the binary systems throughout the composition range and also at infinity dilutions.

The VE results are analyzed in the light Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory. Analysis of each of the three contributions viz. interactional, free volume and P* effect to VE showed that interactional contribution was positive for all systems the free volume and P* effects were negative for all the mixtures. The variations of these parameters with composition and temperature were discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions prevailing in these mixtures.

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Challenge of contamination of pesticides for Alphonso in Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra, India

Tari V.S.* and Patil P.Y.

Traditionally grown “Alphonso” (Mangifera indica) belonging to the family Anacardiaceae is known as the king of fruits and it is famous for its specific taste and aroma. Pest control is the big challenge in front of mango farmers. The correlation between expenditure on pesticide and production of mango which showed significant positive relationship which itself explains extent of pest infestation at the study area. However, farmers are using chemical pesticides indiscriminately. This activity of farmers ultimately introduced more heavy metals in the environment which are very harmful.

Present work also tried to develop relationship between heavy metal concentration and expenditure on pesticide. Here it shows slightly positive but not significant relationship which may change into significant relation if rate of intrusion of heavy metals through chemical pesticides remains the same. The present study attempted to suggest strategic plan to minimise heavy metals pollution and cost management to increase net profitability.

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Environmental Prosperity and Sustainable Development Practices

Akhtar Sabina* and Mekki Yaseen

This paper discusses the responsibility of the governments, businesses and individual towards the environment and the possible practices to be carried out with the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals as objectives. It defines what regulations and policies to be created by governments and how governments practices should enhance and encourage environmental sustainability, this is done by comparing the environmental, economic and social areas of sustainability to each other and to the different reviews of other writers and analysts.

The ultimate focus is how to eradicate poverty and environmental degradation by analyzing how current organizational operations contribute to the environment and the current movement of world governments. This study incorporates all environmental, social and economic factors leading to a more stable economy, wellbeing of citizen, reduced poverty rates and a green environment in smart cities.

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