Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Microwave assisted green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Acacia nilotica gum extract and their antibacterial activity

Mane Gavade S.J., Nikam G.H., Sabale S.R. and Tamhankar B.V.*

This paper briefly introduces cost effective, green and eco-friendly approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Acacia nilotica gum extract. Acacia nilotica gum extract acts as stabilizing and reducing agent for synthesis of AuNPs. The synthesized NPs were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern. The as-synthesized AuNPs were phase pure and well crystalline with a face-centered cubic structure.

The AuNPs were characterized by TEM to determine their size and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized AuNPs was investigated against Escherichia coli by Agar Well Diffusion Method. This newly developed method is eco-friendly and could prove a better substitute for the current physical and chemical methods for the synthesis of AuNPs.

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Preparation of Lamotrigine Drug Nanoparticles by Nanomilling

Patel Chetan M.

Nanoparticles are increasingly used in many fields of the chemical, pharmaceutical industry, ceramic and many other industries. Recently an increasing number of newly developed drugs are found to be poorly water soluble. A promising approach to address solubility and dissolution issues of poorly water-soluble dugs can be achieved by drug nanoparticles. In this study, the importance and the potential of drug nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble drugs and their production by nanomilling is presented using lamotrigine as model drug. Among the technologies investigated so far, media milling was widely employed to produce drug nanosuspensions.

It has enabled successful commercialization of drug nanoparticles. This work investigated production of lamotrigine drug nanoparticles which is very insoluble in water by wet media milling method. Further, the effects of different types of dispersant on the production were investigated and stability of produced nanosuspensions was evaluated using zeta potential measurement and turbiscan analysis.

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The effect of surface on the redox reaction between D (+) glucose and persulphate ion and evaluation of the reaction's activation energy

Abualreish M.J.A.

In this study the redox reaction between persulphate ion and D(+) glucose in absence of catalysts was investigated. The progress of the reaction was followed by examining the concentration of persulphate ion in the reaction mixture at different time intervals by iodometric titration method. It was found that the reaction has a characteristic of chain reactions. The effect of surface on the redox reaction between persulphate ion and glucose, as well as in the thermal decomposition of persulphate ion alone was investigated by carrying out different experiments and comparing the values of the rate constants kO. The activation energy(Ea) of the uncatalyzed redox reaction was evaluated from the values of the fractional order rate constants kO at different temperatures. Some physical functions namely, frequency factor(A), entropy change (S) and the free energy change (G) of the uncatalyzed redox reaction were also evaluated and compared with those values of the thermal decomposition of persulphate ion alone.

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Degradation of Methyl Red using ZnCl2 activated Ricinus Communis Stem as an Adsorbent

Nirmala Devi V.* and Makeswari M.

Removal of Methyl Red by ZnCl2 activated Ricinus Communis stem is studied and it shows better degradation ability under sunlight irradiation. The effects of various experimental parameters have been analysed using batch mode adsorption technique to obtain information on treating wastewater from dye industry. Results show that the percentage of degradation is higher at lower concentration of Methyl Red dye solution. Maximum dye degradation is 91.94% occurring at 90 minutes and the optimum pH is 4.

UV spectral study is employed for the degradation capacity of Methyl Red onto ZRCS. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm have been used to fit the adsorption data. The maximum adsorption capacity is 18.018mg/g for the adsorption of Methyl Red. Kinetic data is well fitted with pseudo first order kinetics.

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Application of a prototype for atmospheric water capture in urban agriculture, a case study: Mentha piperita L.

Alexandra Valderrama, Mónica Tatiana Herrera, Carlos Peña-Guzmán* and Quelbis Quintero

This paper presents a prototype for atmospheric water capture using Peltier modules that condense water vapor. The prototype offers several benefits: water quality generated by clean air, ease of transportation and installation, harvest of water from 500 m.a.s.l. to 2000 m.a.s.l. (for temperature and humidity). The water generated by the prototype was used to irrigate a Mentha piperita L. crop for which two weighing lysimeters of 50% and 100% of humidity were installed to determine the water demand of the plant in its life cycles and thereby determine the number of plants that the prototype can support.

Results showed that the prototype captures approximately 86.68 mL of water/day with relative humidity, temperature and current the most decisive variables for water capture; for Mentha piperita L., the total consumption of water for 50% of relative humidity was 1698.165 mL in a 46.5 cm2 area. Having calculated water consumption, we determined that the prototype can support up to 6 plants with characteristics similar to those of the case-study plant. Therefore, this type of technology represents an alternative for irrigation in urban agriculture given the prototype can be adapted to a larger scale with improved effectiveness.

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Chitinase Activity in the Digestive Tract of Snakehead Fish Channa striata and Partial Characterization of Chitinase

Baehaki Ace*, Lestari Shanti Dwita, Wahidman Yudi and Gofar Nuni

The purpose of this study was to know partial characteristic of chitinase from digestive tract of snakehead fish Channa striata. The results shows that chitinase activity from the stomach was higher as compared to chitinase activity from the intestine. The pH and temperature optimum of chitinase activity from digestive tract (the stomach and the intestine) were 6.0 and 70 0C respectively.

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Comparative Study to determine the Ethanol Contents in Country Made Illicit Liquor by Specific Gravity and Gas Chromatography Method

Sharma Rahul*, Kumar Lallit and Ali Shahjad

Alcohol, dangerous liquor is used worldwide. Although alcohol consumption existed in India for many century; the quantity, pattern of use and consequential problem have undergone substantial change over the past year. Mainly four different type of beverage are available in country India i.e. India made foreign liquor, country liquor, illicit liquor and beer. Country liquor and illicit liquor are likely more fatal than other standard beverages. At the present time, large number of cases related to the alcohol poisoning are reported in Forensic Science Laboratories.

The purpose of this study is to determine the ethanol contents in country made / illicit liquor. Chromotropic acid test was used for the estimation of methanol; Iodoform test, specific gravity method and gas chromatography were used for the estimation of ethanol in liquor sample. Ethanol was detected in all five samples with no any traces of methanol. The ethanol contents of the sample E1 to E5 were found in range 23.37 to 29.84 % v/v in specific gravity method and in HS-GC method, the ethanol content was measured in range of between 25.22 to 32.09 %v/v. It was observed that ethanol content in illicit liquor was little more than country made liquor.

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Valorization of sawdust using Biological denirification of synthetic nitrates-contaminated ground water

Boumechhour Fatima*, Benbelkacem Werdia, Ben Lefki Rabah, Berrehal Ahmed, Asselah Amal, Benrachedi Khaled and Bouchemal Naima

Nitrate pollution in receiving waters has become a serious issue worldwide. In Algeria, underground water pollution by nitrates has become alarming. Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality. This research investigated the valorization of a vegetable residue (sawdust) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for denitrification in batch reactor to remove nitrate from synthetic groundwater.

Throughout the study, the effects of some important parameters including initial nitrate concentration (50-130 mg/L), amount of carbon source (2-8 g/L) and initial pH (4-11) were studied. The results showed that the system achieved high denitrification; nitrate removal was greater than 99 % after 3 hours of incubation. The nitrite concentration (NO2-) in the effluent was below 0.030 mg/L. The results also showed an important effect of C/N ratio on the performance of the process.

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Simple and rapid SPE-GC-ECD method for the adsorption study of atrazine on some Indian soils for the assessment of ground water contamination risk

Sharma D.K.*, Kumar Anil and Mahender

Pesticides pollute soil and water and their impact on surface and groundwater quality has become an issue of a serious concern. Adsorption is an important process which controls the migration of pesticides from soil to water bodies through leaching and consequently the extent of surface and groundwater contamination. This study reports an investigation of the adsorption of atrazine herbicide on four Indian natural soils of different characteristics at two temperatures viz. 25oC and 35oC by using the batch equilibrium technique. A simple and rapid solid-phase extraction (SPE) supported Gas Chromatographic-Electron Capture Detection (GC-ECD) methodology has been developed for the purpose.

The adsorption isotherms have been evaluated by Langmuir and Freundlich’s adsorption equations; the Freundlich isotherm however was found to be more suitable to describe the adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs-free energy change (Δ𝐺o), enthalpy change (Δ𝐻o) and entropy change (Δ𝑆o) were calculated. Results showed that the adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous, entropy decreasing and exothermic in nature. The risk of groundwater contamination in terms of leaching potential for atrazine evaluated by the Groundwater Ubiquity Score (GUS) ranged between 2.84-3.40 thus to classify atrazine as a leacher herbicide and thereby can pose a potential risk to groundwater contamination.

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A Review of Factors affecting Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass

Kumar Amit*, Minuye Nakachew, Bezie Yilkal and Yadav Mukesh

Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass can be accomplished by three main steps including pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Lignocellulosic biomass must be subjected to pretreatment processes that removes the lignin and enhances the digestibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses making it suitable for enzymatic hydrolysis. The second step of biomass conversion of lignocellulosic biomasses is hydrolysis or saccharification of cellulose and hemicelluloses in to fermentable sugars. The fermentable sugars are converted in to various valuable bio-chemicals.

In this review, factors affecting enzymatic hydrolysis have been examined in detail. Different substrate and enzyme related factors that influence the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks have been discussed. Various strategies have been reported to overcome the effect of hydrolysis inhibitors and feedback inhibition. The yield of fermentable sugars is improved by the addition of different surface-active additives during hydrolysis.

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