Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Microbial fuel cell construction and comparative study using different electrodes materials

Singh Samatha

The generation of renewable energy from waste water has been demonstrated using a simple batch Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) with different industrial waste water. In the preliminary experiments, cheap copper electrodes were used for anode and cathode chamber with Shewanella putrfaciens bacteria. The efficiency obtained here is about 46%. In order to achieve better efficiencies, construction of MFC is changed and copper electrodes are replaced with graphite electrodes for their good ability of bio film formation. Two runs were conducted with pharmaceutical waste and sewage waste for 15 days.

A fuel cell can be constructed with the environment in mind as well as keeping cost down using cheap materials for construction without affecting the efficiency of MFC. It is shown that mediator less MFCs are as efficient as normal MFC. In all operating experiments, the MFCs are able to achieve high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of 85% and 82.5% with pharmaceutical waste water and sewage waste water respectively. In both the cases Shewanella putrfaciens are used as electron carriers for the transfer of electrons from bio film to electrodes.

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Degradation of Cypermethrin pesticide by using Indigenous Bacteria isolated from pesticide contaminated Soil

Pawar A.S.* and Mali G.V.

Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide widely used to control pests in cotton, fruits, and vegetable crops. In recent years, its use has increased in the agricultural field for crop protection. It is genotoxic, neurotoxic, immune-toxic and carcinogenic to mammals including humans. It adversely affects the central nervous system and causes allergic skin reactions and eye irritation. Problems arising due to toxicity and carcinogenicity are causing concerns for human health, environment and ecosystem.

Bioremediation is solution for this problem. Therefore, the present work aimed with the biodegradation of cypermethrin by using indigenous bacteria isolated from contaminated soil. It describes the biodegradation of cypermethrin by bacterial isolate IK2a which degrades cypermethrin into nontoxic metabolites like 2-propenoic acid[(4 methylphenyl)], benzoic acid and chlorine. It was confirmed by the FTIR and GCMS analysis.

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Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum leaves

Kavitha M.

The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity against five bacterial pathogens and antioxidant activity of essential oils from the leaves of Ocimum basilicum. Agar well diffusion was used to determine the zone of inhibition and broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The antioxidant activity was ascertained using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay.

The essential oils exhibited a great potential of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of 21.5 mm when compared with standard antibiotic with zone of inhibition of 19.5 mm. MIC and MBC values were 12.5 and 25 mg ml-1 respectively. The essential oils presented slightly high antioxidant activity (IC50 = 28 µg ml-1) compared to gallic acid, a standard compound (IC50 = 25 µg ml-1). The results revealed that the essential oil of Ocimu basilicum could be used as a source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial agent.

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Microwave accelerated solvent extraction of turmeric oleoresin

Aniesrani Delfiya D.S.

Turmeric oleoresin can be obtained by the solvent extraction of the ground turmeric powder with organic solvents like acetone, ethylene dichloride, ethanol etc. One of the major drawbacks of solvent extraction is the lengthy extraction time which results in consumption of more solvent and heat energy. Microwave heating of turmeric powder prior to the solvent extraction can reduce the extraction time and solvent requirement. In this study, the effect of various microwave exposure times viz. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 min of turmeric powder on curcumin recovery, total volatiles and non-volatiles of turmeric oleoresin was assessed. It was found that dry turmeric powder irradiated in microwaves for 4 min recorded higher curcumin (70.54 per cent) and oleoresin recovery (0.143 g/g of turmeric powder).

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Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions using a new poly (1,3-cyclohexylene oxalate) polymer

Khalili Fawwaz*, Alregeb Faten and Sweileh Bassam Sweileh

A new polyoxalate polymer was synthesized by condensation of 1,3-cyclohexandiol and oxalyl chloride in dry chloroform at 0-5oC. The polymer was characterized by inherent viscosity, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, thermal analysis and SEM. The removal characteristics of the polymer towards Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions were studied by batch equilibrium technique as a function of pH, temperature, metal concentration and contact time and as well as by column technique. The isothermal characteristics, thermodynamics and kinetics data of the metal ions onto the polymer were also investigated.

Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption models were applied to describe the experimental data. The polymer showed high metal ion uptake towards Pb(II) and Zn(II), but lower uptake one toward Cd(II). However, the polymer was found to selectively adsorb Pb(II) and Zn(II) in the concentration variation isotherm experiments. The metal-loaded polymer was regenerated by 0.10 M HNO3 which is more efficient than 0.10 M EDTA.

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Allelopathic activity of Patrinia scabiosifolia and Patrinia rupestris

Zorikova Olga, Manyakhin Artem,* Koldaev Vladimir, Moiseenko Larisa and Litvinova Ekaterina

The focus of the research is allelopathic activity of Patrinia scabiosifolia and Patrinia rupestris. Secondary metabolites of higher plants which regulate growth are of interest as the basis for possible agents to be used in crop production. In order to study the phytogenic field, soil samples were selected. Gramineous and forb plant association soil was used as control. Cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus) were used as test culture to identify the allelopathic activity of the phytopathogenic field. The activity of allelopathic substances contained in leaves, inflorescences, stems and rhizomes of P. scabiosifolia and P. rupestris was monitored by bioassays method, observing the impact of water extracts of plant material of certain plant parts upon the growth of seedlings of the test cultures.

The results were analyzed by methods of mathematical statistics using Statistica 6.0. The bioassays of soil samples showed pronounced phyto-activity of the samples tested which owes to secretions of parts of the donor plants. The results obtained may be used for commercialization of P. scabiosifolia and P. rupestris material as a source of biologically active substances possessing sedative and adaptogenic properties, as well as in crop production. Metabolites of P. rupestris manifest an inhibitory action with maximum impact on the test crop caused by generative parts and leaves whereas the stem and underground parts show significantly smaller effect. Metabolites of parts of P. scabiosifolia did not have a meaningful impact on germination of test cultures and had a stimulating effect on the development of seedlings which was most pronounced in cases of extracts of leaves and generative parts.

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Existing biological nitrogen removal processes and current scope of advancement

Magdum Sandip* and Kalyanraman V.

In India, to achieve the stringent norms of total nitrogen less than 10 mg/l in sewage treatment plant is a big challenge for the public - private facilities and organizations. After successful implementation of this norm the pollutant burden from rivers and natural water bodies certainly reduces. The use of conventional biological nitrogen removal (BNR) processes for new treatment facility development or retrofitting is also an energy and cost intensive practice. The process technologies offered by current market such as MLE, MBBR, IFAS and SBR are still in with downside of higher footprint, multi tank reactors, heavy instrumentation for IR and RAS which ultimately incur higher capital and operating cost. The current market need and lack of sustainable nitrogen removal applications, trigger to review the of all available efficient biological nitrogen removal processes. This review will gives an overall scenario of past and current biological nitrogen removal process technologies with showing possible scope and way forward towards more energy neutral nitrogen removal technologies.

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