Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Extraction and Quantification of Nicotinic Acid from 3-Cyanopyrdinase catalysed Reaction System

Arfi Tesnim and Nigam Vinod Kumar*

Nicotinic acid or niacin is a B-complex vitamin that plays an important role in our energy metabolism. Its deficiency causes pellagra which leads to death if left untreated. Biological synthesis of nicotinic acid is more preferred over chemical synthesis as it does not require tedious downstream processing steps for extraction. In the present study, 3-cyanopyridinase from Staphylococcus sp. was evaluated for synthesis of nicotinic acid followed by its extraction from the enzyme catalysed reaction by solvent extraction method.

Ethyl acetate in the ratio of 2:1 was found to be more suitable among the other solvents used for the extraction process. 50 mg of crude nicotinic acid was extracted from 20 ml of enzyme catalysed reaction. Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and High-pressure liquid chromatography were performed for the identification, confirmation and quantification of extracted nicotinic acid. Approximately 22 % bioconversion was achieved (2.23 mM) from 10 mM of 3-cyanopyridine.

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Treatment of bagasse based pulp mill bleach plant effluent by coagulation method

Sudarshan K.*, Venkateshwaran R., Kotteeswaran P. and Murugan A.

The purpose of this present research work was focusing the removal efficiency of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from the high strength colored Elemental Chlorine-Free (ECF) bleaching of bagasse processing pulp mill bleach plant effluent by using polyaluminium chloride (PAC) with the help of Milk of Lime (MOL). For this study, 10 g/L solutions of MOL and PAC coagulant chemicals were prepared separately. By applying the prepared coagulants to effluent at various dosages, it was found that more reduction efficiency of color, COD and BOD is in the range of 90%, 76% and 78% respectively at the optimal 10 g/L coagulants dose volume of MOL (17 mL), PAC (13 mL) and the range of pH 6.5 – 7.4 maintained.

Fourier transform Infrared spectrum (FTIR) was employed to determine the color removal of pollutants caused by chemical bonds from the wastewater and the removal of those functional groups presented in treating wastewater sludge.

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Isolation and identification of Endophytic Fungi from Acacia rugata (Lam.) fawc. Rendle and investigation of their Antibacterial

Ismail*, Reny Syahruni, Alimuddin Ali, A. LilisSugiana and Sujud ZainurRosyid

The purpose of this study is to isolate, identify and evaluate of the antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 83125 of endophytic fungi isolated from Acacia rugata (Lam.) fawc. Rendle. Three morphologically distinct endophytic fungi were isolated and identified by characterization macroscopically and microscopically, based on the results of the antagonistic test obtaining one active isolate. The recovered one isolate was further cultivated in Maltosa Yeast Broth; extracellular bioactive metabolites from the cultivating process had been extracted using ethyl acetate and its antibacterial activity was tested by disc agar diffusion method.

Three isolates of endophytic fungi have antibacterial activity. The LC1 fungal extract showed a strong growth inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 83125 with values of 10.4 mm and 11.5 mm respectively that were characterized having around configuration with jagged edge, the edge is wooly and crateri form elevation. It was identified as Arthrocristula sp. The presence of alkaloid and tannin compounds was identified in LC1 isolates. This study indicated that three fungi isolated from A. rugata leaves can produce compounds that are able to inhibit the growth of bacteria. LC1 isolate is identified as Arthrocristula sp. that contains alkaloids and tannins.

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Antioxidant activity of partially purified compounds from a medicinal plant Salacia oblonga

Gladis Raja Malar C. and Chellaram Chinnachamy*

Plant based drugs got very important place in the modern society, this is due to the low cost, no side effects and the availability of natural chemical constituents formed during the metabolic pathway of plants. Among the herbal plants, Salacia oblonga is an important valuable traditional Ayurveda plant belonging to the family of Celastraceae. It is familiar due to its valuable medicinal property for the treatment of diabetes. It has potential biological activities. Antioxidants are free radical scavengers used to inhibit the formation of highly reactive species.

In this research, the ethanolic extract of Salacia oblonga stem was subjected to the column chromatographic analysis to find the active fraction. Total nine fractions were collected simultaneously and their antioxidant activity was analyzed by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The results of present investigation revealed that the seventh fraction collected by column chromatography showed maximum potential for antioxidant activity (71.4%).

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Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) Template on Synthesis of Zeolitic Material from Fly Ash and Application of Zeolitic Material obtained as an Adsorbent of Heavy Metals Cd and Cu

Upita Septiani*, Admi, Dedi Afriza and Yefrida

Zeolitic materials were prepared from coal fly ash by hydrothermal synthesis method with and without Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) template at pH 14, temperature 60οC and seawater as a solvent. The zeolitic material obtained was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and has characteristics of zeolite hydroxysodalite. N2 adsorption desorption results show that zeolitic materials prepared with and without CTAB template have a specific surface area 5.130 m2g-1 and 4.889 m2g-1, average pore size 30.21 nm and 25.84 nm and total pore volume 0.078 cc g-1 and 0.064 cc g-1 respectively.

The zeolitic materials obtained were utilized as an adsorbent to heavy metal Cd and Cu. The maximum adsorption capacities of the zeolite materials that were prepared with and without CTAB template against heavy metal were 333.3 mg g-1 and 303.0 mg g-1for Cd metal and 322.6 mg g-1 and 285.7 mg g-1 for Cu metal respectively. These results indicated that synthetic zeolite materials have potential as adsorbent of heavy metals Cd and Cu. The results also suggested that the adsorption capacity was affected by specific surface area, average pore size and total pore volume.

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Copper removal by alga Sargassum glaucescens immobilized on calcium alginate and its characterization

Salehi Robati M. and Behnam S.*

The alga Sargassum glaucescens immobilized on calcium alginate was used for copper removal from aqueous solutions. Effects of initial pH, temperature, copper concentration and contact time on biosorption were investigated. Potentiometric titration was used to quantify acidic functions on algal biomass. FTIR analysis was performed on beads to identify functional groups and their role on biosorption. Pseudo-second order model described kinetics data appropriately.

Adsorption isotherm was fitted to Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption capacity of 59.14 mg g-1. Very weak, weak and strong acidities on the algal biomass were respectively equal to 0.125, 0.8 and 1.5 me g-1 dry biomass based on potentiometric titration. Carboxylic acids, phosphate groups and sulfonate groups participated in adsorption of copper ions. Film diffusion was identified as the controlling mechanism for copper removal. Ions of Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+ and K+ were released due to biosorption process indicating that ion exchange was a mechanism of adsorption.

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Effect of MonoethyleneGlycol (MEG) on the Corrosion Performance of Carbon Steel in CO2 Saturated NaCl Solutions

Kanimozhi K.R.*, Shyamala R. and Sankara Papavinasam

The corrosion behavior of pipeline material carbon steel in the presence of impurities like Monoethyleneglycol (MEG) and O2 in CO2 environment under simulated flow conditions was studied. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel was evaluated by using Rotating Cage and the corrosion rates were determined by mass loss measurements. The experimental results obtained reveal that the oxygenated MEG shows a major increase in the corrosion rate of pipeline materials. Surface analytical techniques (SEM and EDS) were used to analyze the corrosion product formed on the metal surface.

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Evaluation of toxicity of Imidacloprid on erythrocyte membrane and vital organs in Swiss albino mice under experimental conditions

Yumnam Devashree*, Dutta Biman Kumar, Paul S.B. and Choudhury Sudip

The effect of commonly used pesticide imidacloprid on erythrocyte membrane and vital organs (liver and kidney) of Swiss albino mice was observed in the following experiment. Abnormalities were observed in the pesticide treated erythrocyte membranes with the help of Scanning electron microscope (SEM) like formation of echinocytes, elliptocytes, acanthocytes, codocytes, reticullocytes, tear drop cells, ghost cell, speroacanthocyte and spheroechinocytes.

The liver and kidney of the treated albino mice showed various abnormalities compared to the control. In case of liver, the degeneration of the nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear membrane and mitochondria were commonly observed. The kidney cells of the treated mice were also observed with different degrees of degeneration.

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A kinetic approach to the biodegradation of dairy waste discharged into the coastal waters around Mumbai City, India

Prabhu D.V.*, Dhage Shivani S. and Kelkar Prakash S.

The pollution of coastal waters around cities is largely due to the unregulated discharge of industrial, agricultural and domestic wastes. Mumbai City has a large dairy industry which processes raw milk into several food products and in the process, large amounts of water effluents containing dissolved sugars, proteins and fats are produced. These effluents are released into the marine waters after a meagre preliminary treatment. Thus, the marine environment is adversely affected and marine life gets depleted. The health of a water body is defined by physicochemical parameters like BOD, COD, DO and pH. Dairy waste is rich in microorganisms which help in its biodegradation by wet oxidation.

The kinetics of biodegradation of dairy waste by wet oxidation has been studied in detail with particular reference to the effects of 1) salinity ([Cl-] in the range 0 to 20000 mg per dm3) and 2) temperature on the rate of biodegradation. The biodegradation follows first order kinetics and the oxidation rate was monitored by estimating the dissolved oxygen present initially and at regular time intervals during the reaction, using the Alsteberg azide modification of the Winkler method. The study confirmed the negative impact of salinity on the rate of biodegradation of dairy waste.

Thermodynamics plays an important role in the chemical reactions occurring in the oceans during degradation of organic wastes. The effect of temperature (200C and 270C) on the rate of degradation of dairy waste was studied and the energy of activation and other thermodynamic activation parameters like enthalpy of activation, free energy of activation and entropy of activation were evaluated using the Arrhenius equation and were correlated with the reaction mechanism of the biodegradation reaction. The kinetics of biodegradation by oxidation of a synthetic sample, Lactose-Peptone was also studied.

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Active Constituents of Kiwi (Actinidia Deliciosa Planch) Peels and Their Biological Activities as Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Anticancer

Salama Zeinab A.*, Aboul-Enein Ahmed M., Gaafar Alaa A., Abou-Elella Faten, Aly Hanan F., Asker Mohsen S. and Ahmed Habiba A.

The present investigation evaluated 4 distinct solvent compositions for their proportional capacity to extract total phenolic and total flavonoid (TF) and total tannins (TT) components of the peels of kiwi (Actinidia Deliciosa Planch) as well as to profile the composition of these plant by-product and to measure their antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Chemical analyses offered that the content of moisture, protein, crude fat total carbohydrates and ash was 85.27% of FW, 12.62, 3.70, 76.92 and 6.50% of DW respectively. The minerals determined were: K (2300 ppm), Ca (2300 ppm), Na (900 ppm), P (600 ppm), Mg (8200 ppm), Fe (82.26 ppm), Cu (6.64 ppm), Zn (9.26 ppm) and Mn (14.83 ppm) in dried samples.

The altitude content of total phenolic flavonoid and tannin were acquired in Acetone (80%) extract. Kiwi peels acetone 80% extract possess the highest antioxidant and antimicrobial activity at 600 ppm. Kiwi peels do not show any effects against breast and hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The phenolic profile of the same extract of kiwi peels was specified by HPLC and demonstrated that the main phenolic compounds were syringic, chrysin and quercetin. These results obviously encourage the enforcement of kiwi peels as a potential candidate as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

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Topical Anti-inflammatory Activity of Gedi Leaves Extract Gel (Abelmoschus manihot L.) on Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema in Male Wistar Albino Rat

Raden Bayu Indradi, Moelyono Moektiwardojo* and Rini Hendriani

Gedi (Abelmoschus manihot L.) is a plant from Malvaceae family studied for variety of activities including anti-inflammatory. Empirically, Gedi leaves were used as anti-inflammatory with topical administration. Study of topical anti-inflammatory activity from the ethanolic extract of Gedi leaves (Abelmoschus manihot L.) in topical gel preparation on carageenan-induced paw edema has been carried out. The dried-leaves were extracted by Soxhlet method with ethanol. The crude extracts was prepared at 4%, 6% and 8% in Na-CMC-based gel form and evaluated for topical anti-inflammatory using carageenan-induced paw edema method for 6 hours and measuring each 1 hour with Na-CMC gel base as negative control and Sodium Diclofenac 1% as positive control.

The results showed that Gedi leaves extract at dose of 6% gave the highest topical anti-inflammatory activity followed by dose of 8% and 4% with inhibition percentage of 46,06%, 30,80% and 22,78% respectively while Sodium Diclofenac as positive control gave 64,99% inhibition percentage. Statistical analysis showed that the dose of 6% possessed a significant topical anti-inflammatory activity at the measurement after the induction of carageenan.

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A review on the environmental and biological impacts of bifacial heavy metal chromium

Tamilarasan M. and Sathiavelu A.*

Water pollution is one of the life-threatening problems in developing and under developing countries; it is also being the challenge for country’s economic growth. The primary water pollution sources are produced due to anthropogenic activities because of the improper discharge of effluents from electroplating, tannery, petrochemical, machineries, steam boilers and agricultural industries. This paper reviews about the nature of chromium element in the environment, in the biological systems, in tannery industries and the environmental pollution caused by improper discharge of tannery effluents in Vellore district as well as the employment opportunity provided by the tannery industries.

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Microbial production of tannase using agro waste

Kaur Avneet and Katyal Priya*

Microbial enzymes have been found to be the most versatile biocatalysts for a plethora of biochemical reactions with diverse industrial applications. Tannase, an important hydrolase enzyme with huge biotechnological potential has been reported from plant, animal and microbial sources. Microbial tannase production on cheap, easily available agro-industrial wastes and optimization of its process parameters for its economical production, is an important field of investigation. Diverse group of microorganisms have been reported to produce tannase with varying catalytic efficiency. Considering its wide applications in industries related to production of food, feed, beverages, brewing, pharmaceutics and cosmetics, microbial tannase is an important enzyme to study. Even the by-product produced by tannin hydrolysis such as Gallic acid is being exploited for production of antioxidants and antibiotics (trimethoprim).

Tannins have a strong ability to form complex with proteins, alkaloids and heavy metals and have been widely used in tanning and in treatment of poisoning caused by heavy metals and alkaloids. Tannins have been used as antioxidants, anti-diarrheal, diuretics, antiinflammatory, antiseptic, anti-hemorrhagic and anticancer astringent agents that are bitter and can reduce the digestion by inhibiting the secretion of digestive enzymes. This review focuses on different substrates of tannase, optimization studies of physico-chemical parameters, properties and industrial applications of tannase.

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