Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Physico-chemical Characterization and Contamination Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediments of the Seybouse River-Case of the Industrial Zone of Annaba (Northeast Algeria)

Ouafa Belaidi, Yacine Abdelkader Bouhedja, Achour Louhi*, Mabrouka Achouri and Atika Hammadi

The purpose of this work is to determine the physicochemical characteristics and to evaluate the degree of pollution of four heavy metals: cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and vanadium (V) Seybouse. Sediment samples were collected at a depth of 0-30 cm at four stations during three seasons (winter, spring and summer) along the Seybouse River and its tributary: Méboudja. The granulometric study showed that the sediments had a sandy loam texture and almost invariable grain density (2.24 to 2.48 g / cm3). Sediment parameters: pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), total carbonate (CO3--) and total phosphorus (P) vary respectively from: 7.75-8.33; (6.12-13.78) meq / 100g; (1.38-1.64) mS / cm; (0.52-0.83)%; (4.46-6.54)% and (420.10-786.84) mg / kg.

Qualitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that quartz is the main component of all the sediment samples studied and the presence of montmorillonite, small amounts of goethite, calcite and magnesite calcite. To determine the total metal concentrations, the sediments were mineralized according to the protocol described by the method (3050B EPA, 1996) from a triacid attack (HNO3-H2O2-HCl). Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used for the determination of As and Cd. Co and V were analyzed by graphite furnace (HGA). The results obtained show the sediments of the Seybouse and the Meboudja at a depth of 0-30 cm are of poor quality.

Overall, the results of this study show that the sediments studied are moderately polluted. However, in summer the sediments of station 3 are contaminated particularly by the V implying a progressive degradation of the environment. This metallic pollution is anthropogenic in relation to the use of fertilizers in agriculture and urban and industrial discharges. The time-dependent accumulation of these metals in the sediments of the Seybouse River and Meboudja to a depth of 0-30 cm can cause adverse effects for the agricultural area of Annaba.

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Synthesis and characterization of novel series of 4-(chloromethyl)-2-(2-(3,5-dialkyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole and 4-(chloromethyl)-2-(2-(3-alkyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole derivatives and their biological activities

Dhandayutham Saravanan* and Venugopal Sivasankaran

In the present study, a new series of 4-(chloromethyl)-2-(2-(3,5-dialkyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ylidene)hyd razinyl)thiazole and 4-(chloromethyl)-2-(2-(3-alkyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ylidene)hydrazinyl) thiazole derivatives are synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectra. The synthesized compounds were screened for biological activities.

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Effects of VOCs from fuel loading activities and traffic area on urban risk of residents and workers

Charoensri Keprasertsup, Suwannee Adsavakulchai and Sirintornthep Towprayoon

Air concentrations of MTBE and BTEX in service stations, traffic areas and public parks in Bangkok area were monitored and assessed for their health risk to Thai population. Pump-islands in high sale stations were the areas of highest contamination for MTBE and BTEX. The stop junctions were more contaminated with MTBE and BTEX than the non-stop junctions. MTBE concentrations at the pump-islands were the highest for all of the VOCs while toluene was the highest concentrated VOCs member at the perimeters of the stations and traffic areas. MTBE and benzene contamination in service stations were primarily due to evaporative emissions during refuelling, rather than to vehicle exhaust emissions. Traffic areas were contaminated mostly with toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes emitted from vehicle exhausts and they were influenced clearly by traffic speed as well as traffic density.

Multiple chronic risks to MTBE and BTEX of residents (at stop junctions and perimeter zone of the high sale-stations and that of workers at pump-island zone of high sale-stations) were high to induce adverse symptoms for very long exposure. Multiple acute risks of MTBE and BTEX in all studied areas were of low value not to induce health effects. For carcinogenic risks to benzene, occupational risk at pump-islands of high sale stations (~2.5×10-4) and resident risks at ST-junction (~1.5×10-4) and perimeter areas of high sale stations (~2.0×10-4) were excess for the least health protective end of the risk range (1×10-4).

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Effects of Biochar on growth and physiological activities of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown on Chromium (VI) contaminated soil

Maharana Rojali*, Panda Swati Sucharita, Basu Aradhana and Dhal Nabin Kumar

Chromium (VI) is highly toxic and non-essential metal which enters into the soil and affect the plant growth and metabolic functions of the living species. It is essential to develop an eco-friendly and proficient way to remediate soil contaminated with heavy metals and for that, the idea of preparation of biochar from pyrolysis process and their use in soil remediation can be considered as an interesting alternative method. In this study, the potential effects of biochar obtained from Vigna mungo waste (VMW) on the growth and biochemical properties of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) contaminated with Cr (VI) on soil were investigated. A pot experiment was thus conducted to examine the effects of biochar produced from Vigna mungo waste applied at the rate of 10 g kg-1 with different concentration of Cr (VI) ranging from 10-100 ppm. FE-SEM and EDX analysis of prepared Biochar confirmed well-developed spherical porous structure which is highly beneficial for this present study.

Moreover, the biochar treatments were found to increase the germination %, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight and photosynthetic pigment of wheat plants in comparison to without biochar treatments. Thus, the findings have implications for commercial agriculture and the sustainable use of VMW biochar.

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Role of surfactants in the adsorption studies of n-butyl acetate-cerium(IV) phosphate for some alkaline earths and heavy metal ions

Somya Amita*, Rafiquee M.Z.A. and Upadhaya Vibha

Hg(II) selective, intercalated fibrous ion exchanger, n-butyl acetate-based cerium(IV) phosphate has already been synthesized and characterized by some ion exchange methods and physico-chemical methods. Adsorption studies for some alkaline earths and heavy metal ions have been carried out in different acidic media. Role of anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate), cationic surfactants (N-dodecyl pyridinium chloride and N-cetyl, N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium bromide) and nonionic surfactant (triton X-100) has been explored for the same metal ions in order to observe how surfactants can affect the adsorption behavior of the ion exchange material. It has been observed that adsorption of heavy metal ions on the ion exchange material increases upto CMC and then decreases in presence of anionic surfactants and reverse order is found in presence of cationic surfactants.

In presence of nonionic surfactant, adsorption of heavy metal ion remains constant upto the CMC value and then increases. For alkaline earths, the exchange material shows the same trend in as given above in cationic and nonionic surfactant media. However, in presence of anionic surfactant, the adsorption remains constant for all the concentration ranges of surfactants.

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Study of photogalvanic effect in photogalvanic cell containing single surfactant as DSS, Tatrazine as a photosensitizer and EDTA as reductant for solar energy conversion and storage

Rathore Jayshree and Lal Mohan*

Photogalvanic effect was studied in photgalvanic cell containing Tatrazine EDTA-DSS system. The photopotential and photocurrent were observed (VPP) 493.0 mV and (ipp) 130.0 A respectively. The conversion efficiency of the system was observed as 0.6163 % and fill factor was determined as 0.2800. The cell performance was observed 100.0 minutes in dark.

The effects of different parameters on the electrical output of the cell were observed and current-voltage (i-V) characteristics of the cell were also studied. A mechanism for the generation of photocurrent in this photogalvenic cell has also been proposed.

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Photodegradation of Methylene Blue solution via Au doped TiO2 nanocomposite catalysts prepared using novel photolysis method

Zaid Hamid Mahmoud

Gold doped TiO2 has been successfully synthesized via photolysis method and is characterized by different techniques. NPs of gold doped TiO2 were utilized for the degradation of methylene blue as a material pigmentation pollutant. The substitution of Au on TiO2 surface was established via XRD, EDX, TEM and FTIR techniques. The TEM and SEM results showed that the particles in nano range and in size below than 15nm. without catalyst give humble result but good results at pH 11 while give excellent results at all conditions when using catalyst.

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Comparative analysis of Supercritical fluid extraction and Solvent extraction for Zingiber officinale aromatic compounds

Sohpal Vipan K.

Zingiber officinale contains both aromatic and pungent components which are usually preferred in the flavor industries. Extraction of essential oil through conventional solid-liquid techniques with organic solvents can be used but it may result in the production of non-desirable residues and the extract can undergo oxidative transformations during solvent removal. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), Hydrodistillation (HD) and Solvent extraction (SE) are alternative separation techniques to overcome the conventional techniques. In this paper study concentrated on qualitative and quantitative analysis of extracts performed using Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). In SFE process, the best condition was found for feed using fresh ginger powder at constant extraction pressure, temperature and flow rate of 250 bar, 450C and 60g/m respectively and yield was observed 3.3%.

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In Vitro Antibacterial and In Silico Evaluation of Indole based Molecules as Staphylococcus Aureus Sortase A Inhibitors

Kodamala Kranthi Raj*, Kaki Sowjanya, Mathi Pardhasaradhi and Dittakavi Ramachandran

Staphylococcus aureus sortase A was one of the potential targets involved in the virulence of gram positive bacteria through its anchoring mechanism. Indole based molecules were synthesized and elucidated using different spectroscopic techniques. All the molecules were evaluated for their antibacterial outcome both in-vitro and in-silico. In vitro results contain zone of inhibition from disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration. Zone of inhibition of these compounds was ranging from 25 mm and 11 mm at 10 µg/mL and minimum inhibitory concentration ranges from 7.83-21.5 µg/mL.

Among all the synthesized molecules, (Z)-5-fluoro-3-(3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4(5H)-ylidene) indolin-2-one has shown promising IC50 of 1.53 ± 0.16 µM. Remaining molecules have IC50 activity between 1.95-35.22 µM. Lead molecule was subjected to docking to know its orientation. Molecular dynamic simulations were carried out to ensure the permanence of the highest active molecule in the binding cavity of Staphylococcus aureus sortase A, along with its effect on the protein stability.

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Thermal decomposition kinetics and mechanism of copper (II) complexes derived from amino acids

Tiwari Priyanka* and Mohbey H.

Mixed ligand complexes of copper(II) with amino acids have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra and thermogravimetric Analysis. Kinetic parameters such as apparent activation energy, frequency factor and entropy of decomposition of complex have been determined employing methods of Sharp-Wentworth and Coats-Redfern using non-isothermal thermogravimetric curves.

The values obtained for activation energy, entropy of activation and frequency factor as calculated from Sharp-Wentworth and Coats-Redfern method are in good agreement with each other.

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Post Treatment of Water with excess of Diclofenac or Antimony onto Slovakian Clinoptilolite Tuff

Chmielewská Eva*, Hawash Hamada B.I. and Górová Renáta

Environmental requirements are becoming of great importance in today´s society, since there is an increased interest in the industrial use of renewable resources. The main objective of this contribution was to provide some literature review of state-of-the-art and the future prospects of green synthesis with special emphasis on membrane based processing as one part and on another with pharmaceuticals as emerging contaminants in environment. Both parts are completed briefly with laboratory results dealing with antimony removal onto various Fe-oxihydroxides and FeO(OH) covered clinoptilolite tuff and diclofenac uptake onto carbon-rich adsorption materials incl. zeolites.

Clinoptilolite tuff occurs in Slovakia in huge deposits and as natural resource is considered for economic accessible adsorption material and potentially useful also for water polishing. Based on the preliminary results, diclofenac adsorption proceeds with the highest efficiency especially onto various carbon-rich materials, incl. onto zeolite (commercial product KlinoCarb), however antimony removal onto FeO(OH)-zeolite could be considered for competitive especially in treatment of large volumes of highly acidic mine waters.

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