Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Chemical constituents and antioxidant properties of Artemisia ciniformis essential oils at pre and flowering stages from northeast of Iran

Tayebeh Jafarian, Katayoun Roghani and Ameneh Mohammadi

Page No. 1-6

Artemisia ciniformis from compositae (Asteraceae) family is growing in wide regions of Iran. In present work the essential oils extracted from A. ciniformis at pre and flowering stages were studied. The percentage of diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the oils. The chemical composition of the essential oils at the pre-flowering and flowering stages A. ciniformis was analyzed by GC/MS analysis. In total, 67 compounds were identified with 1, 8-Cineole, Artemisia alcohol, Pinocarveol and p-menth-2-en-1-ol as major compounds. The highest amounts of the first three main components were recorded in the essential oils of the plants harvested in the flowering stage.

Obtained results illustrated that phenolic contents and antioxidant properties were higher in plant samples harvested at flowering stage. High phenolic compounds contents seem to account for strong antioxidant activity of flowering stage essential oil.

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On harnessing industrial waste groundnut oil cake as a low-cost substrate for L-asparaginase production by marine-derived fungus Aspergillus niger AKV-MKBU

Vala Anjana K. and Dave Bharti P.

Page No. 7-10

L-asparaginase (LA) (EC is in great demand worldwide due to its application potentialities especially in treatment of certain cancers as well as in food industry. While 40% of the enzyme sale all over the world is contributed by LA, harnessing low cost substrates for LA production can be cost effective. The present study was carried out with a view to explore possibility of harnessing an industrial waste groundnut oil cake (GOC) as low-cost substrate for LA production by a marine-derived Aspergillus niger AKV-MKBU.

The study revealed that GOC could be used by the test fungus in various concentrations (0-100%) for LA production, however, instead of 100%, GOC at 75% concentration proved much better and 24.537 U/mL LA activity was recorded on day 8 in presence of the substrate combination 75% GOC and 25% L-asparagine. This study provides a base line information for application of GOC for LA production on a larger scale.

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Particulate matter in urban area of Bologna (Italy): Data dissection

Gabriele Micheletti, Carla Boga and Luciano Forlani

Page No. 11-16

Particulate matter arising from usual activities in urban area is generally indicated as dangerous pollutant. We are reporting some data obtained by aerosol spectrometer which allowed us to know the concentration of three classes of particulate matter (PM10, PM2,5, PM1). The comparison of data recorded in summer and in winter and in some days presenting a particular social situation or in particular weather conditions, indicates the possibility to discriminate the particulate matter amount arising from traffic and arising from other human activities, mainly from heating house.

This possibility is due to the values of ratio of the amount of particulate matter: PM10/PM2,5 and PM10/PM1 ratio are near to 1 value for PM deriving from heating house and they are much higher for PM deriving from traffic. The tentative evaluation of the relative importance of the two main sources of particulate matter is about half for one, but the emission of particulate matter of heating house is largely predominant in the presence of some meteorological events such as thermal inversion. The fashion regarding heating house by firewood heaters, without any check or abatement, aggravates the hazards associated to the home heating. However, the pollution from traffic regards the whole year, while the pollution from heating house is on 5 or 6 months only. Consequently, the relative importance of the two sources in releasing PM10 in air in a year results in four times higher for traffic than for home heating.

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Thermodynamics and Ultrasonic studies on Gadolinium Soaps in Benzene-Dimethylformamide mixture

Agrawal Seema and Upadhyaya S.K.

Page No. 17-22

Gadolinium soaps were synthesized by the usual metathesis method. Conductometric and ultrasonic measurements were made on gadolinium myristate and palmitate in 50/50 benzene-dimethylformamide mixture (V/V), to determine the critical micellar concentration (CMC), thermodynamic parameter both for ionization and micellization processes. The conductivity results showed that gadolinium soaps behave as weak electrolytes in dilute solutions below the CMC. The micellization process of these soaps has been found to be predominant over the ionization process.

The results of ultrasonic measurements have been interpreted in terms of different theories of propagation of Ultrasonic velocity. These results show that the ultrasonic velocity, specific acoustic impedance, apparent molar compressibility and molar sound velocity increase while the adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length and solvation number decreases with increasing concentration of gadolinium soaps.

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Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles

Muthukumar Sampath Kumar, Kalyanasundharam S., K. Santhanalakshmi and Jacquline Rosy P.

Page No. 23-32

Zinc oxide nanoparticles UV rays filtering properties, semiconducting property, unique antimicrobial and wound healing property are of greater significance which make it a worthy catalyst in several synthetic and photochemical aspects. Hence it is planned to synthesize Zinc Oxide nanoparticle in an ecofriendly and greener path by using Solanum xanthocarpum berry extract. The bio-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, SEM with EDX, TEM, FT-IR, PL and DRS techniques. The green synthesized ZnO nanoparticle was studied for its ability towards photodegradation of Methyl green dye (MEG) under various parameters along with the UV - light radiation at 365nm.

The mechanism of dye degradation in UV–light explained higher photocatalytic activity of catalyst. The catalyst was found to be stable and reusable without appreciable loss of catalytic activity up to four cycles. The study was further extended to electrochemical study from DSSCS and CV analysis which revealed marked increase in current by bio derived ZnO nanoparticles.

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Photo-catalytic Dye Degradation and Antibacterial Activity of Hexadecylamine Capped Zinc Sulphide Nanoparticles

Kalia Bala Shashi, Sharma Manjeet and Chauhan Gunjan

Page No. 33-40

Synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles derived from precursors [Zn(MorphcdtH)2](CH3COO)2 and [Zn(4-MPipzcdtH)2](CH3COO)2 ;(MorphcdtH = Morpholine carbodithioic and 4-MPipzcdtH = 4-methylpiperazine-1-carbodithioic acid) using HDA (hexadecylamine) as a capping agent has been carried out by simple thermolysis method in triphenylphosphine (TPP) medium. FESEM images and HRTEM micrographs revealed spherical shape of ZnS nanoparticles. PXRD spectrum of ZnS nanoparticles exhibits peaks at 2θ values of 28.53 o, 38.64 o and 52.28 o corresponding to (111), (220) and (311) planes of crystalline zinc blende structure. Surface plasmon resonance spectra displayed bands at 258 nm and 261 nm corresponding to band gap of 4.81 eV and 4.75 eV respectively.

The average particle size observed from DLS, HRTEM and PXRD was in the range 6-15 nm. Formation of ZnS nanoparticles was evident from FTIR and 1H NMR spectra. The MIC values of HDA capped ZnS nanoparticles against three bacterial strains viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli were found to be in range 7.65-15.31μg/ml. Photocatalytic dye degradation efficiency of ZnS nanoparticles for dyes methyl orange, methyl red and congo red at a concentration of 1mg/ml of 10-4 M (aq.) dye solution after 90-110 minutes was calculated to be 95- 97 %.

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Adsorption of Fe (III) Ions on Maleic Anhydride Styrene Copolymer-N,N’-diphenylguanidine

Eyyubova E.J., Nagiyev Kh. J. and Chiragov F.M.

Page No. 41-51

New adsorbent on the basis of maleic anhydride styrene copolymer (MAST) modified with N, N`-diphenylguanidine has been synthesized in the presence of formalin. Comparative study of sorption of Fe (III) ions on represented adsorbent has been carried out. The structure of adsorbent has been investigated by Infrared spectroscopy and their adsorption characteristics were studied. Adsorption of Fe (III) ions by the MAST- N, N’-diphenylguanidine (S) has been investigated on the basis of pH, initial concentration of Fe (III) ions and contact time.

In progress desorption process by the certain acids has been studied. Temperature stability of adsorbent has been investigated by thermal analysis methods. During investigations several adsorption isotherms and kinetic models have been studied. The results were compared with corresponding data in the literature. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of S for removal of Fe (III) ions.

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Corrosion inhibition properties of the extracts of Hemigraphis colorata against mild steel in acidic media

Palakkal Leena, Zeinul Hukuman N.H. and Mullapally Jisha

Page No. 52-61

Corrosion inhibition activity of the methanolic extracts of the leaf and stem of the plant Hemigraphis colorata against mild in 1M HCl were studied by weight loss methods at different temperatures. The chemical components present in the extracts were analyzed by GC-MS methods. From the results obtained it was concluded that the extracts possess good inhibition efficiencies. The efficiencies were found to increase with inhibitor concentration and decrease with increase in temperature.

Evaluation of thermodynamic parameters reveals that the adsorption of extracts on the mild steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The mechanism of adsorption was found to involve a combination of physisorption and chemisorption. Quantum chemical studies on the major components identified in the extract by GC-MS method is in agreement with the experimental observations.

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Lead Removal from Landfill Leachate by Electrocoagulation process using Iron Electrodes: Influence of pH and Direct Current

- Maiti Sanjib Kumar, HazraTumpa and DebsarkarAnupam

Page No. 62-69

Removal of lead (Pb) from landfill leachate by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes in a batch reactor was investigated in the present study. The raw leachate collected was reddish brown in color and had maximum lead concentration of 1.47 mg/L at pH 8.4. Majority of the other parameters viz. TDS, Cl-, NH4+-N, BOD5, COD and Zn in collected raw leachate have also exceeded their respective standards specified in Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016. The leachate discharge standard of lead was achieved in the iron electrocoagulation process at a minimum retention time of 70 min at a pH 5.5. The maximum removal of lead was obtained as 94.5% under a direct current of 15A at a current density of 3.1 mA/cm2.

The effects of important operational parameters viz. initial pH, current density and optimum electrolysis time on lead removal were also investigated. The results suggest that iron electrocoagulation may be considered as a cost-effective solution for treatment of landfill leachate.

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Corrosion Inhibition of Thiourea with Synergistic Effect of Potassium Iodide on Mild Steel in Brackish Water and Effluent Water

Fatima Saifee K., Filmwala Zoeb A. and Hussain Kaneez F.

Page No. 70-81

The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in oilfield brackish water and effluent water has been studied in relation to the concentration of the thiourea (as corrosion inhibitor) as well as the temperature using weight loss method. The mild steel corrosion coupons were processed and evaluated as per international standard procedures i.e. NACE SP-0775 2013 and ASTM G1–03.

The results were supplemented with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. The presence of C=S group, which enhances the electron density on the molecule acts as the active site for corrosion inhibitor adsorption leading to stronger bond with metal surface through physio-chemical adsorption by the formation of a protective barrier film. Synergetic effect of potassium iodide in corrosive media has been found to stabilize the adsorption, leading to improved inhibition efficiency. The results showed that Thiourea is a good corrosion inhibitor.

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Eco Friendly Synthesis of Novel Schiff Base of Isatin Derivatives

Abirami M. and Nadaraj V.

Page No. 82-85

In the present study, we demonstrate an efficient and eco-friendly procedure for the synthesis of novel Isatin Schiff base derivatives. The target compounds were synthesized by the dimerization of Isatin with substituted diamine under solvent free condition. The synthesized complexes were investigated using various spectroscopic techniques such as infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and elemental analysis (C, H and N).

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Analytical Application of Titanium (IV) Molybdotungstate for estimation of Yttrium (III) Ions

Sharma H.K., Sharma N., Kumar P. and Dogra P.

Page No. 86-91

The present investigation focused on analytical application of heteropolyacid salt named Titanium (IV) molybdotungstate [TiMoW] synthesized at pH 1.0. The characterized material having 0.98 meq/g ion exchange capacity was fabricated in the form of Y(III) selective electrode using epoxy resin as a binder. The best performance was exhibited by the membrane having composition: Titanium [IV] molybdotungstate (40%) and epoxy resin (60%). The membrane worked well over a wide range of conc. (1.0x10-5 to 1.0x10-1 M) of Y (III) ion with an over-Nernstian slope of 33.7 mV/decade. The response time exhibited by the sensor was only 5 seconds. The effect of internal solution and partially non-aqueous media on the working of electrodes has been studied.

FIM and MPM have been used for determining selectivity coefficient value with respect to different metal ions. A stable potential behavior for TiMoW based electrode was recorded in the pH range of 4.61-10.65 for 10-3 M Y (III) ion concentration. The sensor has been applied analytically as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Y (III) ion against EDTA and for the estimation of Y (III) ion in the sample. The results have been compared with those obtained from ICPMS study.

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Selective and efficient detection of hazardous catechol with Nickel Hexacyanoferrate-graphene modified electrode

Sankar Jadhav Varsharani, Senthilkumar E., Shanmugharaj A.M., Raghu S. and Kalaivani R.A.

Page No. 92-99

An innovative approach of modified electrode was constructed by attaching the surface of an amine functionalized with graphene-nickel hexacyanoferrate. A black stone flower structured nanomaterial was deposited on the surface of amine functionalized with graphene sheets and the product of nanocomposite was physio-chemically characterized by X-rays photon spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, Field emission scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical studies of hazardous catechol were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulses voltammetry and chronoamperometry showing the materials to possess a higher electrocatalytic activity in terms of oxidation of catechol (CC).

It exhibits a good electro catalytic activity towards oxidation of catechol and excellent linear response in addition to low detection limit of 0.33μ M of catechol. Differential pulses voltammetry studies were employed for the detection of catechol from stock solution and various water samples were taken for real sample analysis. The developed sensor shows a good stability for greater sensitivity and low cost to assembled.

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Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol production from paper mill sludge by separate hydrolysis and fermentation

Bhakta Sarbari, Debnath Krishanu, Sriram Aditi, Keshav Rukmani, Maitra Meghna and Panjanathan Radha

Page No. 100-106

Paper Mill Sludge being a lignocellulosic waste serves the dual purpose of organic waste recycling as well as clean energy production. In this study, enhanced production of solvents from paper mill sludge has been carried out by a two-stage process involving separate hydrolysis and fermentation. Penicillium digitatum MG889480, isolated from the sludge sample, enzymatically hydrolyzed the PMS, thereby producing glucose.

The glucose obtained was utilized as the sole carbon source by Clostridium sporogenes NCIM 2337 for the generation of acetone, butanol and ethanol by anaerobic fermentation, exhibiting a total solvent yield of 1.462g/L as on 12th day of fermentation.

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Biodegradation Studies of Polyhydroxyalkanoates extracted from Bacillus Subtilis NCDC 0671

Mridul Umesh and Basheer Thazeem

Page No. 107-114

The major characteristic feature that distinguishes polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from its synthetic counterparts is its biodegradability. PHAs are the only class of biopolymers reported to be 100% degradable under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions without production of any toxic residues. The biodegradability of PHAs is influenced by several factors like moisture, temperature, pH, surface area and molecular weight of the polymer. The rate of biodegradation varies greatly depending on the environment.

Biodegradation studies were carried out using plating method and direct inoculation method using selected Bacillus strains. Fungal degradation of PHA sheets was assessed using Penicillium chrysogenum. Biodegradation of PHA sheets in different soil types like river valley, agricultural land and garden soil was investigated. The degree of PHA degradation in aqueous environment was studied by incubating the sheets in distilled water, sea water, fish tank water and pond water. The highest degradation rate was observed with agriculture land soil (35.47 ± 0.13%) and fish tank soil (36.93 ± 0.13%). The non-toxic nature of the soil incubated with PHA sheets was ensured using plant growth test.

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Synthesis, Structural and Morphological Properties of CaFe2O4: A Potential Material in Photocathode for Artificial Photosynthesis

Samanta Pijus Kanti

Page No. 115-118

A simple mechanical milling and high temperature sintering method has been successfully used to synthesize CaFe2O4 microstructures. Detailed thermal analysis was carried out to determine the calcinations temperature. This also enables to understand the crystallization mechanism of the compound. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of well grown microcrystal of size ~ 5μm. EDX spectroscopy confirms the stoichiometry of the material. XRD analysis was carried out to investigate the detailed crystallographic study of the material.

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GC-MS Analysis of the Extracts of Archidendron bubalinum (Jack) I.C Nielsen Fruit from Lampung, Indonesia and evaluation of their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities

Candra Irawan, Foliatini, Hanafi, Lilis Sulistiawaty and Henny Rochaeni

Page No. 119-127

“Julang-jaling” (Archidendron bubalinum (Jack) I.C Nielsen) fruit is widely used as traditional food and herbal medicine in the treatment of blood sugar and heart disease. Phytoconstituents in the extract and the relation between these compounds and their bioactivity have not been studied comprehensively. The recent study was aimed to analyze volatile phytochemical compounds in the extract of “julang-jaling” fruits and evaluate their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The “julang-jaling” (Archidendron bubalinum (Jack) I.C Nielsen) fruit were extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol as extracting agent in separate experiments. The phytochemical assay was conducted for all of the extracts followed by volatile compound analysis using GC-MS. The antioxidant assay was performed using DPPH method.

The agar disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. All the extracts contain terpenoid, but flavonoid was only present in ethyl acetate and methanolic extract. The ethyl acetate extract showed antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 114.5 ppm, but the other extracts did not. The n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts possesed antimicrobial activity toward Bacillus cereus and E. coli whereas methanolic extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity toward Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus flavus. The experiment revealed the cinnamic acid and chromene presence in the ethyl acetate extract, which might largely contribute in the antioxidant activity. The extract of “julang-jaling” (Archidendron bubalinum (Jack) I.C Nielsen) fruit contains phytochemicals which play a significant role in the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

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A pilot study to evaluate the physiological and behavioural effects of a widely consumed pharmaceutical on Oreochromis niloticus

Parvin Iloara, Das Swarnali, Sen Pooja and Kundu Samita

Page No. 128-133

The chemicals from medicines get into water bodies creating another form of aquatic pollution. Such pharmaceutical pollution is on the rise that might adversely affect aquatic life. Fishes are constantly exposed to all sorts of toxic substances, so they could act as excellent biological markers of any toxin. In this brief study, we wanted to evaluate the effect of the analgesic-antipyretic acetaminophen (paracetamol, PCM) that somehow gets in the water bodies. PCM is highly consumed because of its potentially fewer side effects than other similar acting drugs. This, however, leads to more excretion and accumulation. Although apparently less toxic in pharmacologic dose, it is highly toxic in overdose. This can be expected to occur in aquatic system where the bioaccumulation can be toxic to the inhabitants.

In fact, we observed quite alarming results on fish in the laboratory. Behavioral alterations were the first to set in. There were increased activities of the marker enzymes, alkaline phosphatase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in brain relating to altered behavior. Moreover, catalase levels decreased denoting impairment in the antioxidant defense mechanism. The gill morphology was also altered. Thus, this study could be regarded as an important indicator of paracetamol toxicity in fish due to the observed potential of altering fish health.

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Heavy metals uptake by Alcea Rosea (Holly hock) using phytoremediation technology

Shivhare Niharika, Gour Anita, Vyas Rajesh, Patidar Shyam, Marmat Vinay and Sharma Kavita

Page No. 134-137

Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. Plants can help clean up many kinds of pollution including metals, pesticides, explosives and oil. This technology has been receiving attention as an innovative, cost-effective alternative to the more established treatment methods used at hazardous waste sites. Contaminated soils and water pose a major environmental and human health problem. Oil refineries and chemical plants produce billions of gallons of contaminated wastewater each year. Soils may become contaminated by the accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids through emissions from the rapidly expanding industrial areas, mine tailings, disposal of high metal wastes, leaded gasoline and paints, land application of fertilizers, animal manures, sewage sludge, pesticides, waste water irrigation, coal combustion residues, spillage of petrochemicals and atmospheric deposition.

In the present study Alcea rosea (hollyhock) has been used for phytoremediation. Experiments were conducted using Chemistry lab effluent. Accumulations of the heavy metals were analyzed after 30, 60 and 90 days in flowers, leaves, stem, roots and seeds by AAS. The results showed that metals are highly accumulated by the leaves than stem and roots. It was concluded that the plant species was a good accumulator of metals.

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A short review of recent advances in copper oxide nanostructured thin films

Ho Soonmin and Emmanuel Ajenifuja

Page No. 138-145

In recent years, there has been appreciable interest in the experimental studies of metal oxide thin films, owing to their excellent optical and electrical properties. Generally, there are two major groups of copper oxide, namely cupric oxide (CuO) and cuprous oxide (Cu2O) based on the X-ray diffraction data. Researchers have observed that these films are of chemical stability, non-toxicity and undergo low cost production process. Therefore, copper oxide films are often employed in solar cells, cathode in lithium primary cell, gas sensor, electro chromic devices, super capacitor, field effect transistor and electronic device fabrication.

In this work, characteristic of obtained copper oxide films was investigated by using various tools as reported by many scientists. Experimental results showed p-type semiconducting material with band gap from 1.46 to 2.6 eV.

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