Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

Exploration of Carbon Nano Dots in Hydro Carbon Soot and Carbon Black

Mohan Anu N. and Manoj B.

Hydrocarbon soot, a prime component of particulate matter pollution, poses a great threat to the environment. In this study, we put forth a novel way of harnessing carbon nanodots from the soot particulates thereby converting an environmentally perilous component to an innocuous entity suitable for many applications such as biomedical tracers, gas detectors etc. Large scale production of pure carbon nanodots (PCN) was achieved via direct catalyst free thermal decomposition of kerosene and diesel. Nanostructure of carbon black and graphite is also investigated for comparative studies. In UV-Vis spectra, absorptions at 233, 232 and 229 nm are attributed to π-π* transition of the C=C bonding. XRD of the samples shows a highly intense peak at ~24º and a slightly broadened peak around 42˚ due to (002) and (010) reflections of graphitic planes respectively. In IR spectra, peaks at 3431 and 1047 cm-1 were assigned to O-H and C-O stretching vibrations respectively. The band observed at 1619 cm-1 manifests the skeletal vibrations from graphitic domains and hence indicates the presence of crystalline graphitic carbon. The absorption bands at 2920 and 2850 cm-1 arise because of the existence of aliphatic groups in the soot sample.

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Impact of Chinese Pine plantation on soil enzymatic activities and microbial biomass coinciding with forest development in the Loess Plateau

Le Hien Thi, Dang Peng and Zhao Zhong

Due to the fragile ecosystem, afforestation plays an important role in restoring ecosystem functions in the Loess Plateau. The influence of Chinese pine afforestation on soil physical and chemical properties during forest succession is clear. However, the influences of Chinese pine on the restoration of forest ecosystem functions are poorly understood. To address this lack of information, the present research study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the microbial biomass and soil enzymes of a Chinese Pine plantation at different developmental stages. First, the plantation was categorized based on the age of the Chinese pine stand in May of 2015 as follows: 8 years (PF1), 22 years (PF2), 31 years (PF3) and 42 years (PF4). An additional class was used as a control site and denoted Wasteland (CK). The results of our study indicated that soil physio-chemical properties, enzyme activities and soil microbial biomass were changed in the development of the Chinese plantation. Our results show that two enzymes invertase and alkaline phosphatase were gradually increased due to the growing forest and have high significant correlation with the soil moisture, soil temperature, soil organic carbon, soil available phosphorus and total nitrogen. Urease activity was believed to have been related to the concentration of ammonia and nitrate which were decreased with the development of the Chinese Pine plantation. Additional, the pH was not expressed in enzyme activities. We also interpreted that the differences in soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) among the forest age classes are the result of soil physio-chemical properties. The soil physio-chemical and microbial biomass were impacted differently along with the development of the Chinese Pine plantation.

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Elicitation of Easily Available and Cheap Source of Natural Acid- base Indicator for Volumetric Analysis

Gupta Poonam, Garg S.L. Jain Pramod, Uzgare A.S. and Saxena Shikha

Acid base indicators are also known as pH indicators. These are substances which change color with pH. They are usually weak acid or weak base which when dissolved in water dissociate slightly and form ions. Most of these indicators are organic dyes and are of synthetic compounds. The present study was designated to evaluate the extracted flower petals of some easily available plants. Phenolphthalein, Methyl orange and Phenol red were carried out to evaluate the accuracy of flower extract as acid base indicator. The results indicated that flower sap of these plants can be used as acid base indicator in titration of strong acid with strong base, strong acid with weak base, weak acid with weak base, weak acid with strong base because similar results were obtained by Phenolphthalein, Methyl orange and Phenol red indicators. Natural indicators are found to be very useful, ecofriendly, simple and economical.

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ODA modified CaCO3 nanoparticles and their Influence on Thermo mechanical and thermal behavior of PA6

Barman Ghanshyam, Sonawane Shriram S., Wasewar Kailas L. and Parate Vishal R.

Polyamide6/ nanosize calcium carbonate (PA6/NSCC) nanocomposite was prepared using a counter rotating twin screw extruder with 1, 3, 5 and 7 weight % NSCC. The crystallinity and stiffness of PA6 are improved by adding NSCC. SEM analysis confirms homogenous dispersion of NSCC within the PA6 matrix. DSC analysis confirms improvement in crystallinity which led to improvement in crack propagation. The TGA analysis showed improvement in first onset temperature of PA6 with incorporation of NSCC by 3, 7, 7 and 6oC. The DMA analysis showed an increase in dimensional stability of PA6 as NSCC was added to it.

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Assessment of air quality by lichen indication method in the central part of Kaliningrad

Pungin A. and Dedkov V.

The degree of air pollution in the central part of Kaliningrad was assessed by a standardized method of studying the diversity of epiphytic lichen developed by the Association of German Engineers (VDI 3957 Part 13). 42 species of epiphytic lichens were identified, 13 out of them indicate air eutrophication and another 28 species belong to reference species. Punctelia jeckeri (Roum.) Kalb. was found for the first time in the Kaliningrad region and the city of Kaliningrad. In all the reference areas in the central part of Kaliningrad, the air quality index was given the value of 1E5. Air quality in the central part is assessed as very low, coupled with a very strong influence of eutrophying compounds.

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Synthesis and Application of PCHPE-Tamarind resin in the removal of toxic metals from industrial effluents

Virvadiya Chandresh, Rathore J.S. and Gupta Vikal

The study deals with synthesis and characterisation of Tamarind Kernel Powder based resin and its application on the removal of heavy and toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, iron, nickel and chromium from industrial effluents which are discharged into environment. Tamarind Kernel Powder obtained from the seeds of Tamarind plant has a hydrophilic polysaccharide matrix used for the preparation of new chelating resin based on Proline. The proline group was anchored on the TKP backbone in dioxane medium. TKP resins have large surface area which enhanced the opportunity to chelation of heavy metal ions and its exchange with hydrogen ion and flocculent.

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Effect of Treated and Untreated Sewage Water on Chlorophyll contents and Enzyme activity in leaf tissue of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methi)

Shah Charulata and Sikka Jaishree

In this study at Indore city Madhya Pradesh, Kabirkheri was selected as study area where Sewage Treatment Plant is also situated. The plants of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Pussa early bunch, grown in pots and irrigated with untreated and treated sewage water were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at 15, 13, 45 and 60 days stages. Plants irrigated with untreated water showed a maximum increase in fresh weight, dry weight, length of below ground and above ground parts in 60 days old samples as compared to those irrigated with ETP treated water and tap water. The study indicated the availability of more nutrients including nitrogen in untreated water promoting vegetative growth. Also chlorophyll content (chl-a, chl-b, total chlorophyll), carotenoids, peroxidase activity, nitrate reductase activity, leaf protein were observed in T.foenum-graecum plants irrigated with untreated water. Heavy metals were higher at Kabirkheri indicating maximum pollution load at this site while very high accumulation of heavy metal in root and shoot sample is suggestive of T.foenum-graecum as hyper accumulator of lead and nickel.

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Synthesis and Biological Activity of Copper Complexes of Some Novel Imines

Sapale S.R., Shetgiri N.P. and Rodrigues Peter R.

Synthesis of metal complexes such as [BTPIMMP] CuII, [HPMABH] CuII, [HPMBICH] CuII, [MMBICH] CuII, and [DDTPHDA] CuII has been carried out and the structure of the new compounds has been confirmed by physico-chemical, analytical and spectral data.

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Environmental Fate of ZnO particles of Talc after end uses

Majumder Manna and Basu Mallick Srijita

Talc contains submicron ZnO particles as sunscreen and discharged to the waste water after end uses. These particles are apparently bio-safe but recent researches have shown that ZnO nano particles can cause toxicity in different cells producing ROS and are harmful to certain eco-friendly micro-organisms and aquatic species. We report here a spectroscopic study on adsorption of humic acid (generally present in waste water) by ZnO particles of a talc sample. The adsorption isotherm follows Langmuir pattern and enthalpy of adsorption value indicates that it is a physisorption process. Simple diffusion experiment shows that these HA adsorbed ZnO formed in dilute solution of HA are diffused easily as these ZnO particles are co-transported by highly water dispersible HA. Photo degradation study under solar irradiation indicates that ZnO bound HA are degraded probably by ROS produced by ZnO. We conclude submicron sized ZnO particles from talc bound to HA by physisorption process and these are co-transported by HA, however under solar irradiation, these HA are photo-decomposed.

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