Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Application of ZnO Nanoparticles in enhancing shelf life of cut flowers with special reference to Gerbera jamesonii

Gupta Deepshikha*, Verma A.L. and Tyagi Monika

In this work, we report unique application of zinc oxide nanoparticles in enhancing the shelf life of cut flowers (Gerbera jamesonii). ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using various plant based capping agents like citric acid, starch, xylan, chitosan and synthetic polymers like polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethyleneglycol (PEG). Starch capped ZnO nanoparticles showed best antibacterial action by Resazurin based Microtiter Dilution Assay (RMDA) with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.078mg/ml against Staphylococcous aureus (NCTC 6571).

The capped ZnO nanoparticles showed significant changes in their morphology upon change of the capping agents. The enhancement of shelf life of cut flowers is observed due to potential antimicrobial action of the above mentioned synthesized nanoparticles. We suggest a membrane-damage mechanism of antibacterial action where membrane dysfunction is brought about by the interaction of ZnO nanoparticles with the cell membrane. The shelf life was found to be enhanced upto three times as compared to control under similar conditions.

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Quality of Life Assessment of Patients with Aspirin and Clopidogrel as Oral Antiplatelet in the Cardiology Outpatient Clinics of Bandung Central General Hospital

Permana D.*, Barliana M.I., Hamijoyo L., Arnellya A. and Destiani D.

Based on the data from Ministry of Health in 2007, Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) or Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) was the third leading cause of death in Indonesia with the incidence rate of 7.2%. Antiplatelet is the main therapy in the management of CHD patients. In addition to the therapeutic effects, quality of life is another aspect regarding the success of antiplatelet therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life of patient with oral antiplatelet in Cardiology Outpatient Clinics of Bandung Central General Hospital. This research is a cross sectional research. The data was collected through quality of life questionnaire and patient medical record.

The results showed that the percentages of patient with good, moderate and poor quality of life are respectively 54.3%, 45% and 0.7%. There was no significant difference in quality of life based on age, gender, clinical diagnosis and duration of therapy.

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Assessing feasibility of Ethanol production from Agricultural wastes: A step towards waste management and sustainable utilization

Patra Jyoshnamayee*, Pati Arpita, Dhal Nabin Kumar and Rath Biswajit

Energy crisis and proper waste disposal are the most significant challenges of the present world. Biofuel from agricultural farm waste could be some propitious cybernetics though the technique has multiple challenged restrictions such as biomass supply and to conduct an efficient pre-treatment method for entirely lignocellulosics delignification. The present work highlights for enhancement of bioethanol production by cohesive scarification and fermentation by using UV- mutagenesis yeast of Banana pseudostem and coir pith wastes.

The hydrolysis was done by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus which reduce sugar. Sugar percentage was found to be both in Banana pseudo stem and Coir pith using Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus relatively, Fermentation of the hydrolysates by taking one strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and UV-treated strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in production of ethanol from pseudostem and Coir pith. Spectrometry scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) were operated to characterize the sample.

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Microwave assisted green synthesis of Schiff bases in lemon juice medium

Bedi Pooja, Malkania Lalit, Gupta Richa and Pramanik Tanay*

A series of Schiff bases (SB) bearing different substituents were synthesized in good yield via microwave induced reaction in fruit juice medium. The series of reactions were performed by employing equimolar mixture of aromatic aldehydes and aromatic amines as reactants employing lemon juice which is ecofriendly, biodegradable, inexpensive and green as reaction medium. All the reactions were carried out by applying microwave irradiations as a green and ecofriendly source of energy. After completion of reaction, the crude Schiff bases were purified through recrystallization to obtain pure SBs which were further characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR.

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Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Five Indonesian Ficus

Diki Prayugo Wibowo, Neng Fisheri Kurniati, Komar Ruslan Wirasutisna and Muhamad Insanu*

This research has studied chemical content and antimicrobial activity of methanol leaves extracts of five Ficus (Ficus ampelas, Ficus ardisioides, Ficus fistulosa, Ficus heteropoda and Ficus hirta). Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by using agar diffusion.

The result showed that methanol leaves extracts of Ficus ardisioides and Ficus heteropoda contain flavonoid, triterpenoid and steroid compounds. Those Ficus also inhibited the growth of Sthapylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with variation inhibition. The result in the present study suggested that Ficus ardisioides and Ficus heteropoda leaves can be used for treating diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

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Development of Soy Protein Isolate Fortified Cookies Variety Biscuits

Parate Vishal R. and Sonawane Shriram S.*

Malnutrition problem is severe in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state of India. The study was carried out to develop protein rich biscuits for the malnourished children of Vidarbha. The cookies variety biscuits were chosen for fortification with Soy Protein Isolate (SPI). The biscuits were prepared using traditional creaming method from the blend (Wheat flour + SPI) containing varying level of SPI (0, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 percent).

It was found that SPI fortified biscuits had high protein content but less weight and diameter than the control biscuits for all the level of incorporation. Thickness of SPI fortified biscuit was greater whereas spread ratio and spread factor were less than the control biscuits for incorporation of SPI at low level (15 and 20 percent). SPI fortified biscuits with high level incorporation of SPI (25, 30 and 35 percent) had less thickness but more spread ratio and spread factor than control biscuits. As per sensory evaluation, biscuits fortified with 15 and 20 percent level of SPI had no significant difference with control biscuits at p<0.01 as assessed by t-Test.

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Assessment of nanoparticles (copper, cadmium sulphide, copper oxide and zinc oxide) mediated toxicity in a plant system (Indigofera tinctoria L.; Fabaceae)

Ghosh Bapi, Datta Animesh Kumar*, Das Debadrito, Kumbhakar Divya Vishambhar and Pramanik Ankita

The study encompasses synthesis and characterisation of copper, cadmium sulphide, copper oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs), their uptake, immediate physiological effect including oxidative stress induction and subsequent anti-oxidant responsiveness and DNA damaging potentiality in Indigofera tinctoria L. The objective of the work is to assess the toxicological impact of nanomaterials in plant species on a comparative basis for their potential exploration.

Results highlight the following: 1) germination and seedling growth in NPs treatment are limiting and possibly the consequence of intracellular hydrogen peroxide accumulation, 2) elevated MDA production by NPs indicates membrane lipid peroxidation, 3) non-synchronous anti-oxidant enzyme responses contribute to the prevalence of cellular stress environment and 4) comet assay exhibits NPs mediated DNA double strand break. Present study signifies the use of plant species for nanotoxicity assessment.

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Use of Drug induced Kidney Injury in Hospitalized Patients with Renal Failure Disease at a Hospital in Bandung city, Indonesia

Eli Halimah*, Ivan S. Pradipta, Ester M. and Yanarita A. Fitri

Use of drug induced kidney injury is contributing to hemodynamic changes and damage to nephrons. Retrospective observational study was conducted using data from patient’s medical records from January 2010 until March 2012. This study aims to determine the use of drug induced kidney injury in one of Bandung private hospital. Subjects of this study were hospitalized patients who had been diagnosed with acute and chronic renal failure disease, aged 18 to 59 years old and received medication therapy during hospitalization.

Data was analyzed and results of the observation are presented descriptively. Result of this study showed patients who were administered drug induced kidney injury, were 78 patients (90.7%). There were several patients who had uncontrolled creatinine clearance. Top three of drug induced kidney injury were furosemide (16.76%), omeprazole (10.81%) and ciprofloxacin (7.57%). There were 10 patients who received special treatment of dosage.

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Synthesis, characterization, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities of newly synthesized 3-acetyl-4-[(aryl)diazinyl]-2H-chromen-2-one

Pandhurnekar Chandrashekhar P.*, Meshram Ekta M., Berad Baliram N. and Chopde Himani N.

The synthesis of new series of coumarin derivatives i.e. 3-acetyl-4-[(aryl)diazinyl]-2H-chromen-2-one (2a-2e) are reported here. Compounds (2a-2e) were obtained by the reaction of aromatic amines and 3-acetyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) in the presence of sodium nitrite, conc. HCl, Na2CO3 and NaOH. Previously, 3-acetyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) was synthesized from salicyaldehyde and ethyl acetoacetate in presence of piperidine.

Elucidation of new compounds (1) and (2a-2e) was done with the help of different analytical and spectral techniques. Biological activities of newly synthesized coumarin derivatives (2a-2e) were evaluated against different gram-positive, gram negative bacterial stains and fungal stains. Moderate to excellent activities were observed for some of these compounds during biological activity study.

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Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Nephelium lappaceum Leaf against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Imam Adi Wicaksono*, Sulistiyaningsih and Nabila Mudin

Staphylococcus aureus causes many types of human infections including bacteremia, pneumonia, cellulitis, osteomyelitis and most notably are skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is now endemic in health care facilities and 91% causes skin and soft tissue infections. The ethanolic extract obtained from Nephelium lappaceum leaf was investigated for antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion method. The simplisia was extracted with maceration method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the microdilution method.

The results showed that ethanolic extract had antibacterial activity and totally inhibited the MRSA clinical isolates at 5% w/v. The antibacterial activity of this extract against MRSA was probably derived from flavonoids, polyphenols, saponin and tannins. The results of the ethanol extract from Nephelium lappaceum leaf suggest that the extract gave antibacterial effect on MRSA and can be used to discover new drugs to control SSTI.

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Synthesis and Characterization of Ag-Oxide Pillar /Composite Clay Mineral used as Adsorbent

Halima Cherifi-Naci

The purpose of our study is the evaluation clay extracted from western Algeria’s land. The experimental study consists to designate the optimal activation conditions (concentration: 3 M at temperature T = 70 ° C, activation time = 4h, adsorbed H2SO4 = 1.45 meq / g clay, CEC = 52 meq/100 g clay) to obtain an adequate activated bentonite which is ready for pillaring operation. Modified clay was characterized by different techniques XRD, XRF and physico-chemical analysis (cation exchange capacity; CEC, specific surface area; SBET). Silver pillared material was synthesized from activated bentonite at 3 M/T=70°C using the AgNO3 solution as pillaring agent.

Silver pillar clay was characterized by physico-chemical analysis (XRD, CEC, surface acidity, specific surface area, average pore diameter and density). The basal spacing for the intercalated bentonites with silver pillar is respectively in 39.5 A° and 37 A°. The specific surfaces of silver pillared clay and natural bentonite are respectively in 370 and 65 m2 g-1 order. These fundamental results are very important in the development of the new adsorbent.

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