Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Copper leaching from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) using sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide

Seyed Mohammad Seyed Alizadeh Ganji, Asghar Azizi and Mohammad Hayati

Page No. 1-9

This study was aimed to investigate an oxidative leaching manner (sulfuric acid and H2O2) to recover copper from the printed circuit boards (PCBs). Response surface modeling was employed to distinguish and optimize the effects of sulfuric acid concentration, temperature, H2SO4/H2O2 volume ratio, leaching time and pulp density on the copper leaching. Also, a mathematical model was proposed for a relationship between the influential terms and Cu leaching recovery with a high correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9998.

The results showed that the pulp density, H2SO4/H2O2 volume ratio and sulfuric acid concentration were the most effective factors. The pulp density and H2SO4/H2O2 volume ratio had negative influences on the Cu recovery while H2SO4 concentration had the positive influences. The 3D surface plots proved that the leaching rate of copper was strongly affected by the interactive effects among factors. The highest copper leaching rate (∼99.44%) was obtained at the sulfuric acid concentration of 2M, the temperature of 50 °C, H2SO4/H2O2 volume ratio of 4, the leaching time of 8 h and the pulp density of 5%.

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Preparation and characterization of a high performance activated carbon by pyrolysis of pine cone (Pinus halepensis) and adsorption tests on methylene blue

Bouchair Abdennour, Bouremmad Farida, Shawuti Shalima, Amayreh Mousa Y. and Gulgun Mehmet Ali

Page No. 10-18

The present study focuses on the preparation of an activated carbon (PAC) from pine cone. This activated carbon is obtained by pyrolysis under Nitrogen N2 flow at 800°C. The surface area of the material was determined by physical adsorption of N2 gas, the Brunauer, Emett and Teller BET surface area is 633 m2/g. Fourier Transform Infrared FTIR was used for functional groups identification and Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM for morphology characterization.

The produced activated carbon was tested as an adsorbent for Methylene Blue (MB) in batch conditions and the effects of different experimental parameters were studied. Kinetic experimental data are in perfect agreement with the pseudo-second order model with an excellent correlation R2 = 0.99 and equilibrium data were best fitted to the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 151 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that MB adsorption onto PAC is a spontaneous, physical and endothermic process.

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Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell using mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 electrodes

Arun Kumar D., Merline Shyla J. and Xavier Francis P.

Page No. 19-23

The TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites were sensitized with 5x10-2 mM concentrations of Safranin O dye solution. The XRD data reveal the presence of prominent peaks due to TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites and complete absence of peaks due to Safranine O dye. The FTIR spectrum clearly indicates that there is physical adsorption between the nanocomposites and dye. UV-Vis spectrum of Safranin O dye sensitized TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites showed peak at 520 nm.

Field dependent dark and photoconductivity of Safranin O dye sensitized TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites showed enhanced dark and photocurrent densities. Dye sensitized solar cells constructed with Safranin O sensitized TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites produced short-circuit photocurrent (Isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) of 3.22 mA and 872 mV respectively. The conversion efficiency of Safranin O dye sensitized TiO2/SiO2 solar cell of active area 1 cm2 illuminated by a halogen lamp with the incident light of 100 mWcm-2 was calculated to be 1.71%.

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Chemopreventive effect of black cumin seed oil (BCSO) by increasing p53 expression in dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced Sprague Dawley rats

Titiek Hidayati, Akrom, Indrayanti and Sagiran

Page No. 24-32

This study was conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effect of black cumin seeds oil (Nigella sativa) in 96 dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced Sprague Dawley mice. The test animals were divided into eight groups. The normal group was given standard food and drink. The three black cumin seed oil (BCSO) treatment groups received BCSO dosages of 0.25, 2.5 and 5 ml/kgBW/day respectively and they were induced with DMBA. The thymoquinone and tamoxifen groups received 50 mg/kgBW/day thymoquinone and 0.6 mg/kgBW/day tamoxifen respectively and they were induced with DMBA.

The DMBA group was induced with 10x20mg/kgBW DMBA for five weeks. The solvent group received standard feeding and corn oil solutions. Starting from the third week of treatment, all groups except the normal and solvent groups were given 20 mg/kgBW DMBA twice a week for five weeks. Dissection and data retrieval were conducted at week 27. The chemopreventive effects are measured by nodules incidence, nodul multiplication, total weight and histopathology.

The p53 and H-Ras gene expression are assessed using densitometry after PCR. The mean intergroup difference was calculated using one-way ANOVA. The results showed that BCSO administration before and during DMBA induction could decrease nodule formation and count, decrease H-Ras gene expression and increase p53 gene expression. A dose of 0.25 ml/kgBW/day BCSO indicated a chemopreventive effect, increased p53 gene expression and decreased H-Ras gene expression, all of which were similar to a dose of 2.25 ml/kgBW/day but safer. It can be concluded that treatment of 0.25 ml/kgBW/day BCSO produces chemopreventive effects in DMBA-induced SD rats.

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Enrichment of plant growth and nitrogen fixation in field bean (Dolichos lablab) under salt stress through nanoparticulate suspensions (CaO, FeO, MgO and ZnO)

Balaji T.M., Vigneshwaran D. and Hemananthan E.

Page No. 33-38

Salinization of soil and water is now major environmental issue in agriculture. The salinity of soil and water decreases the growth and yield of agricultural products. Salinity affects many physiological and morphological processes of plant due to accumulation of minerals, ions etc. Salinity had affected field bean growth drastically as previously studied. At saline conditions and accumulation of sodium ions will reduce the uptake of potassium ions and other nutrients whereas calcium can act as a regulator for the transport of sodium ions. The effect of nutrient nano suspension on seed germination under saline stress was proposed. Nanoparticles of Calcium oxide, Zinc oxide, Magnesium Oxide and Ferric oxide were synthesized and they were characterized using DLS, SEM and FTIR.

Pre-treatment of CaO of concentration 1000 ppm to salt stressed seeds showed highest germination than bulk treated saline stressed plant. Growth of the plants was analysed in both saline stressed and non-saline stressed soil by pot experiment for 90 days. CaO nanosuspension was given to the seed by pre-treating the seed with nano CaO and also with irrigation water. FeO, MgO and ZnO nanosuspensions were treated to the plant by foliar spray method after the development of leaves. Growth parameters (plant height, no. of leaves and dry weight) and biochemical constituents (total proteins, carbohydrates and chlorophyll), were analysed with the plant sample and all were found higher for CaO pre-treated salt stress field bean. Nutrient ion analysis for the given nanoparticle was analysed by AAS and showed more amount of nutrient absorbed by the nanosuspension treated plants. Soil nitrogen fixation increased by 23% in nano-suspension treated field bean as compared to control plants.

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blaCTX-M Gene as Risk Factor of Antibiotic Resistance

Devinna Kang, Maryam Sofiah, Tina Rostinawati, Eli Halimah, Keri Lestari, Melisa I. Barliana, Herlambang Herlambang and Rizky Abdulah

Page No. 39-42

Excessive and misuse of antibiotics cause resistance for one or multidrug resistance. The β-lactam group is known as the most used type of antibiotic in the world. Clinical effectiveness of this antibiotic becomes limited by antibiotic resistance. Resistance mostly occurs in gram-negative bacteria especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae caused by enzymatic hydrolysis of antibiotics with genetically and functionally different enzymes called by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). ESBL is a β-lactamase enzyme which causes bacterial resistance against penicillin, extended cephalosporin with oxyimino side chain (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime) and oxyimino-monobactam aztreonam (but not cephamycin or carbapenem).

One of ESBL encoding genes is blaCTX-M-15 known as the most prevalent and causes any resistance. This cross-sectional study design aims to detect blaCTX-M gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and evaluates the relationship of the blaCTX-M gene with the incidence of antibiotic resistance in patients with bacterial infection at RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung. The results showed that from 45 samples which were tested, 43 samples are positive for blaCTX-M-98 gene and 2 samples are positive for blaCTX-M-90 gene. Both genes have a relationship with the incidence of antibiotic resistance in patients with bacterial infections at RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung.

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Transition metal complexes of substituted nicotinic acid and its nano metal oxides: synthesis and characterization

Kanchana P., Arunadevi N., Prabha Devi B. and Subha Priya P.

Page No. 43-49

A new series of Fe(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) octahedral complexes of 2-hydroxynicotinic acid with hydrazine hydrate was synthesized. The acid acts as diacidic bidentate ligand to give mononuclear complexes with formula M[(C6H3NO3)(N2H4)2]H2O where M= Fe(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II). The nature of bonding and stereochemistry of the prepared hydrazine complexes have been deduced from elemental analysis, IR and thermo gravimetric analysis. In all complexes the 2-hydroxynicotinic acid is attached to metal through its terminal part which contains OH and COOH group whereas hydrazine acts as neutral bidentate ligand.

The TG-DTA evinces the stability of the complexes up to 560C˚ and undergoes complete decomposition with the formation of metal oxide as end product. The prepared Fe(II) and Zn(II) complexes were used as precursors for the synthesis of nanometal oxides. Nano particles thus prepared were characterized by scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X- ray analysis and TEM. In addition, the synthesized complexes are screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity and antifungal studies.

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Biochemical evaluation of gills of selected marine and freshwater fishes – “Health from Wastes”

Liji Thomas and Saleena Mathew

Page No. 50-56

Utilization of fish gills is an innovative regime which consecutively supports fish waste management and results in a safe environment. Assessment and comparison of nutritional profile along with isolation of glycosaminoglycans from gills of selected four marine fishes (Thunnus albacares, Rastrelliger kanagurta, Carangoides malabaricus and Lutjanus Campechanus) and two freshwater fishes (Anabus testudines and Channa striata) were carried out. Results indicated that moisture is the main constituent in all and is found to be high in fresh water fish 76.55% - 79.90% than that of marine fishes 64.07% - 71.97%. Whereas the lipid content was found to be high in marine water fishes (1.16%-2.89%) and low in fresh water fishes (2.52%-2.55%) and is inversely related to the moisture content. There is no significant difference in their protein and carbohydrate content, ranges between 13.35%-15.75 % and 2.20%- 2.92% for protein and carbohydrate respectively.

The yields of gills crude glycosaminoglycan are 85.78±0.22% (T. albacares), 81.02±0.83% (R. kanagurta)., 79.19±0.42 (C.malabaricus) ,76.82±0.24 (L.Campechanus),74.09±0.32 (A.testudines) and 75.73±0.13(C.striata). Heavy metal analysis indicated that the levels in isolated crude glycosaminoglycans are negligible confirming its safety in human consumption. Hence, it is proved that fish gills, the main fish processing waste can be used as a good source of glycosaminoglycans predictably a non-toxic, economical source for tissue engineering in future.

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Antibacterial activity of Ethanolic Extract and Fraction from Papaya Seeds (Carica papaya L.) against Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing Burns Infection

Sulistiyaningsih, Adi Pratama, Ami Tjitraresmi and Imam Adi Wicaksono

Page No. 57-61

Infections in burn wounds are still one of the main causes of disability and mortality. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most common bacteria causing infections in burns. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of extracts and fractions of Papaya seeds against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to determine the most active fractions and to know Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the test material.

The results showed that MIC for the ethanol extract of papaya seeds was in range 2.5% - 5.0% (w/v) for both test bacteria and fraction of ethyl acetate was in range 0.3125% - 0.625% (w/v) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates and range of 0.15625% - 0.3125% (w/v) against Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. MBC for the ethanol extract of papaya seeds was 5.0% (w / v) for both test bacteria while ethyl acetate fraction is 0.625% (w/v) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates and 0.3125% against Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. It can be suggested that extract and fraction of Carica seeds gave antibacterial effect and can be used to discover new drugs or alternative to control Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates.

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In vitro activity of immunomodulator of N-Hexane fraction of bangle (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) Ethanol extract

Nurkhasanah, Sulistyani Nanik and Noorlina

Page No. 62-64

Zingiber cassumunar is potentially an immunomodulator. The aim of study is to determine the immunomodulatory activity of n-hexane fraction of Zingiber cassumunar ethanol extracts with a measurement of phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Macrophage cells are isolated from peritoneum of mice. Cells were planted and added to latex and n-hexane fraction of Zingiber cassumunar ethanol extract and then painted using 20% giemsa. Lymphocyte cells are isolated from lymph. Cells were planted and given n-hexane fraction of Zingiber cassumunar ethanol extract. Incubate for 3 days using 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C. Data were analysed using SPSS with a confidence level of 95%.

The results of the average percentage of phagocytic activity and phagocytic index of n-hexane fraction of Zingiber cassumunar ethanol extract of 0.025 μg/ml, 0.050 μg/ml, 0.100 μg/ml and controls were respectively 5.247% and 5.311%, 7.475% and 7.720%, 10.593% and 11.393% and 15.989% and 19.317%. The results of the average lymphocyte proliferation absorbance of 0.025 μg/ml, 0.050 μg/ml, 0.100 μg/ml and controls respectively are 0.107, 0.127, 0.126 and 0.149. The n-hexane fraction of Zingiber cassumunar ethanol extract can reduce the phagocytic activity of macrophages (p<0.05) and lymphocyte proliferation (p<0.05) in mice in vitro.

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Anionic Surfactant effect on Chemical Species of L-Phenylalanine Complexes with Heavy Metal Ions

Ramanaiah M.

Page No. 65-71

The solution equilibria of metal ligand complexes of Pb(II) Cd(II) and Hg(II) with L-phenylalanine have been investigated at an ionic strength of 0.16 M and a temperature of 300 K in 0.0-2.5% w/v sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-water mixtures. The formation constants have been determined experimentally by monitoring hydrogen ion concentration. The distribution of the metal ion amongst the complexes formed with the title ligands has also been computed.

The formation constants have been refined with the computer program MINIQUAD75 using the primary alkalimetric data. Distribution of species with pH at different compositions of SLS in the medium, relative stability of binary complexes and the possible equilibria for the complexes were discussed. The probable structures of the complexes are also given.

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In Vitro Activity of Ethanolic Extract from the Tuber Ant Plant (Myrmecodia pendens Merr and L.M Perry) against Clinical Isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Multi Resistant (PAMR)

Imam Adi Wicaksono, Sri Agung Fitri Kusuma and Yasmiwar Susilawati

Page No. 72-75

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the bacteria causing nosocomial infections. Severe infections are associated with high mortality rates. P.aeruginosa was also reported to be resistant to antibiotics which can be called PAMR bacteria. The tuber ant plant (Myrmecodia pendens Merr. and L. M. Perry) has antibacterial activity and one of medicinal plants growing in Pappua, Indonesia.

This research was conducted to determine antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of PAMR using the agar diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values of the extract were determined by the dilution method. The results showed that the ethanolic extract had antibacterial activity and totally inhibited the clinical isolate of PAMR at 10% w/v. The results of this research suggest that the ethanolic extract gave antibacterial effect against clinical isolate of PAMR to control bacteria resistance causing nosocomial infection.

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Study of Performance of Laboratory Successive Alkalinity Producing system (SAPS) with reference to Metal Removal and Alkalinity Generation during Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

Patel M.D., Jade R.K. and Dewangan Pankaj

Page No. 76-84

Successive Alkalinity Producing System (SAPS) is becoming popular worldwide for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). The effectiveness of SAPS depends upon many parameters such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent quality, characteristics of organic substrate and their design aspects. In this laboratory SAPS column study, four synthetic AMD solutions were treated for 1 day, 2 days, 4 days, 7 days and 10 days HRTs to determine the performances of SAPS using cow compost as organic substrate, saw dust and limestone in parallel in identical conditions. In this study, studies were carried out to find the effect of hydraulic retention time on iron, aluminum and manganese removal and alkalinity generation by laboratory SAPS.

In this study, 100% iron and 100% aluminum and about 60% manganese removal has been found, particularly for 4 days HRTs and more depending upon metal concentration in influent AMD. Higher rate of alkalinity generation was observed in initial reaction period, then it got slower down after passage of time. The results of this study will be useful for design of SAPS for field operations and to improve performance of existing SAPS working in mines worldwide.

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Study on the effects of Cadmium Chloride on Liver and Testis in Albino Rats

Patra Amit Kr., Dey Shanti Ranjan, Banerjee Sutapa and Kar Sukumar

Page No. 85-93

Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects the liver and reproductive system of the male albino rat. Exposure to cadmium metal is known to induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) the superoxide radical, hydroxyl ion and hydrogen peroxide. This study was carried out to investigate the adverse effects of acute dose of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on liver and testis function in male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats were weighed and equally divided into four groups in such a way that each group contains 5 animals. The control group received 0.9% saline water subcutaneously while the treated groups received CdCl2 solution and were sacrificed after 7 days, 14 days and 21 days accordingly. The testis was weighed immediately and liver part dissected out and the relative of each organ was kept for histological study and protein biochemistry. The observation made on liver and testis showed causal damage and necrosis of the organs. Regarding protein concentration in case of testis, the protein decreased in experimental days.

However, the liver protein decreased in first week and severely decreased in second week but in the third week the protein of the liver tissues gradually increases and tends to normal condition. Stained histological sections of testis and epididymis of CdCl2 treated group reveal a degradation of seminiferous tubles and deformity in spermatogenesis as well as absence of spermatozoa. Decrease in the seminal vesicular secretion was also noted in CdCl2 treated rats. The necrosis and damage were investigated in control and treated groups through various experimental design set up as per standard norms. The observation made on liver and testis and showed damage and necrosis of the organs as well as significant decrease in size and weight of the testis compared to control.

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Photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue with pulse electrodeposited CuIn0.1Al0.9Se2 films

Thirumoorthy M. and Murali K.R.

Page No. 94-102

CuIn0.1Al0.9Se2 films were deposited by the pulse electrodeposition technique at room temperature. The duty cycle differed in the range of 6 – 50 %. Single phase chalcopyrite films were obtained. The grain size shifted in the range of 10 nm – 18 nm with decrease of duty cycle. Band gap of the films increased from 2.27 eV to 2.40 eV with increase of duty cycle. Methylene blue color degradation was considered with the thin films deposited at various duty cycle. Films deposited at 50 % duty cycle displayed most extreme photocatalytic degradation.

The dye could be degraded up to 95 % in 60 min. The optimum conditions for maximum photocatalytic degradation were established: pH value of 11, dye loading of 20 mg/L and amount of photocatalyst of 50 mg/L was optimum. Reusability of the photocatalyst was tested by measuring the degradation of methylene for four consecutive cycles. A decrease of only 3 % was observed.

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Electro-organic synthesis and characterization of copper and zinc chelate complexes

Gorai Shreya and Alam M.

Page No. 103-111

Electro-organic synthesis of chelate complexes Cu2 L4 (H2O)2 and Zn2L4(H2O) [where L(ligand)=acetic acid] was carried out at sacrificial metal electrode (M= Cu ,Zn) as anode and inert platinum cathode using acetic acid as ligand, lithium perchlorate trihydrate as supporting electrolyte and acetone as solvent. The product isolated have been characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectral data and thermal gravimetric analysis.

Acetic acid acts as bidentate ligand, acts as bridge between the metal centers yielding a polymeric structure bearing monodentate acetate groups. This method shows compatibility with the green chemistry. Current efficiencies of both these methods are found to be quite high over conventional method.

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Supplementation of probiotic enterococcus faecium IS-27526 decreasing the population of enterobacteriaceae

Arif Satria Wira Kusuma, Ellena Maggyvin, Sofa D. Alfian, Febrina A. Saputri, Mutakin, Ingrid S. Surono, Hiroshi Koyama, Herlambang Herlambang and Rizky Abdulah

Page No. 112-118

Gastrointestinal microbiota composed of trillions of bacteria species bear important role in maintaining stable ecosystem inside the body. In gut, Enterobacteriaceae is present in very low densities below 108 cfu/g. Elevated number of enterobacteriaceae in gut can promote gastrointenstinal infection. Probiotics has been used for a long time in treating gastrointestinal related diseases. This reaserch aims to evaluate the effect of Enterococcus faecium IS-27526 supplementation as a novel probiotic from Indonesia on gut microbiota. Species of bacteria that were successfully identified using both morphology and physiology identification test on bacteria resulted in four major genera which are Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Serratia and Escherichia.

Total bacterial and Enterobacteriaceae number were calculated between test and control group. Total bacteria population from Total Plate Count result was 222.67 x 106 cfu/ml in control group and 210.33 x 106 cfu/ml in probiotics induced group. TPC result for Enterobacteriaceae population from probiotics induced group was 11.33 x 106 cfu/ml and 12.00 x 106 cfu/ml for the control group. The use of Enterococcus faecium IS-17526 has significantly reduced the total bacterial count as well as enterobacteriaceae population in gut.

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Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of the coordination compounds derived from NS donor thiosemicarbazone ligand

Sharma J. and Dogra P.

Page No. 119-125

An EtOH solution of 4-bromobenzaldehyde and thiosemicarbazide in equimolar ratio forms the corresponding Schiff base, LH (1). The latter reacts with Mn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions in 2:1 ratio and forms the corresponding coordination compounds [MnL2(H2O)2] (2), [CuL2] (3)and [ML2] (4, M = Ni, Zn). The coordination compounds have been characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, molar conductance, spectral (IR, reflectance, 1H NMR, ESR) studies and magnetic susceptibility measurements.

The molar conductivities show that all of the complexes are non-electrolytes. 1 acts as a monobasic bidentate NS donor ligand in 2–4 coordinating through its azomethine N and thione S atoms. A square-planar structure to 3, a tetrahedral structure to 4 and an octahedral structure to 2 are proposed. These complexes were also screened for anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity. The complexes exhibited greater activity against some micro-organisms when compared to the ligand.

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Effect of Cypermethrin on growth, cell division and photosynthetic pigment content in Onion, Maize and Grass pea

Samanta Aveek, Pramanik Soumya Jyoti, Jana Jaydeb and Mandal Somashree

Page No. 126-129

The effect of cypermethrin on growth performance, photosynthetic pigment content in Onion (Allium cepa L.), Maize (Zea mays L.) and Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) was evaluated. The tested concentration (0.2 g/L, 0.4 g/L, 0.6 g/L and 0.8 g/L) of the chemical reduced the germination percentage root, shoot length, mitotic index significantly (p<0.05) as compared to control.

The plants when shown on soil containing the respective concentration of solution, the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) decrease. The moisture content decreases with increasing cypermethrin concentrations. From the present study, it can be concluded that the cypermethrin, when contaminated with agricultural soil, can cause reduction of growth and development of food crops.

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Biosorption of lead by Pseudomonas based biosorbent

Vimalarasan A.

Page No. 130-132

In the recent days the increase in industrial activities shows some significant effect over the ecosystem and the biodiversity. The metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights or atomic numbers are termed as heavy metals. They exhibit toxicity to the living organisms even in low concentrations. Heavy metals accumulated in the ecosystem due to the industrial activities have become a matter of concern throughout the world in the past two decades. Decontamination of these heavy metals was done by various physical and chemical methods. Biosorption is the biological mode of removal of these heavy metals using the biotechnological techniques and innovations. Application of bacterial biomass in the removal of heavy metal is one of the methods and has many advantages.

In our present study biosorption of lead by gram negative bacteria Pseuomonas was characterized. Lead removal was found to be influenced by the pH of the solution, temperature and contact time. The optimum condition for biosorption process was analyzed for maximum lead removal. The saturation point of the biosorbent in lead uptake and the effective storage time without losing the biosorption capacity were also analyzed. FTIR analysis was carried out to reveal the alteration in the cell wall characteristics of the dried biomass due to the binding of lead ions.

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Excess Synthetic Waste in Landfills destroying Soil Reserves

Hada Snehlata and Shukla Ashutosh

Page No. 133-135

The growing amount of plastic waste in landfills has raised a serious concern about the soil richness among the conservationist. The daily door-to-door waste collection service by the civic body amounts to have the highest composition of plastic in it. Apart from excessive use of plastic bags and loose disposal, improper segregation of it leads to a serious concern about soil reserves, its richness. Environmentalists say that a large quantity of plastic dumping can affect the percolation of water. So, steps should be taken to protect the soil fertility. As plastics are non-biodegradable, they will take years of time to decompose into the soil.

The ground where plastic is present will not permit the water to go within soil, which reduces the fertility (causes reduction in plantation) of the soil. Researchers are trying to prepare polythene that could easily disintegrate. It is proposed to prepare biopolythene making use of lignocellulosic mass like parthenium hystoporous.

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Potential of Cordia Obliqua for turbidity removal in potable water

Agrawal Vivek and Awasthi Mamta

Page No. 136-142

Wide variety of flora is unexplored on the basis of turbidity removal ability when used as a coagulant in water treatment. The fruit of Cordia Obliqua Plant (Clammy Cherry) grows vigorously and is being used for medicinal properties traditionally. Mucilaginous gel like part of the fruit is used as gum in pasting sheets of paper and cardboard conventionally. Here the ability of mucilaginous gel of Cordia Obliqua’s fruit to be used as a coagulant in turbidity removal is studied. Synthetic turbid water has been tested in unprocessed and processed form of the gel.

The optimum dose of coagulant is determined at variable pH range. Unprocessed gel of fruit provides a turbidity removal efficiency of 81.87% at optimum dose of 3 g/L whereas the processed gel powder provides a turbidity removal efficiency of 84.05 % at an optimum dose of 40 mg/L. This natural coagulant is eco-friendly for turbidity removal as compared to conventional chemical treatment processes (like alum).

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Complexation Behaviour of Sulfathiazole towards Fe (III) Ion

Otuokere I.E., Ohwimu J.D., Amadi K.C. and Okafor G.U.

Page No. 143-148

Sulfathiazole (SFTZ) is a short acting sulfonamide used for the treatment of bacterial infection. Sulfathiazole is an organosulfur compound used as a short-acting sulfa drug. Iron complex of sulfathiazole was synthesized by reaction of sulfathiazole with FeCl3. The metal complex was characterized based on UV, IR, 1H NMR Spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The UV spectrum of the sulfathiazole showed intra ligand charge transfer (ILCT) assigned to the chromophores present in the ligand, while that of the complex suggested intra ligand charge transfer (ILCT), ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) and d-d transition.

The IR spectra of the complex showed the involvement of amine, sulfonyl and cyano group in coordination to the metal ion. This shows that sulfathiazole acted as a tridentate ligand. The AAS studies of the complex showed the presence of 17.88 % Fe which was in aggrement with calculated value. 1H NMR spectra of [Fe(SFTZ)] complex further showed the involvement of the amine and sulfonyl group in coordination to the metal ions. The structure of [Fe(SFTZ)] complex was assigned as trigonal. The crystal structure of [Fe(SFTZ)] complex belongs to monoclinic system, space group P121(1) with cell parameters of 𝑎 = 3.470Å, 𝑏 = 7.101(2) Å, 𝑐 = 8.766 Å, 𝑉 = 215.1 Å3, β = 94.26O. The ability of sulfathiazole to sequestrate Fe(III) ions is hereby assured.

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