Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Assessing the role of glutathione in arsenic toxicity amelioration in rice (Oryza sativa L.) during early seedling growth

Poonam and Srivastava Sudhakar

Page No. 1-6

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important crops and the major staple food in Southeast Asian countries. However, severe arsenic (As) contamination widespread in the region affects rice quality and yields and also leads to As accumulation in rice grains. The present study was conducted to assess the ameliorative potential of glutathione (GSH) against As toxicity in two contrasting As tolerant (Pooja) and As sensitive (CO-50) varieties of rice. The two varieties were exposed to 25µM arsenite [As(III)] for 7 d with and without GSH. The varieties responded differently in terms of growth and other biochemical parameters. Pooja showed comparatively better growth in As(III) stress as compared to CO-50 and showed lesser reduction in seedling length and fresh weight, photosynthetic pigments and protein content at 7 d.

Further, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased to a higher level in CO-50 than in Pooja. However, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase) increased significantly in both varieties. The supply of GSH was found to ameliorate as stress and improve growth and various biochemical parameters in both Pooja and CO-50. Thus, GSH supply could augment rice plants potential to tolerate as stress.

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Bioaccumulation of Some Heavy Metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Fe) in Crab (Callinectes amnicola) living in Ebrie Lagoon, Jacqueville Sector (Cote d’Ivoire, West Africa)

Kouamé Kouamé Victor, Yapi Dopé Armel Cyrille, Kouadio Kouakou Norbert, Djedje Gokou Jean Marie and Tidou Abiba Sanogo

Page No. 7-12

In this study, some heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Fe) were seasonally determined in water, sediment and crab (Callinectes amnicola) from Ebrie lagoon. The study aimed to estimate the bioaccumulation levels of heavy metals in crab. Heavy metal levels were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer (ICP-MS).

The obtained results showed that the average values of Cu, Pb and Zn in water were higher during the dry season with the concentrations of 243.02 ± 27.87, 12.10 ± 0.81 and 0.36 ± 0.09 µg.L-1 respectively. Relatively to the sediment, heavy metals concentration in the same season were 307.19 ± 14.17, 68.34 ± 3.71 and 0.36 ± 0.04 µg.g-1 for Cu, Pb and Cd respectively. These concentrations of heavy metals were found to exceed guideline values recommended by WHO and FEPA. Consequently, consumption of crab from Ebrie lagoon could cause long-term toxic effects for human health. BCFw and BCFs were in the order Zn > Cu > Fe > Cd > Pb and Cd > Zn > Fe > Cu > Pb respectively. This study indicates that control measures and action plans must be taken for reducing Ebrie lagoon contamination by heavy metals due to human activities.

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Assessment of fluoride exposure and dental fluorosis risk through tea drinking in Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu, India

Viswanathan Gopalan, Vijayanand P.S., Pachamuthu P., Dhanapal V., Vijayakumar V., Subhapriya P. and Malathi M.

Page No. 13-17

Tea is one of the sources for elevating daily fluoride intake and responsible for aggravating fluorosis risk in endemic areas. Aim of the study was to assess fluoride exposure dose in children and adults from tea infusions collected from endemic areas as well as infusions prepared from commercial tea powders used in endemic areas. Seven commonly consumed commercial-branded tea samples were procured from local markets. Total and extractable fluoride levels were estimated in all the tea samples through fluoride ion selective electrode method. Prepared tea samples were collected from roadside tea shops of fluorosis endemic regions in Dindigul district, Tamilnadu for fluoride analysis and dose calculation.

Fluoride exposure doses for children and adults were calculated and compared with the recommended safe fluoride level 0.05 mg kg-1 d-1. Children were exposed to high fluoride dose through tea than the adults (p<0.04). Consumption of prepared tea delivers fluoride exposure dose from 0.03 mg kg-1 d-1 to 0.14 mg kg-1 d-1for children and 0.01 mg kg-1 d-1 to 0.06 mg kg-1 d-1for adults. Fluoride exposure doses from milk added prepared teas were significantly lower than the commercial tea samples (p<0.02). Addition of milk in tea preparation can reduces the excess fluoride burden and fluorosis risk through tea consumption in fluoride endemic areas.

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Cobalt nanoparticles as recyclable catalysts for degradation of imidacloprid pesticide in aqueous media

Mondal Arijit, Das Amit, Mondal Asish, Roy Moumita, Mukherjee Deb Kumar and Mukherjee Debasmita

Page No. 18-24

Reduction of imidacloprid by sodium borohydride catalysed by cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) has been discussed. An easy, green and economically feasible approach has been made to synthesize the highly ordered structures of cobalt nanoparticles. The air stable nanoparticles were prepared from cobalt sulphate using tetrabutyl ammonium bromide as surfactant and sodium borohydride as reductant.

The cobalt nano colloids dispersed in aqueous media were found to be efficient catalysts for the imidacloprid reduction. The particles can be recycled several times without loss of catalytic activity. The study can become a protocol for wastewater management with environmental benefits.

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Inhibitory activity of compound isolated from n-hexane fraction of bay leaves (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp) against xanthine oxidase

Sri Adi Sumiwi, Ade Zuhrotun, Taofik Rusdiana and Rizka Khoirunnisa

Page No. 25-28

Hyperuricemia is a metabolic disease associated with high purines diet and alcoholic beverages that cause high levels of uric acid. The formation of uric acid can be inhibited by xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor. The bay leaves contain flavonoid compounds, polyphenols, alkaloids, tannins and essential oils. Based on previous research, the bay leaves n-hexane fraction has inhibitory activity of XO in vitro. This research was conducted to isolate the active compounds in the n-hexane fraction of bay leaf and to know the inhibitory activity of the isolated compounds on XO.

Tests were performed in vitro by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry in various concentration variations. The results showed that compound A and compound B actively inhibit XO activity with 〖IC〗_50 value of 4.29 μg/mL and 2.98 μg/mL respectively. Allopurinol, the drug standard’s 〖IC〗_50 was 0.42 μg/mL.

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Study of Mesoporous Ru-MCM-48 Materials: Synthesis, Modification and Characterization

Shah Kishor Kr

Page No. 29-35

Single step synthesis procedure has been used for the synthesis of mesoporous SiMCM-48 materials. The synthesized Si-MCM-48 materials were then modified by in situ process by incorporating Ru in the framework structure. XRD as well as by FT-IR studies carried out to characterize the formation of the parent as well as modified MCM-48 structure. In FT-IR studies, the absorbance bands observed at wavenumbers ~ 3468 cm-1 (broad) and ~ 1630 cm-1 are attributed to water and bending mode of water respectively. On the other hand, a broad band at wavenumber ~ 1084 cm-1 and shoulder band at wavenumbers ~1234 cm-1 and ~810 cm-1 is attributed to Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching and Si-O-Si bending vibration respectively. UV-Vis (DRS) spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of the heteroatom i.e. Ru in the framework structure of MCM-48 materials.

TGA-DTG studies revealed the thermal stability of the parent as well as modified MCM-48 materials. SAA was carried out for determining surface area, pore size and pore volume. The N2 adsorption isotherms of the ruthenium incorporated MCM-48 samples have type H-1 hysteresis loops. The analysis also showed that the specific surface area ranged from ~674.38 to ~1102.72 m2g-1 and the pore volume of the synthesized samples ranged from 0.22 to 0.32 cm3g-1. Further the morphology of the samples has been examined from their SEM images.

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Production and Factorial Optimization of Antimicrobial Peptide extracted from Indigenously isolated Lactobacillus sp. and Lactococcus sp.

Sinduja M.E. and Das Arunava

Page No. 36-46

The present study was focused on the isolation and identification of Lactic acid bacteria, Screening of an isolates for bacteriocin production, purification of bacteriocin by Sephadex column chromatography and antimicrobial activity of partially purified bacteriocin against different bacteria were reported to cause food spoilage and bovine mastitis. Biochemical characterization of crude bacteriocin was carried out which includes heat stability, pH studies and effect of reducing agent and storage temperature on the crude bacteriocin. The bacteriocin was extracted using De man Rogosa Sharpe medium from Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-DP-7) by centrifugation and tested for antagonistic activity against ten different indicator micro-organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus epidermis, Klebseilla oxytoca, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobris and Staphylococcus chromogenes.

The optimal condition for the bacteriocin production and extraction was standardized. Purification of bacteriocin was achieved at 40% level of saturation followed by Sephadex column. Chromatography resulted in a total of 10 protein fractions of which a fraction with high protein content was determined using UV spectrophotometry and antimicrobial assay.

The assay results from the purified sample showed a remarkable increase in the diameter of zones of inhibition against indicator microorganisms like Staphylococcus aureus (25mm) and Streptococcus agalactiae (18mm) than other strains. The bacteriocin was stable at 90˚C even after heating for 40 mins, also highly stable at pH 4.0, 6.0 and 10.0 with marginal loss in the activity and when reducing agent such as 2-β-Mercaptoethanol is added to the crude sample and heated .The inhibitory activity remained after 3 months of storage at -80˚C. T. The present study showed the bidding expediency of Bacteriocin justifying more in profound research for their identification and application as therapeutics and food bio preservative.

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Evaluation of Bioaccumulation and Toxic Effects of Cadmium in Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and its alleviation using Zinc

Dsouza Myrene, Chauhan Anjali and Kumari Nidhi

Page No. 47-57

Heavy metal pollution is posing a threat to the environment. Cadmium is one such metal which lowers crop yields and accumulates in plants to become part of the food chain. Considering this agricultural problem, an experiment was conducted on the possible use of zinc to alleviate Cd stress in barley. The experiment was conducted on 10-day-old barley plants. The plants were subjected to stress for 72 h with different concentrations of CdCl2 (10, 20 and 50 µM) and Cd-treated plants supplemented with ZnCl2 (50 µM). Bioaccumulation and translocation factors of Cd were determined.

Biomarkers of stress such as H2O2, proline, ascorbic acid (ASC), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), total soluble sugars (TSS), total phenols (TP) and enzymes like peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), α-amylase (AMY) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were evaluated. From the parameters used in the study, it was concluded that Zn counteracted Cd-induced stress. The key components contributing to scavenging of ROS in barley plant were ASC and GSH. Elevation of ASC at the cost of GSH under cadmium stress suggests efficient operation of GSH-ASC cycle.

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Green synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Allium sativum extract: A comparative analysis

Rath Kalyani and Sridharan Thalaivaraisai Balasundaram

Page No. 58-65

Iron oxide nanoparticles have extensive applications in many areas such as dye removal, ground water purification, catalysis of reaction, antimicrobial agents, MRI agents, drug delivery applications etc. In this study, hematite particles were fabricated employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Allium sativum extract and end products were assessed appropriately. Comparisons of the as-synthesized particles were drawn on the basis of crystal structure, particle morphology, optical properties, stability, dispersity, magnetic properties and functional groups present on particle surface. Co-precipitation of nanoparticles was achieved approximately at 7 pH with the help of bioactive compounds present in plant extracts.

Experimental set up was simple and inexpensive and completed in 30 min and yielded ultra-small, stable and superparamagnetic particles. Compared to hibiscus, garlic extract yielded smaller particles having better colloidal stability and higher saturation magnetization. Green synthesized particles displayed promising potential to be used in various biotechnological applications.

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Synthesis, biological profile and computational studies of some trichloropyrimidine derivatives

Thummar Sandeep and Bhatt Vasishta

Page No. 66-74

Ten novel 2-(2-(4-((1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio)-6-((4-nitrophenyl)amino)pyrimidin-2-yl)hydrazinyl)-N-phenylacetamide motifs were synthesized and studied for their biological activities. All the synthesized molecules were characterized by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis. Antimicrobial and antifungal activity of the synthesized compounds were evaluated against some selected strains. Compounds 6b and 6c were found to be potentially active against gram negative and gram-positive bacteria with MIC value between 62.5 to 500 µg/ml. The molecular docking studies of compounds 6a and 6b were further carried out to discover the interaction with active sites.

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Optimization of culture conditions for cellulase production from indigenous soil isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus

Balakrishnaraja Rengaraju, Vidhyadevi U., Selvapriya K., Ranganathan B.V., Sneha R.K. and Vinothini M.

Page No. 75-80

To appraise the utility and potential of wood pulp, present study was carried out to produce cellulase enzyme from soil isolated Aspergillus fumigatus. Lignocellulosic wood pulp is highly intricate in degrading; it was pre-treated with varying concentrations of alkali and detergents. Out of the varying concentrations of alkali and detergent carried out, it was found that 6 % NaOH yielded cellulase with 6.15 (µmol / (ml x min)) activities. Optimization of pH and temperature were carried out and the results revealed pH 10 and 70ºC having higher cellulase activities.

Further to purify the cellulase enzyme, culture broth was subjected to multi-phase extraction that involves a combination of ammonium sulphate salt and t-butanol solvent to purify proteins from crude culture filtrate. The purified cellulase enzyme isolated from aqueous phase was subjected to enzyme assay and showed 8.95 µmol/ min/ g specific enzyme activity. Thus, this study demonstrates the potential utilisation of wood pulp for the production of cellulase enzyme using low cost substrates.

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Perchloric Acid doped Polyaniline enhanced Electric Conductivity of Lithium Iron Phosphate

Iman Rahayu, Atiek Rostika Noviyanti and Diana Rakhmawaty Eddy

Page No. 81-86

In recent years, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is intensively studied as cathode material for lithium ion battery due to its high theoretical capacity (170 mAh/g) and is stable, safe and more environment friendly. One of the means to improve electrical conductivity is by addition of conductive polymer. Polyaniline (PANI) is one of conductive polymers that has been studied intensively due to its property for being able to act as isolator or conductor through doping-dedoping process.

The present study was directed to increase electrical conductivity of LiFePO4 with addition of PANI that has been doped by perchloric acid (HClO4) as dopant. The method used in the present study was two phase interfacial polymerization synthesis. Aniline polymer was dissolved in toluene while ammonium peroxodisulfate, as oxidator, was dissolved in HClO4. The results of the present study indicate that the best electrical conductivity was achieved when PANI was doped using 1.25 M HClO4. At this condition, the electrical conductivity was recorded to be 8.39 S/cm. When the PANI combined with LiFePO4 to fabricate composite material, the conductivity increased to 41.29. S/cm at ratio of LiFePO4 to PANI was 50:50.

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Interpretation of relationship of physical properties and micellar features of copper soaps derived from neem oil in methanol-benzene mixture at 298.15 K

Khan Shema, Sharma Rashmi and Sharma Arun Kumar

Page No. 87-96

The density, apparent molar volume and viscosity of Cu (II) soap derived from neem oil in non-aqueous solvents of varying composition have been determined at constant temperature 298.15 K. The results were analyzed to understand the micellar behavior of the synthesized molecule, critical micelle concentration (CMC), the effect of polarity on CMC and various soap-solvent interactions. The conclusions with regard to solute-solute and solute- solvent interaction have been discussed in terms of well-known Masson’s and Jones- Dole equations and play an important role for selection of the synthesized molecule in different agrochemical and biological industries.

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Characterization of corncob liquid smoke and its application as chelating agent Pb ion in soybean seeds (Glycine max)

Handayani Tri, Xyzquolyna Deyvie, Pranoto Yudi and Suratman Adhitasari

Page No. 97-104

This study aims to characterize liquid smoke of corncob, to evaluate the ability of corncob liquid smoke as chelating agent Pb and the influence of its constituent compounds in reducing Pb ion content in soybean seeds. The liquid smoke was obtained from corncob via pyrolysis, precipitation and two-time distillation. The corncob liquid smoke was characterized by GC-MS to determine the component compounds in liquid smoke and UV-Vis spectrophotometry to determine the total phenol and carbonyl contents.

The research consisted of the concentration variation on corncob liquid smoke (0; 12.5; 25; 50 and 100%). The results show that liquid smoke by GC-MS detected 11 compounds. The total acid, phenol and carbonyl contents of corncob liquid smoke are 9.60%, 1.22% and 5.65% respectively. Compared to the other concentrations, the 100% concentration of corncob liquid smoke (without dilution) shows the best Pb reducing level of 48.93%. Phenol compound gives the highest reducing level of Pb content of the constituent compounds which is 48.29%, followed by the acetic acid of 46.14%, and acetone of 42.35%.

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Evaluation of Antibiofilm activity of Medicinal plants against Microbial biofilms

Ponnarmadha S., Suresh M., Vidhyalakshmi D. and Anusriha S.

Page No. 105-108

Bacterial population in the environment associated with surfaces is called biofilm. This kind of biofilm formation can cause serious sanitary problems for both humans and animals and also in clinical and industrial settings; this cause leads to the development and screening of biofilm inhibitors. Biofilm inhibitors can be screened from the natural compounds. In the present study, an attempt has been made to isolate biofilm bacteria from contaminated wall sample and the different plant extracts were screened against microbial biofilms.

Thus, the biofilm bacteria isolated from the contaminated wall sample were screened. Three different plant extracts (Ocimum tenuiflorum, andrographis paniculata and Albizia lebbeck) were screened for biofilm inhibitors against the above bacterium, out of which Ocimum tenuiflorumis shows the highest activity and it can be used for the preparation of antimicrobial paint for preventing walls against biofouling.

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Isolation and identification of squalene from mangrove plant Rhizophora Mucronata

Thirunavukkarasu P., Asha S., Ramanathan T., Sudhakar N. and Rajeswari Hari

Page No. 109-117

The role of free radicals is very well noted in the pathogenesis of various diseases including cancer. The antioxidants are essential for the amelioration of these diseases which quench the free radicals. Free radical scavenging activity was determined in R.mucronata through column chromatography sub fraction and frequently checked by TLC. In this study, the higher antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were observed in EH4 fraction. The GC-MS identified ethyl acetate - hexane fractions containing two different product such as squalene and 1-methylcyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexanol.

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Estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts: herbal drug for diabetes

Dwivedi Namrata, Dwivedi Ruchi, Trivedi Kalpana and Tripathi I.P.

Page No. 118-123

The composition of alkaloids, protein, phenolic compounds, flavonols, saccharides and its antioxidant potential has been determined by different methods of phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity analyzed by DPPH assay based on free radical scavenging assay. Guava fruit is rich source of antioxidant that plays essential role in prevention of diseases. The fruits of guava are wild Indian plants belonging to myratacae family and also known as “poor apple”. Traditionally this has strong potential to cure various ailments.

According to the results obtained, PGF extracts are potent antiglycation agents which can be of great value in the preventive glycation-associated complications in diabetes. Guava fruit is associated with phenolic compounds 27.82 mg/gm and alkaloids 12.982mg/gm. DPPH based on free radical scavenging assay Inhibitory concentration IC50 value is PGF 1.33mg/ml in respect of ascorbic acid 2.06 mg/gm.

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Investigation and application of Musa paradisiaca pseudo stem powder on cotton textiles as environment friendly anti-microbial agent

Das Subrata, Das Arunava, Arunthathi L., Chandhini R. and Madhumitha R.

Page No. 124-130

Banana (Musa paradisiaca) pseudo stem powder was purified with ethanol and analysed with GC-MS and FTIR to characterise the chemical compound. Overall 10 different compounds were identified in GC-MS. The molecular weight of such compounds according to the structure varies from 256 to 612. The lowest molecular weight was found with the chemical structure C16H32O2 and one of the highest molecular weight compounds is found with the chemical structure C31H50O2Br2. It has been observed from the analysis of the IR spectra that different functional groups are present in banana pseudo stem powder such as monomeric alcohol phenols, aromatic ring, nitriles, nitro compound, aldehyde, ketones, carboxylic acid and ester. The spectrum shows major peaks-one at 3750 cm-1 which corresponds to monomeric alcohol phenols and another at 1500 cm-1 which relates to nitro compounds. Bleached and mercerised cotton fabric was treated with alum for mordanting.

The alum treated samples were treated with purified banana stem solution of 30% concentration for 1 hour at 50oC. Then the samples were dried in hot air oven at 100oC for 10 mins. Banana pseudo stem powder solution treated fabric was analysed for antimicrobial activity against Gram negative bacteria (E.Coli) by Agar Well Diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was measured. Zone of inhibition measured for the treated fabric was 10 mm which indicates that banana pseudo stem performs well as a good natural anti-microbial against Gram negative bacteria (E. coli) and converts cotton fabric as anti-microbial.

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Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from twig of manglid plant (Manglietia glauca BL.)

Shirly Kumala, Nur Miftahurrohmah, Syamsudin Abdillah and Devi Andiani

Page No. 131-136

This research aimed to isolate endophytic fungi from twig of manglid plant (Manglietia glauca BL.) and to evaluate their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Direct seed technique was used for the isolation process while the agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. Five endophytic fungi were isolated from twig of manglid: MgR3.1, MgR3.2, MgR3.3, MgR3.4 and MgR3.5. Each of the isolates was fermented in PDY medium for 7 days and then the cells were separated from their supernatant by centrifugation.

Each of the supernatants was extracted with nonpolar (n-hexane), semipolar (ethyl acetate) and polar (n-butanol) solvent. Each of the extracts of each endophytic fungus was evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The results showed that all of the polar and semipolar extracts of all endophytic fungi’s secondary metabolites demonstrated antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus with MgR3.3 endophytic fungus as the highest antibacterial activity.

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Recent advances in kinetic computations of solid state thermal decomposition with thermal analysis data

Tiwari Priyanka

Page No. 137-139

Thermal analysis techniques like Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) are important analytical tools in the field of materials, metallurgy, physics, chemistry and combustion. Different methods of analyzing solid state kinetic data from TGA include Friedman method, Kissinger method, Kissinger-Akahira-Suranose method and Vyazovkin method. The objective is to review the various methods processing kinetic data obtained from TGA.

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