Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

Detoxification of Dyes by Aspergillus niger isolated from Dye Contaminated Soil Effluent from the sites of Textile Industry

Jambulingam Ranjitha, Palani Shalini, Mohanam Anand and Srinivasan Gokul Raghavendra*

The present study deals with the detoxification of dye sample collected from dye industry located in Tirupur district, Tamilnadu, India. Three types of dyes like malachite green, nigrosin and basic fuchsin were biodegraded using a fungal strain isolated from dye effluent soil. The selected fungal strain Aspergillus niger has shown maximum decolourization of the dye nigrosin (93.33%), basic fuchsin (92.85%) followed by malachite green (90.05%) and dye mixture (32.33%) under tube lay method.

Aspergillus niger exhibited better results under shaking conditions than compared to the stationary method; in addition, the inoculation of fungi also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from basic. As a result, Aspergillus niger was found to be a potential fungi in biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures and for environmental decontamination.

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Pharmacological and phytochemical screening of Desmodium gangeticum and Moringa oleifera

Srivastava Preeti and Srivastava Gaurava*

Desmodium gangeticum and Moringa oleifera are medicinal plants, with diverse medicinal and health related benefits. The major objective of present study was to evaluate phytochemical profile of D. gangeticum and M. oleifera. Common phytochemicals of D. gangeticum and M. oleifera were estimated using standard tests and reported with their presence and/or absence. The phytochemical analysis carried out on D. gangeticum and M. oleifera leaves showed the presence of variety of active compounds including alkaloids, tannins, phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins in both whereas saponins and volatile oils were absent in D. gangeticum and carbohydrates was absent in M. oleifera.

The major constituents responsible for the pharmacological properties of these plant have been determined, but still the molecular mechanisms of most of the principles of these plants are incomplete. Future work should be moving on for better identification and isolation of another novel compound/s. All these preliminary reports warrant an in-depth analysis of the usefulness of these two plants as drug against various ailments and diseases.

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Experimental Investigation on the Properties of Concrete using Silica and Titania Nano Particles

Sathish Kumar Kannaiyan*, Narasimman S. and Anusha Krishnan

Cement is an excellent material used to bind structural elements in construction industry. When this is exposed to environmental conditions, its mechanical property was largely affected. Application of nano-materials into concrete could improve its performance. Corrosion in concrete is due to the permeation of chloride ions. In this work, nano-particles like nano silica and nanotitania are synthesized using Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and Tetraethyl Ortho Silicate (TEOS). The characterization of nano-materials is carried out with the help of UV-Vis-spectrophotometer, Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM).

Further, cement is partially replaced with nano-particles of 0 to 0.4% in varying five combinations. This study evaluates the addition of nano-particles on the compressive strength, split tensile strength, chloride ion penetration of concrete. The addition of nano-particles improved the pore structure of the concrete and shows improvement in strength to about 64%.

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Synthesis and swelling behavior of superabsorbent hydrogels acquired from CMC for efficient drug-delivery

Gaur Ankur* and Kumar Harish

In this work we have focused on the study of swelling behaviour of super-absorbing hydrogels based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) obtained from market and CMC made from bamboo in lab by us. Methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) was used as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as a free radical initiator. The effect of reaction variables on superabsorbent hydrogels was observed through studying factors such as Na-Alg/CMC weight ratio and temperature. The maximum hydrogels absorbency was observed at temperature of 850C in case of synthetic CMC and at 800C in lab made CMC. The ideal (Na-Alg/CMC) weight ratio was 0.54 for Synthetic CMC and 0.33 for lab made CMC. Furthermore, the water absorbency of hydrogels was measured in solutions with pH ranging from 1 to 13.

The Na-Alg/CMC based hydrogels show a pH responsive character so that a swelling-deswelling pulsatile behavior (on–off swelling) was recorded at pH 2,3 and 8. The chemical structure, morphology, crystallinity and elemental analysis of the prepared hydrogels were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, XRD and EDX. Hydrogels prepared from lab made CMC obtained from bamboo are more environmental and cost friendly compared to CMC obtained from market.

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Acidic environment and the mixture of crude oil and dispersant not causing synergistic toxicity to Litopenaeus vannamei

Muhammad Arif Asadi

Oil spill events could have devastating effects on the environment and the application of dispersants could have more adverse impact on the affected organisms. Meanwhile, the decreasing ocean pH could have synergistic toxicity effects on marine organisms. This study aimed to examine the short-term toxicity effect of chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions (CEWAFs) to Litopenaeus vannamei and to figure out the synergistic toxicity effect of CEWAFs with pH 6.5 and 8.5. Healthy post larvae L. vannamei were exposed to CEWAFs with concentrations of 0%, 3%, 6%, 12% and 24% under the pH concentration of 6.5 and 8.5 for 72 hours to quantity their mortality. The LC50 was performed using probit analysis while the PAHs of the CEWAFs were analyzed using gas chromatography method.

Results showed that anthracene constituted a half of PAHs while the 72-h LC50 of CEWAFs at pH 6.5 and 8.5 was 8.695±1.66 mL L-1 and 9.29±0.4 mL L-1 respectively categorized as practically non-toxic. Furthermore, the mixture of dispersant and WAFs did not cause a synergistic toxicity effect. The univariate statistical analysis also confirmed that there was no synergistic toxicity of CEWAFs with pH 6.5 and 8.5 to the whiteleg shrimps, L. vannamei.

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Synthesis and application of TTACBA resin of tamarind in the removal of metal pollutants from industrial waste-water

Gupta Vikal*, Nisha, Ratnoo Pramila and Choudhary Meenakshi

Tamarind Kernel Powder obtained from the seeds of Tamarind plant, has a hydrophillic polysaccharide matrix, used for the synthesis of new chelating resin based on Glutamine. The synthesis and analysis of tamarind kernel powder-based resin have been carried out. TKP resin has large surface area which enhances the opportunity to heavy metal exchange with hydrogen ion and flocculent.

The Glutamine acid group was anchored on the TKP backbone in dioxane medium. Further resin was prepared with the help of cyanuric chloride. This resin is used for removal of toxic heavy metals from industrial effluent and enhances green technology, makes the world green and creates healthy environment and healthy life.

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Phyto-remediation of total dissolved solids (TDS) by Eichhornia Crassipes, Pistia Stratiotes and Chrysopogon Zizanioides from second stage RO-Brine solution

Abinaya S.*, Saraswathi R., Rajamohan S. and Mohammed Siraj Ansari M.

The use of aquatic plants for water and waste water treatment is increasing nowadays. The aim of the project is to examine the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and Vetiver (chrysopogon zizanioides) for the removal of Total dissolved solids (TDS) from second stage RO brine solution of textile dying industry by attached growth shallow pond system. Under 10 days of operational period, water hyacinth (W.H) showed maximum removal of 55.6% of TDS on 6th day, 48.7% in case of water lettuce (W.L) on 7th day and 39.6 % TDS removal on 3rd under Vetiver (V.V) treatment system.

In addition, several other parameters that directly or indirectly influence the presence of TDS are also estimated. Proline accumulation of water hyacinth and water lettuce which was evaluated all the 10 days, started decreasing after 6th day of operating period while in case of vetiver the proline content was increasing linearly for all the 10 days of operational period which is indication of high TDS stress capability of plants. Phytoremediation will be a promising technique in treatment of RO brine solution in economic way.

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Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial property of poly (ester-amide)

Khane Yasmina*, Belarbi Lahcene, Mouffok Benali and Belhadj Mamiya

There is a growing threat of water-borne infectious diseases, especially in the developing world. It is estimated that water-borne pathogens cause between 10 and 20 million deaths a year worldwide. The use of polymers to bio-remediate and disinfect water is gaining popularity because of unlimited benefits that accrue from producing materials with high performance of biological contaminants removal. Herein, we report the development of antimicrobial poly(ester-amide) and display antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The poly(ester-amide) was synthesized through the reaction of poly (ethylene adipate) with bisoxazoline as chain extender. The polymers were analysed by FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and were confirmed to possess final compositions that were very similar to the initial feed compositions. The antimicrobial activity of the prepared polymer has been tested by using three methods. The obtained results showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, where as it was less active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The prepared polymers were found to inhibit both gram-positive and -negative bacteria.

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Improvement in properties of polyurethane membrane using potassium permanganate as oxidizing agent

Marlina*, Khairan, Fathurrahmi and Sitti Saleha

Polyurethane (PU) membrane was synthesized from oxidated rubber seed oil and 2,4 toyluene diisocyanate (TDI) at various compositions, temperature and time of polymerization. Oxidated oil was derived from rubber seed oil and permanganate as an oxidazing agent. The optimum condition from this process was reached when the oxidazing agent concentration was 15 % (w/v) with iodine value of 47.5 g/g and hydroxyl number of 112.9 mg/g. PU membranes were casted on glass plate at room temperature curing at 80oC for 3 hours and then dried at room temperature for 1 hour.

The result shows that the optimum conditions from oxidated rubber seedoil are TDI composition is 1:3 (ml/g), temperature is 120oC and time 15 minutes. The result obtained was a transparent, elastic and homogeneous film. Polymerization completely occurred at hydrogen bonding index (HBI) of 1.02; glass transition temperature of 77.9oC; decomposition temperature of 456.8oC; crystallinity of 58.3 %; tensile strength of 304.1 Mpa and strain of 15.8 %, homogeneous and had smooth morphology. These result are better than PU membrane properties from pure rubber seed oil wthout oxidation. It was concluded that the changes in structure and mechanical properties of membrane are due to the oxidation process on rubber seed oil.

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Degradation of Methylene Blue by Chitosan Alumina Composite using Sunlight Irradiation

Saraswathi P., Makeswari M.* and Santhi T.

In this present work the photo degradation ability of the Chitosan Alumina Composite is analysed with Methylene Blue dye using sunlight irradiation by varying the contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentration. The maximum percentage of dye degradation of Methylene Blue onto CAC is obtained at pH 9 in 270 minutes. The optimum condition for the Methylene Blue dye degradation is 0.15g dosage of CAC and the concentration of the dye is 20 ppm.

The degradation of Methylene Blue on CAC is explained by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto CAC is favourable for Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The qe value of CAC is 17.78 mg/g. From the results, it follows the pseudo first order kinetics. Chitosan Alumina Composite could be effectively used for the cationic dye degradation.

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Removal of Heavy Metals by Adsorption using Agricultural based Residue: A Review

Singh Kulbir*, Waziri Sadiq Abdullahi and Ram Chhotu

Several researchers have explored the treatment of heavy metal from effluent, the adsorbent material widely used was activated carbon. Activated carbon remained a costly material even with the popular application in water and wastewater treatment. The necessity for cheap, convenient and safer method for the treatment of heavy metal effluents, in recent decades, needs to change the research direction to the alternative production of cheaper adsorbent. Heavy metals examined comprise Cd (II), Zn (II), Hg (II), Pb, Cu, Mn Se (V) and Fe (III). The effectiveness and reliability of agricultural residue activated carbon are considered very important.

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