Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Synthesis, Characterization and Biological studies of ternary transition metal Complexes derived from Schiff base and bipyridyl

Anitha Ranga Sree Doma1 and Satyanarayana Battu*

The reaction of acetate salts of M (II) [M= Co, Ni, Cu, Zn] has been performed with N-salicylidene-o-aminophenol (SB) in ethyl alcohol and bipyridyl afforded mixed ligand complexes with general formula [M(II) (SB) (bipyl) (H2O)]. The complexes have been characterized by microanalysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, IR, UV-VIS, mass spectra and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The experimental data have shown that all complexes are mononuclear. UV-VIS spectra and magnetic moments suggested octahedral geometry. Antibacterial and antifungal tests of the ligands and its ternary complexes have been carried out and the results have been compared with some known antibiotics.

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Phenolic content, Antioxidant and Antibacterial activities of peel extract from Punica Granatum L.

Zidane Mohamed, Ouahrani Mohammed Ridha, Laouini Salah Eddine* and Abdelkarim Rebiai

In this study, phenolic content, flavonoids and in vitro antioxidant activities of peel ethanolic extracts, ethanolic extract 80% and aqueous extract from Punica granatum were investigated. The total phenolic content and flavonoids were determined by a spectrophotometric method. DPPH radical-scavenging and FRAP assay methods were applied to test the antioxidant activities. The antibacterial activities of three above extracts were evaluated by disk method against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerogenosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

The results indicated that the ethanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant activities and contained higher total contents of phenolic and flavonoids than the ethanolic extract 80% and aqueous extract. The results showed that not only the more bioactive components are obtained but also the extract has better free radicals scavenging activities through ethanolic extract. Similar results were obtained for antibacterial activities, the ethanolic extract showed the highest antibacterial activity for the three bacteria. From this research paper, it is concluded that the peel extract of Punica granatum is a potential source of natural antioxidant.

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Assessment of macronutrients (N, P and K) of Monoculture, Polyculture and Termitoria Soils in Pollachi, Udamalpet Taluks in Coimbatore and Tirupur Districts, Tamil Nadu, India

Kalaichelvi S.* and Ezhili N.

The objective of this research was to calculate the variation in pH and macro nutrients (N, P and K) of monoculture and polyculture soils compared with the termitoria soil from Pollachi and Udamalpet in Coimbatore and Tirupur Districts, Tamil Nadu, India during March 2013 to February 2014. The soil pH, N, P and K level are observed and compared in different soil samples. When compared to monoculture and polyculture soil, the termitoria soil pH, N, P and K favour agriculture and retain the plant nutrients.

Through this study, we observed that termitoria soil pH and macronutrients are generally more than the monoculture and polyculture soils. Polyculture soil contains more nutrients when compared with monoculture soil. The study showed highly positive correlation between termitoria soil, monoculture and polyculture soils. The result highlights the value of termites and their beneficial role in soil and agriculture.

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Studies on proteinase inhibitors from the seeds of Mucuna utilis

K.S. Chandrashekharaiah

Protease inhibitors have seen its utility in management of various disorders and its profound use in both pharmacology and agriculture. The role on protease inhibitors in inhibiting some of the key manifesting proteases in the living systems provides an opportunity to investigate the presence of these inhibitors in various available sources. The highly specific and targeted approach of these inhibitors is known to exhibit a definite function on the target proteases. Protease inhibition is also known to modulate the up regulation of disease markers, mostly proteases, which result as a response to a particular disorder event. Plants are known to contain protease inhibitors in abundance and become an easily available source for effective isolation and purification.

In this study, we have isolated and purified two protease inhibitors from an under-utilized tropical legume, Mucuna utilis, exhibiting both trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activity; MUPI-1 was purified to 24.28 fold with a recovery of 61.20% and showed a specific inhibitor activity of 42.18. MUPI-2 was purified to 31.46 fold with a recovery of 51.26 and showed a specific inhibitor activity of 29.32. These protease inhibitors have also demonstrated antimicrobial activity.

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Modification of Phenanthroline Method to determine Antioxidant Content in Tropical Fruits Methanolic Extract

Yefrida*, Hamzar Suyani, Admin Alif, Mai Efdi and Hermansyah Aziz

The phenanthroline method was based on the reduction of Fe3+to Fe2+ion by an antioxidant. Formed Fe2+ion then reacted with ortho-phenanthroline to a red-orange complex. The previous phenanthroline method was modified by replacing methanol with water as a solvent. Optimum conditions were determined by varying wavelength, ortho-phenanthroline and FeCl3 concentration. Linearity, Limit of Detection (LoD), Limit of Quantification (LoQ), Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) and recovery were used as parameters to validate this method.

Validation tests were performed by using FeSO4, ascorbic acid, gallic acid and Trolox as standard solutions and fruits extract as samples. Based on the validation parameter obtained, it was concluded that the modified phenanthroline method was valid for the determination of antioxidant content in fruits samples. This modified phenanthroline method has a strong correlation with phenanthroline and FRAP method.

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Hydro-chemical monitoring of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation in Sidi Allal Tazi area, Kenitra, Morocco

Al-Qawati Mohammed*, Ramzy S.M. Naser, Hamdaoui Farid, Achhar Abderrahman, EL Kharrim Khadija, Abdelaziz Chaouch and Belghyti Driss*

The quality of irrigation water is considered one of the most important factors that has direct effects on the growth of the plant and on the quantity and quality of the agricultural crop yield. It must be controlled to improve the agricultural productivity, the quality of the soil and the environment protection. The main objective of this study is hydro-chemical monitoring of groundwater to determine its suitability for irrigation in the region of Sidi Allal Tazi -Gharb-Morocco. The study has been carried out on 50 groundwater wells in the area of study. The water samples were collected and analyzed during the period Dec. 2016 – Jan. 2017.

The examined and calculated physico-chemical indicators in this study were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, nitrates, ammonium, sulfate, chloride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), percentage of sodium ion (% Na+), permeability index (PI), Kelly’s ratio (KR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC).

Generally, based on the obtained values of those indicators, the water of about 82 % of the studied wells is considered suitable for irrigation, of about 10 % of wells is considered doubtful and of about 8 % of them is unsuitable for irrigation. The study has shown that most of the studied wells are approximately in concord with the United States Salinity Laboratory Staff (USSLS) standards for irrigation. It is concluded that the physicochemical quality of the groundwater of the study area is good for irrigation.

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Synthesis of some symmetric disulfides from thiophthalimides and amines under microwave irradiation

Hasan Yakan*, Nalan Turkoz Karakullukcu, Sukriye Cakmak and Halil Kutuk

Some symmetric disulfides have been astonishingly prepared from thiophthalimides (sulfenimides) and amines in the presence of 2-ethoxyethanol (β-ee, neat) at microwave irradiation under free catalyst and ligand. The products were obtained in good to excellent yields ranging from 62% to 92%. When only thiophthalimides were exposed to microwave irradiation, disulfides were not obtained. Also, disulfides were not obtained from thiophthalimides in the presence of 2-ethoxyethanol (neat) under microwave irradiation.

We compared the microwave-assisted synthesis method with the classical method. The products obtained were purified with chromatographic method and the analysis of them was performed with IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopic and elemental methods.

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