Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Biodiesel from Saudi jojoba seeds: Microwave Transesterification and its properties as a Fuel

Gobouri Adel A., Aydarous Abdulkadir, Al-Amoudi Muhammed S., Ibrahim Mohamed M., El-Adly Refaat A. and Altalhi Tariq

Page No. 1-9

This study aims to explore the solvent extraction of jojoba oil from the ground seeds of jojoba shrub (Simmondsia chinensis) cultivated in Taif region-Saudi Arabia and production of biodiesel from it as an alternative renewable energy source. The transesterification reaction of the extracted jojoba oil was carried out in a microwave reactor at 600C using methanol: oil in a molar ratio of 7.5:1 with vigorous stirring (800 rpm). This microwave assisted process achieved quantifiable conversion of the jojoba oil to biofuel after 1 h compared to 4 h under conventional methods. The chemical compositions of the crude prodcut were determined using Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the physicochemical properties to of the separated biodiesel were determined according Saudi Standard, Metrology and Quality Org (SASO) FDS 30183; 2018.

The results of the performance tests applied to the obtained biodiesel showed an appropriate density and high calorific value of 0.8766 and 41.226 j.g-1 respectively. The fluidity of the extracted biofuel assessed through kinematic viscosity was found to be 5.73 mm2s-1 which was superior to that obtained by conventional heating transesterification (5.73 mm2s-1 vs. 9.04 mm2s-1). This viscosity value is close to the European standard for biodiesel (3.5-5.0 mm2s-1). The physicochemical and combustion characteristics were found to be in conformity with the Saudi Arabian clean diesel fuel (low Sulphur) specifications.

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A comparative research study on Cr (VI) removal from effluent using leaves of Brassica campestris and Dalbergia sissoo as adsorbents

Gupta Vikal and Choudhary Meenakshi

Page No. 10-15

An attempt has been made to explore easiest and cheapest way of developing adsorbents from leaves of Brassica campestris and Dalbergia sissoo plants. These plants are easily found in dry and semi- arid regions of India and their leaves can be used in removal of toxic metal ions from industrial wastes water. Various heavy metals which are toxic in nature, affect the soil and ultimately to plants or trees or vegetation which affects the human health.

In this research, we emphasize on the removal of Cr (VI) by activating a Brassica campestris and Dalbergia sissoo leaves powder using biosorption technique. The biological technique has been tested with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Effects of various parameters like contact time, adsorbent dosage and pH have been studied.

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Molecular inhibition and pharmacophore screening of curcumin and its derivatives against plasmepsin II as an antimalarial effect

Sandra Megantara, Sharimina Venu Gopalan, Aliya Nur Hasanah and Sri Adi Sumiwi

Page No. 16-24

Malaria is a contagious disease caused by parasites (protozoa) from genus plasmodium which can be transmitted through anopheles mosquito bites. Pepstatin has an inhibitor of aspartate protease but does not meet Lipinski Rule of Five's rationale as it can not be administered orally. Curcumin has antimalarial activity based on previous studies by inhibiting acne and need to be developed, hence a study was conducted to determine the pharmacopoeic group of curcumin and also to know curcumin derivatives that have antimalarial potential.

Research started from docking curcumin molecule into plasmepsin II receptor. Molecular docking protocol validation was made by redocking and was obtained 1.36 Å which proved that this method is valid and correct because the RMSD value is less than 2 Å. Research was followed by pharmacophore modeling. Active ligands and decoys database were obtained from BindingDB. From the result of validation, pharmacophore model 2 was the best model with AUC value of ROC curve as 0.76 and was used for screening of curcumin derivative test compound. CUR10 and CUR43 were hit on pharmacophore model. However, CUR43 is a compound that has the most potency as an antimalarial drug because it interacts with aspartate in the binding site of plasmepsin II with binding affinity and inhibition constant -8.70 kcal/mol and 0.42 M respectively while CUR10 does not meet Lipinski Rule of Five.

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Adsorptive Removal of Chromium (VI) using Walnut Shell, Almond Shell, Coconut Shell and Peanut Shell

Loulidi I., Boukhlifi F., Ouchabi M., Amar A., Jabri M., Kali A. and Chraibi S.

Page No. 25-32

Materials as waste can be utilized for the adsorption of heavy metals due to their advantages such as low cost, availability, cost-effectiveness, ease of use and efficiency. This study examines the ability of certain agricultural waste products which include walnut shell (WS), almond shell (AS), coconut shell (CS) and peanut shell (PS), to remove Cr (VI) from water at acid pH and at room temperature using batch mode. The adsorption isotherms of Cr (VI) could be described very well by the Langmuir’s model as well as the better adsorption yields corresponding to the case of the walnut shell and maximum monolayer capacity proved to be 37,5 mg.g-1. The kinetic results demonstrated that the Cr (VI) removal follows the model of pseudo-second order.

Furthermore, the characterization of the adsorbent materials by the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction has shown that these supports do not undergo a modification after adsorption. This confirms that the adsorption is of physical type.

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Friedelin-triterpene from the root bark of Flacourtia rukam

Muharni, Elfita, Fitrya, Kiky Susilo Anggara, Heni Yohandini and Julinar

Page No. 33-37

Flacourtia rukam is native to Indonesia and is widely found in China, India and most of Southeast Asia. This plant is widely used in folk medicine as against diarrhoea, dysentery, anti-hypertensi and skin infectious treatments. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the compound from the root bark extract of F. rukam and resulted in a triterpenoid friedelin. The structure of the compound was identitified by using UV, IR and NMR data as well as by comparison of NMR data with those reported in literature.

The in vitro antibacterial activity of the isolated compound (friedelin) was performed against Escherechia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus with inhibition zone values 9.5 ± 0.50 and 7.50 ± 0,50, respectively at concentration of 1000 μg/mL. with category of weak antibacterial activity.

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Testing equivalency of interpolation derived bioclimatic variables with actual precipitation: A step towards selecting more realistic explanatory variables for Species Distribution Modelling

Pradhan Prakash

Page No. 38-41

Climate represents important set of variables for survival and reproduction of a species. Macroecological investigations are widely employing interpolated climatic datasets for species distribution modelling using the derived bioclimatic variables which are thought to be driving force behind the occurrence of a population at a site. A number of spatially continuous (gridded) bioclimatic datasets have been developed (WorldClim ver.2, CliMond etc.) through interpolation with standard data resolution of 0.5′, 2.5′, 5′, 10′ and 30′.

This study aims to uncover how close to reality are the ‘current’ interpolated data with the actual data using precipitation factors like Bio12 (Annual Precipitation), Bio13 (Precipitation of Wettest Month) and Bio16 (Precipitation of Wettest Quarter) using the 19-year data from Eastern Indian State of West Bengal.

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Diurnal Variations in the concentrations of PM10 at Several Locations in Indonesia

Syafrijon, Marzuki, Emriadi, Hermansyah Aziz and Ridho Pratama

Page No. 42-49

This study investigated diurnal variations in PM10 concentrations at five locations in Indonesia, namely three in Sumatra (Pekanbaru, Jambi and Kototabang), one in Kalimantan (Mempawah) and one in Jawa (Kemayoran). PM10 data are grouped into three categories based on the number of fire alerts namely low, medium and high fire alert numbers. In normal conditions (low fire alerts), Kemayoran city, which is located in Jakarta has the highest PM10 concentration during 00-10 LT coinciding with a low surface temperature with a peak at 07 LT coinciding with morning rush hour. The PM10 concentration in Jakarta was not affected by forest fires which is indicated by the low correlation coefficient between the PM10 and fire alerts (r 0.05). Diurnal variations in PM10 on the islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan are affected by forest fires.

The diurnal variations are less visible in normal (low fire alerts) conditions and are increasingly evident with the increasing number of fire alerts. This confirms that the main source of pollution in this area is forest fires, not industrial activities and traffic emission. High PM10 concentrations in this area were observed during the daytime. The differences in weekly human activities also result in different PM10 weekly cycles. In Jakarta, the highest PM10 concentrations were observed on Monday while in other regions the concentration increased from Monday to Saturday.

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Spatio-temporal changes in bacteriological quality of groundwater in the vicinity of Kadinamkulam Lake, South India

Sonu Sasidharan and Jaya D.S.

Page No. 50-54

The present study was conducted in the selected dug wells in the two coastal gramapanchayats of Kadinamkulam lake in Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala. Kadinamkulam lake is the major coir-retting area in South Kerala. The objective of the study is to assess the bacteriological quality of groundwater samples in the two coastal gramapanchayats. For the study, 43 dug well water samples were collected from two gramapanchayats during the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons and the surface water samples were also collected from Kadinamkulam estuary near the two gramapanchayats. The bacteriological quality was analyzed using the standard procedures (MPN method and standard plate count).

The results revealed that majority of the groundwater samples exceeded the permissible limits for total coliforms and faecal coliforms as prescribed by WHO. Besides, by statistical analysis (Box plot) for summarising in Azhoor well 3 and 8 and in Kadinamkulam well 3 and 18 are more polluted compared to other wells in these two gramapanchayats. Therefore, the study concludes that the groundwater sources in these two gramapanchayats are contaminated due to the leaching of water from Kadinamkulam lake and waste-water from soak pit/septic tanks.

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Synthesis and Bioactivity of New Pyrazoline Derivative: N-carbamide-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)pyrazoline

Fariana Nur Santi, Yuspian Nur, Agung Rahmadani, Herman and Hadi Kuncoro

Page No. 55-59

Pyrazoline is an alkaloid class rarely found in nature. The pyrazoline possesses biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic. Pyrazoline has potential as candidate of new drug molecules in pharmacy. This study aims to synthesize new pyrazoline derivative and with the preliminary test through their toxicity and antibacterial activity to know its potential as a new drug candidate. The synthesis of N-carbamide-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)pyrazoline was conducted from 2',4'-dichloro-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy chalcone and semicarbazide through cyclization by refluxing for 8 hours. It was then characterized by TLC, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and LC-Mass Spectroscopy.

The toxicity test was carried out by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) and antibacterial activity screened by Agar Diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. Based on this study, the LC50 value was 96,96 ppm to Artemia Salina Leach which shows its potential as an anticancer agent. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was classified as moderated-strong inhibition.

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A study on soil texture, geochemical characteristics and bumper yield of Muriyad Kole wetlands, Kerala, India

Gopakumar P.G. and Sreekumar S.

Page No. 60-67

Thrissur Kole lands are the northern extension of the Vembanad Kole, a Ramsar site. The study area known as Muriyad Kayal or Muriyad wetlands is the southernmost part of the large Thrissur Kole lands. The Kayal area which is converted into paddy fields produces promising yield every year. This study is an attempt to understand the soil characteristics of the wetlands, its geochemical elements and yield.

According to the textural classification, the soil in the area is classified under clay grade. The chemical analysis reveals that the soil is rich in N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. The annual average yield of paddy from the Kole land is always ahead of state average indicating high fertility of soil by the yearly deposition of the nutrient rich alluvial soil by the flood water.

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Surfactant assisted copper (II) oxide nanoparticles for the adsorption of dyes-Rhodamine B and Methylene blue

Kokkirala Tej Kumar, Dandabattina Suneel Kumar, Nethala Lalitha Kumari and Duvvuri Suryakala

Page No. 68-77

Surfactant (SDS) assisted copper (II) oxide nanoparticles are synthesised and used as adsorbent for the adsorption of cationic dyes Rhodamine B (RhB) and Methylene blue (MB). This research focuses on the removal of cationic dyes from food and textile effluents using copper (II) oxide nanoparticles synthesised in the micellar medium. The effects of different variables such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time are studied with respect to each dye at the particular absorption maxima of 544 nm and 655 nm respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms are assessed. The reaction kinetics are evaluated using pseudo first order, pseudo second order and intra particle diffusion kinetic models. It is observed that pH 2 and 7 are optimum for batch adsorption studies for the respective dyes.

In addition, the results indicated that the data for adsorption of RhB and MB on to surfactant assisted copper (II)oxide nano particles fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm. The rate of sorption is best fit in pseudo second order kinetics. It is concluded that copper (II) oxide nano particles could be applied as suitable adsorbent for the removal of coloured dyes from aqueous solutions.

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Potential of Scenedesmus quadricauda in the Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Coffee Processing Wastewater

K.R. Navitha and Kousar Hina

Page No. 78-80

The wastewater discharge from coffee processing unit constitutes a major source of water pollution. Bioremediation using microalgae is an alternative technology for treating wastewater. In the present investigation micro algal strain Scenedesmus quadricauda was screened for its efficiency to remove nitrate and phosphate in the coffee processing wastewater.

Results showed that the algae was very effective in reduction of both nitrate and phosphate. Further, it has been observed that dilution of the wastewater enhances bioremediation potential of the organism.

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Zinc Solvent extraction from wastewater liquor of a lead and zinc plant

Mohammad Karamoozian

Page No. 81-86

Wastewater liquor in most of lead and zinc processing plants contains large amount of precious metals which transfer to tailing dams. In addition to waste of a lot of valuable minerals these materials also produce environmental negative impacts. Extraction of zinc using D2EHPA as extractant from wastewater liquor was investigated in this study in order to extract zinc from waste water liquor produced by a lead and zinc plant.

Operating variables such as equilibrium pH, D2EHPA concentration, temperature, stirring speed, extraction time and aqueous/organic (A/O) phase ratio were studied. 89.57% zinc was extracted from the aqueous solution under the conditions of: equilibrium pH of 2.5, D2EHPA concentration of 10% (v/v), temperature 25°C, stirring speed of 300 r/min, extraction time of 10 min. zinc can be extracted from aqueous solution at two theoretical stages as calculated by McCabe–Thiele method. 98.8 percent of zinc can be stripped using 80 g/L sulfuric acid.

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Interaction analysis of asiatic acid and its derivatives to three isozyme of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) using molecular docking

Musfiroh I., Septiandi I., Megantara S., Tjitraresmi A. and Muchtaridi

Page No. 87-93

Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound produced from Centella asiatica and it is known to be anti-inflammatory by inhibiting the pathway of the synthesis of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). This enzyme has three isozymes: endothelial NOS (eNOS), neuronal NOS (nNOS) and inducible NOS (iNO). Excessive NO production by the iNOS enzyme can cause inflammation, arthritis, inflammation of the intestine and cytotoxic and mutagenic effects (conditions of oxidative stress). The main residues of the active site of the iNOS enzyme are namely Trp372 and Glu377. Glu377 plays an important role in the process of inflammation because it forms chain bonds with the substrate, hem and BH4. The purpose of this study is to analyze the asiatic acid compound and its derivatives interaction (twenty compounds) and their conformations to active site of three NOS isozymes.

The method included molecular docking of the compounds into active site three of NOS isozyme with the amino acid Glu377 to be flexible using AUTODOCK v.4.2. The results showed that AA compound and several modified derivative structures have more lower free binding of energy towards the active site of the iNOS than the eNOS and nNOS but the modified AA6 is more stable to active site of iNOS than others. AA6 of modified structure has the free binding energy (ΔG) into active site of iNOS, eNOS and nNOS using molecular docking as -9.90, -5.49 and –7.12 kcal/mol respectively. The result of flexible docking of AA6 compound showed that it is able to change the amino acid conformation of Glu377 and could form hydrogen bonds (1.82 Å) and Trp372 (1.95 Å). This study suggested that the AA6 compound is selective for the iNOS enzyme.

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Removal of arsenite from aqueous solution using activated carbon derived from Eichhornia crassipes root biomass: Equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic and column studies

Giri Anil Kumar and Mishra Prakash Chandra

Page No. 94-105

The removal of arsenite from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from the E. crassipes root biomass has been studied. Dependence of adsorption on adsorbent dose, initial concentration, pH of the solution, contact time and temperature had been studied to achieve the optimum condition. Equilibrium data were well fitted with Langmuir isotherms. The maximum removal capacity of activated carbon was found to be 23.70 mg/g, at optimum conditions of pH 9.5 and contact time of 30 minutes. The mean adsorption energy (E) is calculated from Dubinin–Radushkevich model which indicates the chemisorption. Adsorption kinetics data was well fitted with the pseudo-second-order model with the correlation coefficient (R2> 0.99) followed by pseudo-first-order model.

Thermodynamic parameters like standard free energy (ΔG), standard enthalpy (ΔH) and standard entropy (ΔS) were evaluated. Activated carbon surface was characterized using SEM-EDX and FTIR. Fixed bed column studies were used to analyze the column experimental data and the relationship between operating parameters. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis confirmed that the carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups of the adsorbent surface were involved in the adsorption.

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Identification of functional groups in leaf, stem and root extracts of Andrographis paniculata by FTIR

Lahare Rajeshwari Prabha and Kumar Anil

Page No. 106-110

Andrographis paniculata is an important medicinal plant and contains rich source of bioactive molecules used in treatment of various diseases such as malaria, diabetics, cancer, liver disorders and hypercholesterolemia. Some major constituents of the plants are terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, phenols, glycosides and alkaloids. The aim of the present study was characterization of bioactive compounds from leaf, stem and root extract of Andrographis paniculata by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR) in the absorbance range of 4000-450 cm-1. In our study FTIR analysis of chloroform-based leaf extract showed presence of various functional groups viz. primary and secondary amines, alcohol, amine salts, alkanes lactones, alkenes, methylene group and sulfoxide.

Chloroform based stem extract showed presence of alphatic primary amines, alkanes, alkenes, amine salts, conjugated alkenes, alkene trisubstituted, alkyl aryl ether, sufoxide and halo compounds whereas root extract showed carboxylic acid, alkanes, primary amines, conjugated alkenes, phenol, vinyl ether, primary alcohol and 1,2,3,trisubstituted functional groups. The finding of the present study is useful for further analysis of bioactive molecules and formulation of drugs.

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Flavonoid from the Sao Pedro Petro of tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Diana Widiastuti, Supriatno Salam, Desi Haneti, Ronny Lesmana, Mohamad Azlan Nafiah and Unang Supratman

Page No. 111-113

The flavonoid compound, quarcetin-3-O-rutinoside (1) has been isolated from n-BuOH extract of the fresh of Sao Pedro Petro of Tubers of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). The chemical structure of compound (1) was identified by spectroscopic data including UV, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT 135°, HMQC, HMBC, 1H-1H COSY) and MS and by comparing with previously reported spectral data.

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A Comprehensive Study on the Effects of Water Quality Parameter Variation on Water Quality and Water Quality Index

Khatri Punit, Gupta Karunesh Kumar and Gupta Raj Kumar

Page No. 114-123

The assessment of drinking water quality has always been vital because it directly or indirectly affects the human being. Water Quality Index is an important parameter since it is utilized to characterize the water quality in terms of a single number. The parameter determination utilized in computing the water quality index varies with the location because every region has its geological conditions. In India, water quality parameters are decided by Central Pollution and Control Board, New Delhi. In this study, the impacts of different parameter variation on drinking water quality have been studied. The same water quality parameters have been used for calculating the water quality index.

A study has also been done on the behavioral changes in the Water Quality Index (WQI) based on the variation of water quality parameters. Matlab software is used to calculate the water quality index and Origin® software is used to study the behavioral changes. A pattern is characterized by water quality index w.r.t. every parameter variation keeping other parameters consistent. Based on the trend, a parameter that has the most remarkable effect on water quality index is chosen.

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Short-term effects of virgin coconut oil and cod liver oil treatment in blood metabolite profile of mice

Mas Rizky A.A Syamsunarno, Fiki Amalia, Eko Fuji Ariyanto, Rini Widyastuti, Neni Anggraeni, Vanessa Ayu Sumirat and Muhammad Nurhalim Shahib

Page No. 124-128

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) and Cod Liver Oil (CLO) are predominated by different fatty acids; VCO is dominated by medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MC-SFA) mainly lauric acids whereas CLO contains a lot of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as EPA and DHA. Numerous previous studies were conducted for long duration of VCO and CLO treatment in mice and human. The objective of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of VCO and CLO consumption on the blood metabolite profile in mice. Twenty-four male strain ddY mice were divided into 3 groups of VCO, CLO and aquades-group (control). Oils or aquades were fed to mice at 5 µL/gBW once a day for two weeks and the blood sample was taken to analyze triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, HDL, LDL, AST and ALT levels.

Mice body weights were determined showing significantly elevated (p<0.05) in both VCO and CLO group. Results of this study showed that VCO-fed mice significantly increase (p<0.05) HDL and LDL levels compared to CLO and control group. Other metabolite profiles include triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, ALT and AST had no significant changes after giving VCO and CLO. Those nonsignificant results may be caused by a short duration of treatment.

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Highly regioselective ring opening of epoxides with sodium azide and aniline using heterogeneous chitosan cobalt (II) complex

Panneerselvam Rajeswari, Rajendran Nagarajan and Lourdusamy Emmanuvel

Page No. 129-134

A broad range of epoxides have been converted into the corresponding azido alcohols and amino alcohols via epoxide opening with sodium azide and aniline in the presence of chitosan supported cobalt (II) complex. The reaction is highly regioselective and results in excellent yield at room temperature under mild reaction conditions. The catalyst is heterogeneous and can be reused without losing its activity.

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Antioxidant and cytotoxic α-pyrones from Cryptocarya konishii Hayata

Fera Kurniadewi, Richard Anugerah Tigor, Muktiningsih, Irma Ratnakartika, Euis Holisotan Hakim and Lia Dewi Juliawaty

Page No. 135-137

Two α-pyrone compounds cryptofolione (1) and cryptofolione ketone (2) have been isolated from chloroform fraction of the leaves of Cryptocarya konishii Hayata. The structures of these compounds were determined based on the analysis of spectroscopic data including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against murine leukemia P-388 cells. Compound 1 was found more active than compound 2 with IC50 by 0.84 μg/mL. The antioxidant evaluation of both compounds against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was of very low activities (IC50 2.59x104 and 1.28x109 ppm respectively).

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Two triterpenes from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape

Khumaisah Lela L., Saptanti Karlina, Heliawati Leny, Hermawati Elvira and Syah Yana M.

Page No. 138-140

Sandoricum koetjape (Meliaceae), locally known as “Kecapi” or “Sentul”, is known to be a rich source of triterpene and limonoids. This plant has been of our interest in searching new bioactive compounds from natural sources. From the leaves extract of this plant we have successfully isolated two pentacyclic triterpenes, bryonolic (1) and bryononic (2) acids. Structures of both compounds were elucidated by NMR and spectral data. Antibacterial evaluation of these compounds against four pathogenic bacteria was found to be not active.

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A review on synthesis, properties and applications of some nanomaterials and nanocoordination complexes

Sharma Manjeet and Chauhan Gunjan

Page No. 141-161

Materials in size range of 1-100 nm called as nanomaterials exhibit remarkable novel properties such as catalytic, biological and agricultural as compared to their bulk sample. A variety of nanoparticles depending upon chemical composition i.e. nano metals, nano-metallic/non-metallic oxides and sulfides are well described in literature. Zinc sulfide, zinc oxide and metallic nanoparticles have remained focus of research in current years due to their applications. In present study, review on sulfides, oxides and nanocoordination complexes of some metals and non-metal ions has been undertaken.

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